Force multiplication, in military usage, refers to a combination of technology, intense training, organization, or a combination of all to make a given force more effective than another force of comparable size. Deception as to the presence or size of a unit can increase its effectiveness. Another way to state the idea is that a force multiplier refers to a factor that dramatically increases (hence "multiplies") the effectiveness of an item or group.
Some common force multipliers are:
It seems clear that force multiplication existed before anyone had a name for it. While the Mongols used swarming tactics coordinated by non-electronic communications, such primitive tactics nevertheless made the Mongols the scourge of their opponents. Swarming is a behavior in which autonomous or semi-autonomous units of action attack an enemy from several different directions and then regroup To protect the archers at the Battle of Agincourt, stakes were driven into the ground. The Battle of Agincourt was an English victory against a larger French army in the Hundred Years' War. This is an example of "combined arms," a doctrinal development and another example of force multiplication.
When WWI aviators first greeted their opponents with friendly waves, no one realized the multiplicative effect of tactical air reconnaissance. However, after the command on both sides became aware of how powerful it could be, aviators started shooting at each other. At first they did so with rifles and then with purpose-built aircraft guns.
In the First World War, the Germans experimented with what were called "storm tactics," where a small group of highly trained soldiers (stormtroopers) would open a salient through which much larger forces could penetrate. The Stormtroopers (in German Stoßtruppen, shock troops) were specialist military troops which were formed in the last years of World War I as the German This met with only limited success, while the 1939 Blitzkrieg, which broke through with coordinated mechanized ground forces with aircraft in close support, was vastly more effective. Blitzkrieg (German for "lightning war" is a popular name for an Offensive operational-level Military doctrine which involves an initial
Towards the end of WWII, the German army introduced kampfgruppe combat formations that were composed of whatever units happened to be available. In Military history and Military slang, the German term Kampfgruppe (pl Though poor quality ones generally constituted the major part of them, they often performed successfully because of their high degree of flexibility and adaptability. Mission-type tactics, as opposed to extremely specific directives that give no discretion to the junior commander, are widely used by modern militaries now due to their force multiplication. Mission-type tactics ( German: Auftragstaktik, from Auftrag and Taktik" also known as Mission Command in the US have (arguably been a central Originating from German concepts of Auftragstaktik, these tactics may be developing even more rapidly in the concept of network-centric warfare, where subordinate commanders receive information not only from their own commanders, but from adjacent units. Network-centric warfare (NCW, now commonly called network-centric operations (NCO, is a new Military doctrine or theory of war pioneered by the United States
A different paradigm was one of the results of the theories of John Boyd, the "high-low mix" in which a large number of less expensive aircraft, coupled with a small number of extremely capable "silver bullet" aircraft, had the effect of a much larger force. Colonel John (Richard Boyd ( January 23, 1927 &ndash March 9, 1997) was a United States Air Force fighter Boyd's concept of quick action is based on the repeated application of the Boyd loop, consisting of the steps
Boyd's concept is also known as the OODA Loop, and is applicable to all military operations, as well as to civilian competition from sports to business. The OODA Loop (for Observe, Orient, Decide and Act) is a concept applied to the Combat operations process, often at Strategic
Network-centric warfare can provide additional information and can help prevent fratricide, but also allows swarm tactics  and the seizing of opportunities by subordinate forces. Network-centric warfare (NCW, now commonly called network-centric operations (NCO, is a new Military doctrine or theory of war pioneered by the United States Fratricide (from the Latin word frater, meaning "brother" and cide meaning to kill is the act of a person Killing his or her These are a realization of Boyd's theories. (Rand-Edwards-2000 pg. 2) defines " "a swarming case is any historical example in which the scheme of maneuver involves the convergent attack of five (or more) semiautonomous (or autonomous) units on a targeted force in some particular place. "Convergent" implies an attack from most of the points on the compass. "
Another version of "swarming" is evident in air-to-ground attack formations in which the attack aircraft do not approach from one direction, at one time, or at the same altitude, but schedule the attacks so each one requires a Boyd-style OODA iteration to deal with a new threat . Replacement training units (RTU) were "finishing schools" for pilots that needed to know not just the school solution, but the actual tactics being used in Vietnam. Referring to close air support, "In the RTU, new pilots learned the rules of the road for working with a Forward Air Controller (FAC). A forward air controller (FAC is a qualified individual who from a forward position on the ground or in the air directs the action of Military aircraft engaged The hardest part was finding the small aircraft as it circled over the target area. The fast-moving fighters used directional finding/steering equipment to get close enough to the slow, low FAC until someone in the flight could get an eyeball on him—a tally-ho. Once the FAC was in sight, he would give the fighters a target briefing—type of target, elevation, attack heading, location of friendlies, enemy defensive fire, best egress heading if hit by enemy fire, and other pertinent data. Usually the fighters would set up a circle, called a wheel or wagon wheel, over the FAC, and wait for him to mark the target. Once the target was marked, the flight leader would attack first.
Napoleon is well known for his comment "The moral is to the physical as three to one . Napoleon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821 was a French military and political leader who had a significant impact on the History of Europe. " Former Secretary of State and Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Colin Powell has said: "Perpetual optimism is a force multiplier. Secretary of State is a commonly used title for a Government Official. The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff ( CJCS) is by law the highest ranking military officer overall in the United States Armed Colin Luther Powell, KCB (Honorary MSC, (born April 5, 1937) is a retired General in the United States Army. "  Morale, training, and ethos have long been known to result in disproportionate effects on the battlefield. Morale, also known as esprit de corps when discussing the morale of a group is an intangible term used for the capacity of people to maintain Belief in A volunteer military is, soldier for soldier, significantly more effective than a conscription force. A volunteer military or all-volunteer military is one which derives its manpower from volunteers rather than Conscription or mandatory service Conscription (also known as the draft, the call-up or national service) is a general term for involuntary labor demanded by some established authority
Psychological Warfare can target the morale, politics, and values of enemy soldiers and their supporters to effectively neutralize them in a conflict. The US Department of Defense defines psychological warfare ( PSYWAR) as" The planned use of Propaganda and other Psychological actions
A small group of well-equipped, well-trained soldiers with the sun at their backs may be more capable of defending a fortified mountainous position than a larger group of poorly equipped, poorly-trained soldiers with the sun in their faces is capable of assaulting the same position. Careful selection of the battle site, which is often considered operational art, clearly multiplies the effectiveness of the force that selects it.
A given infantry division may be able to advance 12 miles (20 km) in a day. A division is a large Military unit or formation usually consisting of around ten to thirty thousand soldiers Assigning trucks to this division will act as a force multiplier allowing the division to advance 40 miles (65 km) in a day. Air support, artillery, and other specialized weapons systems are other examples of factors that may dramatically increase the division's capabilities. In Military tactics, close air support ( CAS) is defined as air action by fixed or rotary winged aircraft against hostile targets that are in close proximity to Artillery (from French artillerie) is a military Combat Arm which employs any apparātus machine In a similar vein, air-to-air refueling tankers employed by some Air Forces throughout the world are massive force multipliers with aircraft - negating having to travel all the way back to a military base or carrier in order to refuel on a frequent basis - thus extending the ranges of fighters and bombers, keeping fighters over their targets or on Combat Air Patrols for significantly more time, and the like.
A small force is multiplied when a small number of units are made as effective as a much larger one. In the First World War, there were two abortive experiments where, had the high commands had the imagination to realize the potential use of new weapons, there could have been a massive breakthrough through the stalemate of trench warfare. The first was the large-scale German use of chemical weapons at the Second Battle of Ypres, and the second was the large-scale British use of tanks at the Battle of Cambrai in 1917. Chemical warfare involves using the toxic properties of Chemical substances to kill injure or incapacitate an enemy. The Second Battle of Ypres was the first time Germany used poison gas on a large scale on the Western Front in World War I and the first time A tank is a tracked, Armoured fighting vehicle designed for Front-line combat which combines Operational mobility and tactical The Battle of Cambrai ( 20 November - 3 December 1917) was a British campaign of World War I. Either of these new attack methods could have opened an enormous breach in the enemy lines, but failed, as did the Battle of the Crater in the American Civil War
At one extreme, a stealthy aircraft can attack a target without needing the large numbers of escort fighters, electronic warfare, air defense suppression, and other supporting aircraft that would be needed were conventional bombers used against the same target. The Battle of the Crater was a battle of the American Civil War, part of the Siege of Petersburg.
Whether or not the aircraft have low observability, precision guided munitions (PGM) give an immense multiplication. The Thanh Hoa Bridge in North Vietnam had been only mildly damaged by approximately 800 sorties by aircraft armed with conventional "dumb" bombs, but had one of its spans destroyed by a 12-plane mission, of which 8 carried laser-guided bombs. The Thanh Hoa Bridge, spanning the Song Ma river is situated north east of Thanh Hóa, the capital of Thanh Hoa Province in Vietnam. Two small subsequent missions, again with laser-guided bombs, completed the destruction of this target. Precision guided munitions are one example of what has been called the Revolution in Military Affairs, In WWII, British night bombers could hit, at best, an area of a city. The Military concept of Revolution in Military Affairs ( RMA) is a theory about the future of Warfare, often connected to technological and
Modern PGMs commonly put a bomb within 3-10 meters of its target. See the use of heavy bombers in direct support of friendly troops in Afghanistan, using the technique of Ground-Aided Precision Strike. This article is a subset article under Human Intelligence. For a complete hierarchical list of articles see the intelligence cycle management hierarchy
Fighter aircraft coordinated by an AWACS control aircraft, so that they can approach targets without being revealed by their own radar, and who are assigned to take specific targets so that duplication is avoided, is far more effective than an equivalent number of fighters dependent on their own resources for target acquisition.
In exercises between the Indian and US air forces, the Indian pilots had an opportunity to operate with AWACS control, and found it extremely effective . India has ordered AWACS aircraft, using Israeli Phalcon electronics on a Russian airframe, and this exercise is part of their preparation. Officer and pilot comments included "definitely was a force multiplier. Giving you an eye deep beyond you". . . "We could pick up incoming targets whether aircraft or missiles almost 400 kilometers away. It gives a grand battle coordination in the air".
The use of small numbers of specialists to create larger effective forces is another form of multiplication. The basic A Team of US Army Special Forces is a 12-man unit that can train and lead a company-sized unit (100-200 men) of local guerrillas. The A-Team is an American action Adventure Television series about a fictional group of ex- United States Army Special Forces In most countries special forces (SF is a generic term for highly-trained Military teams/units that conduct specialized operations such as Reconnaissance While it is not clear when the term "force multiplier" first appeared in the military literature, the use of small teams to raise much larger guerrilla units was among the first uses of the term.
Deception can produce the potential effect of a much larger force. Deception (also called beguilement or subterfuge) is the act of convincing another to believe Information that is not true or not the whole truth as in The fictitious First United States Army Group (FUSAG) was portrayed to the WWII Germans as the main force for the invasion of Europe. First United States Army Group was a fictitious Army Group invented by the Allies in World War II prior to D-Day, as part of Operation Quicksilver Operation Bodyguard  successfully gave the impression that FUSAG was to land at the Pas de Calais, convincing the Germans that the real attack at Normandy was a feint. During World War II, Operation Bodyguard was the overall Allied strategic Deception plan in Europe for 1944 carried out as part of the build-up to the invasion Pas-de-Calais is a department in northern France. Its name is the French language equivalent of the Strait of Dover, which it borders Normandy (Normandie Norman: Normaundie) is a geographical region corresponding to the former Duchy of Normandy. As a result of the successful deception, the Normandy force penetrated deeply, in part, because the Germans held back strategic reserves that they thought would be needed at the Pas de Calais, against what was a nonexistent force. Pas-de-Calais is a department in northern France. Its name is the French language equivalent of the Strait of Dover, which it borders FUSAG's existence was suggested by the use of decoy vehicles that the Allies allowed to be photographed, fictitious radio traffic generated by a small number of specialists, and the Double Cross System . See also Double agent The Double Cross System or XX System, was a World War II anti-espionage and deception operation of the British Double Cross referred to turning all surviving German spies in the UK into double agents, who sent back convincing reports that were consistent with the deception programs being conducted by the London Controlling Section. This article is a subset article under Human Intelligence. For a complete hierarchical list of articles see the intelligence cycle management hierarchy The London Controlling Section (LCS was established in June 1942 within the Joint Planning Staff at the offices of the War Cabinet which was presided over by Winston