Fluoride is the reduced form of fluorine. Fluorine, fluorum meaning "to flow" is the Chemical element with the symbol F and Atomic number 9 Both organic and inorganic compounds containing the element fluorine are considered fluorides. An organic compound is any member of a large class of Chemical compounds whose Molecules contain Carbon. Traditionally inorganic compounds are considered to be of mineral not biological origin A chemical element is a type of Atom that is distinguished by its Atomic number; that is by the number of Protons in its nucleus. As a halogen, fluorine forms a monovalent ion (−1 charge). Abundance Owing to their high Reactivity, the halogens are found in the environment only in compounds or as Ions Halide ions and oxoanions The range of fluorides is considerable as fluorine forms compounds with all elements except He and Ne. Fluorides range from severe toxins such as sarin to life-saving pharmaceuticals such as efavirenz and from refractory materials such as calcium fluoride to highly reactive sulfur tetrafluoride. Sarin, also known by its NATO designation of GB, is an extremely toxic substance whose sole application is as a Nerve agent. Efavirenz (brand names Sustiva and Stocrin) is a Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI and is used as part of highly active antiretroviral Calcium fluoride (CaF2 is an insoluble Ionic compound of Calcium and Fluorine. Sulfur tetrafluoride is the Chemical compound with the formula SF4
Solutions of inorganic fluorides in water contain F− and bifluoride HF2−. The bifluoride, or hydrogen(difluoride, ion is the species HF2−  Few inorganic fluorides are soluble in water without undergoing significant hydrolysis. Examples of inorganic fluorides include hydrofluoric acid (HF), sodium fluoride (NaF), and uranium hexafluoride (UF6). Hydrofluoric acid is a Solution of Hydrogen fluoride in Water. Sodium fluoride is the Chemical compound with the formula NaF Uranium hexafluoride (UF6 referred to as "hex" in the nuclear industry is a compound used in the Uranium enrichment process that produces In terms of its reactivity, fluoride differs significantly from chloride and other halides, and is more strongly solvated due to its smaller radius/charge ratio. The chloride Ion is formed when the element Chlorine picks up one Electron to form an Anion (negatively-charged ion Cl&minus Its closest chemical relative is hydroxide. In Chemistry, hydroxide is the most common name for the diatomic Anion OH− consisting of Oxygen and Hydrogen The Si-F linkage is one of the strongest single bonds. In contrast, other silyl halides are easily hydrolyzed.
Many fluoride minerals are known, but paramount in commercial importance are fluorite and fluoroapatite. Fluorite (also called fluorspar) is a Mineral composed of Calcium fluoride, Ca[[Fluorine F2]] Fluorapatite, often with the alternate spelling of fluoroapatite, is a Mineral with the formula Ca5(PO43F (calcium halophosphate Fluoride is found naturally in low concentration in drinking water and foods. Water with underground sources is more likely to have higher levels of fluoride, whereas the concentration in seawater averages 1. 3 parts per million (ppm). "Parts-per" notation is used especially in Science and Engineering, to denote Ratios (relative proportions in measured quantities particularly  Fresh water supplies generally contain between 0. 01-0. 3 ppm, while the ocean contains between 1. 2 and 1. 5 ppm. 
Fluorides are pervasive in modern technology. Hydrofluoric acid is the most important fluoride synthesized. Hydrofluoric acid is a Solution of Hydrogen fluoride in Water. It is principally used in the production of fluorocarbons and aluminium fluorides. Hydrofluoric acid has a variety of specialized applications, including its ability to dissolve glass. 
Fluoride reagents are significant in synthetic organic chemistry. Organic synthesis is a special branch of Chemical synthesis and is concerned with the construction of Organic compounds via Organic reactions Organic Organic chemistry is a discipline within Chemistry which involves the scientific study of the structure properties composition reactions, and preparation Due to the affinity of silicon for fluoride, and the ability of silicon to expand its coordination number, silyl ether protecting groups can be easily removed by the fluoride sources such as sodium fluoride and tetra-n-butylammonium fluoride (TBAF). Silicon (ˈsɪlɪkən or /ˈsɪlɪkɒn/ silicium is the Chemical element that has the symbol Si and Atomic number 14 Silyl ethers are a group of Chemical compounds which contain a Silicon atom covalently bonded to an Alkoxy group A protecting group or protective group is introduced into a molecule by chemical modification of a Functional group in order to obtain Chemoselectivity Sodium fluoride is the Chemical compound with the formula NaF Tetra- n -butylammonium fluoride or TBAF is a Quaternary ammonium salt with the chemical formula (CH3CH2CH2CH24N+F-
In biochemistry, fluoride salts are commonly used to inhibit the activity of phosphatases, such as serine/threonine phosphatases. Biochemistry is the study of the chemical processes in living Organisms It deals with the Structure and function of cellular components such as Enzyme inhibitors are Molecules that bind to Enzymes and decrease their activity. A phosphatase is an Enzyme that removes a Phosphate group from its Substrate by hydrolysing Phosphoric acid mono Esters into Serine (abbreviated as Ser or S) is an Organic compound with the formula H[[oxygen O]]2 CCH NH sub>2CH2OH Threonine (abbreviated as Thr or T) is an α- Amino acid with the Chemical formula HO2CCH(NH2CH(OHCH3  It may do this by replacing the nucleophilic hydroxyl ion in these enzymes' active sites. In Chemistry, a nucleophile (literally nucleus lover as in nucleus and phile) is a Reagent that forms a Chemical bond to In Chemistry, hydroxide is the most common name for the diatomic Anion OH− consisting of Oxygen and Hydrogen  Beryllium fluoride and aluminium fluoride are also used as phosphatase inhibitors, since these compounds are structural mimics of the phosphate group and can act as analogues of the transition state of the reaction. Beryllium fluoride is the Chemical compound with the formula BeF2 Aluminum fluoride is the Inorganic compound with the formula Al[[fluorine F]]3 A phosphate, an Inorganic chemical, is a salt of Phosphoric acid. The transition state of a Chemical reaction is a particular configuration along the Reaction coordinate. 
Sulfur hexafluoride is an inert, nontoxic insulator that is used in electrical transformers. Sulfur hexafluoride is an Inorganic compound with the formula. Uranium hexafluoride is used in the separation of isotopes of uranium between the fissile isotope U-235 and the non-fissile isotope U-238 in preparation of nuclear reactor fuel and atomic bombs. Uranium hexafluoride (UF6 referred to as "hex" in the nuclear industry is a compound used in the Uranium enrichment process that produces Nuclear fission is the splitting of the nucleus of an atom into parts (lighter nuclei) often producing Free neutrons and other smaller nuclei which may Uranium-235 is an isotope of uranium that differs from the element's other common isotope Uranium-238, by its ability to cause a rapidly expanding fission This article is a subarticle of Nuclear power. A nuclear reactor is a device in which Nuclear chain reactions are initiated controlled Nuclear fuel is any material that can be consumed to derive Nuclear energy, by analogy to chemical Fuel that is burned to derive energy A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from Nuclear reactions either fission or a combination of fission and fusion.
Fluoropolymers such as polytetrafluoroethylene, Teflon, are used as chemically inert and biocompatible materials for a variety of applications, including as surgical implants such as coronary bypass grafts, and a replacement for soft tissue in cosmetic and reconstructive surgery. A fluoropolymer is a Polymer that contains atoms of Fluorine. Teflon is a Registered trademark and Brand name of the DuPont company for products made from three types of fluorine-containing polymers ( Fluoropolymers Biocompatibility is related to the behavior of Biomaterials and in that it is a peculiar word because it would seem that are at least two opposing uses of the same term In Medicine, a prosthesis (plural prostheses) is an Artificial extension that replaces a missing Body part. Coronary artery bypass surgery, also coronary artery bypass graft surgery, and colloquially heart bypass or bypass surgery is a surgical procedure In Medicine, the term soft tissue refers to tissues that connect support or surround other structures and organs of the body Plastic surgery is a medical specialty interested in the correction of form and function Reconstructive surgery is in its broadest sense the use of Surgery to restore the form and function of the body  These compounds are also commonly used as non-stick surfaces in cookware and bakeware, and the fluoropolymer fabric Gore-Tex used in breathable garments for outdoor use. A non-stick surface is a surface engineered to reduce the ability of other materials to Stick to it "Saucepan" redirects here In Australia "the Saucepan" is sometimes used as an unofficial name for part of the constellation of Pavo, when finding the
Fluoride-containing compounds are used in topical and systemic fluoride therapy for preventing tooth decay. Fluoride therapy is the delivery of Fluoride to the Teeth Topically or systemically in order to prevent Tooth decay ( Dental caries Fluoride therapy is the delivery of Fluoride to the Teeth Topically or systemically in order to prevent Tooth decay ( Dental caries Dental caries is a disease that damages Tooth structures resulting in what is commonly called tooth decay or cavities which are holes in the teeth They are used for water fluoridation and in many products associated with oral hygiene. Water fluoridation is the addition of a chemical to increase the concentration of Fluoride Ions in Drinking water with the purpose of reducing the Oral hygiene is the practice of keeping the Mouth and Teeth clean in order to prevent dental problems and bad breath.  Originally, sodium fluoride was used to fluoridate water, however, hexafluorosilicic acid (H2SiF6) and its salt sodium hexafluorosilicate (Na2SiF6) are more commonly used additives, especially in the United States. Sodium fluoride is the Chemical compound with the formula NaF Hexafluorosilicic acid is the Chemical compound with the formula H2SiF6 The fluoridation of water prevents tooth decay and is considered by the U. S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as "one of 10 great public health achievements of the 20th century". The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (or CDC) is an agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services based in unincorporated  In some countries where large, centralized water systems are uncommon, fluoride is delivered to the populace by fluoridating table salt. Fluoridation of water is not without critics, however (see water fluoridation opposition). 
Positron emission tomography is commonly carried out using fluoride-containing pharmaceuticals such as fluorodeoxyglucose, which is labelled with the radioactive isotope fluorine-18 that emits positrons when it decays into 18O. Positron emission tomography ( PET) is a Nuclear medicine imaging technique which produces a three-dimensional image or map of functional processes in the Fluorodeoxyglucose is a Glucose analog. Its full chemical name is 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose, commonly abbreviated to FDG A radionuclide is an Atom with an unstable nucleus, which is a nucleus characterized by excess energy which is available to be imparted either to a newly-created Fluorine-18 is a Fluorine radioisotope which is an important source of Positrons It has a mass of 18 The positrons or antielectron is the Antiparticle or the Antimatter counterpart of the Electron.
Fluorine is also part of a large variety of drugs including: antipsychotics such as fluphenazine, HIV protease inhibitors such as tipranavir, antibiotics such as ofloxacin and trovafloxacin, and anesthetics such as halothane. Antipsychotics are a group of Psychoactive drugs commonly but not exclusively used to treat Psychosis, which is typified by Schizophrenia. Fluphenazine (marketed as Prolixin is a Typical antipsychotic drug For natural protease inhibitors please see Protease inhibitor (biology Protease inhibitors (PIs are a class of Medications used Tipranavir, or tipranavir disodium, is a nonpeptidic protease inhibitor (PI manufactured by Boehringer-Ingelheim under the trade names Aptivus In modern usage an antibiotic is a Chemotherapeutic agent with activity against Microorganisms such as Bacteria, fungi or Protozoa Ofloxacin (sold under the brand name Floxin in the United States, Tarivid in Europe and some other countries is a Fluoroquinolone Antibiotic Trovafloxacin (sold as Trovan by Pfizer) is a broad spectrum Antibiotic that inhibits the uncoiling of supercoiled DNA in various Anesthesia, or anaesthesia (see spelling differences; from Greek grc αν- an-, "without" and grc αἲσθησις Halothane vapour (or Fluothane) is an inhalational General anaesthetic.  These atoms are incorporated in the drug structures to reduce drug metabolism, as the strong C-F bond resists deactivation in the liver by cytochrome P450 oxidases. Drug metabolism is the Metabolism of drugs, their Biochemical modification or degradation usually through specialized enzymatic systems Cytochrome P450 (abbreviated CYP, P450, infrequently CYP450) is a very large and diverse superfamily of Hemoproteins found in all Domains 
Fluoride-containing compounds are so diverse that it is not possible to generalize on their toxicity, which depends on their reactivity and structure, and in the case of salts, their solubility and ability to release fluoride ions. In high concentrations soluble Fluoride Salts are somewhat Toxic. Toxicity is the degree to which a substance is able to damage an exposed organism
Soluble fluoride salts, of which NaF is the most common, are mildly toxic but have resulted in both accidental and suicidal deaths from acute poisoning. Diisopropyl fluorophosphate ( DFP, diisopropyl phosphorofluoridate) is an oily colorless liquid with the chemical formula C6H14FO3P Sodium fluoride is the Chemical compound with the formula NaF Acute toxicity describes the adverse effects of a substance which result either from a single exposure or from multiple exposures in a short space of time (usually less than 24 hours  While the minimum fatal dose in humans is not known, a case of a fatal poisoning of an adult with 4 grams of NaF is documented.  Sodium fluorosilicate, Na2SiF6 with its higher fluorine content, can cause death with as little as 0. 2 g. The fatal period ranges from 5 min to 12 hours.  The mechanism of toxicity involves the combination of the fluoride anion with the calcium ions in the blood to form insoluble calcium fluoride, resulting in hypocalcemia; calcium is indispensable for the function of the nervous system, and the condition can be fatal. Calcium fluoride (CaF2 is an insoluble Ionic compound of Calcium and Fluorine. In Medicine, hypocalcaemia is the presence of low serum Calcium levels in the Blood, usually taken as less than 2 Treatment may involve oral administration of dilute calcium hydroxide or calcium chloride to prevent further absorption, and injection of calcium gluconate to increase the calcium levels in the blood. Calcium hydroxide, traditionally called slaked lime, hydrated lime, or pickling lime, is a Chemical compound with the chemical formula Calcium chloride (CaCl2 is an ionic compound of Calcium and Chlorine. Calcium gluconate is a mineral supplement It is the form of calcium most widely used in the treatment of hypocalcemia.  Hydrogen fluoride is more dangerous than salts such as NaF because it is corrosive and volatile, and can result in fatal exposure through inhalation or contact with the skin; calcium gluconate gel is the usual antidote. Structure HF forms orthorhombic crystals consisting of zig-zag chains of HF molecules 
A few organofluorine compounds are extremely toxic, such as organophosphates like sarin and diisopropylfluorophosphate that react with the cholinesterase enzyme at neuromuscular junctions and thus block the transmission of nerve impulses to the muscles. An organophosphate (sometimes abbreviated OP) is the general name for Esters of Phosphoric acid. Sarin, also known by its NATO designation of GB, is an extremely toxic substance whose sole application is as a Nerve agent. Diisopropyl fluorophosphate ( DFP, diisopropyl phosphorofluoridate) is an oily colorless liquid with the chemical formula C6H14FO3P In Biochemistry, cholinesterase is an enzyme that catalyzes the Hydrolysis of the Neurotransmitter Acetylcholine into A neuromuscular junction ( NMJ) is the Synapse or junction of the Axon terminal of a Motoneuron with the motor end plate, the  Here, a reactive fluorine-phosphorous bond in the inhibitor is the site of nucleophilic attack by a serine residue in the enzyme's active site, causing the loss of a F- ion and alkylation and inactivation of the enzyme. Serine (abbreviated as Ser or S) is an Organic compound with the formula H[[oxygen O]]2 CCH NH sub>2CH2OH Alkylation is the transfer of an Alkyl group from one Molecule to another
While PTFE itself is chemically inert and non-toxic, it begins to deteriorate after the temperature of cookware reaches about 500 °F (260 °C), and decompose above 660 °F (350 °C).  These degradation products can be lethal to birds, and can cause flu-like symptoms in humans. Birds ( class Aves) are bipedal endothermic ( Warm-blooded) Vertebrate animals that lay eggs.  In comparison, cooking fats, oils, and butter will begin to scorch and smoke at about 392 °F (200 °C), and meat is usually fried between 400–450 °F (200–230 °C), but empty cookware can exceed this temperature if left unattended on a hot burner.
A 1959 study, (conducted before the Food and Drug Administration approved the material for use in food processing equipment) showed that the toxicity of fumes given off by the coated pan on dry heating was less than that of fumes given off by ordinary cooking oils.