|State of Florida|
|Largest metro area||Miami|
|Area||Ranked 22nd in the US|
|- Total||65,795 sq mi|
|- Width||361 miles (582 km)|
|- Length||447 miles (721 km)|
|- % water||17. The flag of Florida consists of a red Saltire (diagonal cross on a white background with the Seal of Florida superimposed on the center The Great Seal of the State of Florida is used to represent the Government of the State of Florida, and for various official purposes such as to seal official documents This is a list of US state nicknames, including officially adopted Nicknames and other traditional nicknames for individual states of the United States. Here is a list of state Mottos for the states of the United States of America. In God We Trust is the official National motto of the United States and the U The United States does not have an Official language; however the majority of the population speaks English as a native language (about 82% English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a People or the inhabitants of a place Washington DC has been the capital of the United States since 1800 This is a list of the largest cities of US states by population Table of United States Metropolitan Statistical Areas|Table of United States Core Based Statistical AreasIn the United States, the Office of Management and Budget (OMB has produced Area is a Quantity expressing the two- Dimensional size of a defined part of a Surface, typically a region bounded by a closed Curve. This is a complete list of the states of the United States and its major territories ordered by total area, land area, and water area The square mile is an imperial and US unit of Area equal the area of a square of one statute mile. Square Kilometre ( US spelling square kilometer) symbol km2, is a decimal multiple of the SI unit of The kilometre ( American spelling: kilometer) symbol km is a unit of Length in the Metric system, equal to one thousand 9|
|- Latitude||24°27′ N to 31° N|
|- Longitude||80°02′ W to 87°38′ W|
|Population||Ranked 4th in the US|
|- Total||15,982,378 (18. In Biology a population is the collection of inter-breeding organisms of a particular Species; in Sociology This is a list of states of the United States by population (with inhabited non-state jurisdictions included for comparison as of July 1, 2007, according to the 25 million as of 2007)|
|- Density||309/sq mi |
117. This article is a list of the 50 US States ordered by Population density. 3/km² (8th in the US)
|- Median income||$41,171 (36th)|
|- Highest point||Britton Hill|
345 ft (105 m)
|- Mean||98 ft (30 m)|
|- Lowest point||Atlantic Ocean|
0 ft (0 m)
|Admission to Union||March 3, 1845 (27th)|
|Governor||Charlie Crist (R)|
|Lieutenant Governor||Jeff Kottkamp (R)|
|U.S. Senators||Bill Nelson (D)|
Mel Martinez (R)
|- peninsula||Eastern: UTC-5/DST-4|
|- panhandle||Central: UTC-6/DST-5|
|Abbreviations||FL Fla. US-FL|
|Florida State Symbols|
|-Fish||Florida largemouth bass, Atlantic sailfish|
|-Mammal||Florida panther, Manatee, Bottle-nosed dolphin|
|Food||Key lime pie, Orange|
|Song(s)||Old Folks at Home (Way Down Upon The Swanee River)|
Florida (IPA: /ˈflɒrɪdə/) is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States. Household income is a measure of current private income commonly used by the United States government and private institutions Wikipedia_talkFeatured_lists#Proposed_change_to_all_featured_lists for an explanation of this and other inclusion tags below --> Britton Hill is the highest point in the state of Florida, USA, with a summit elevation of 345 feet (105 meters above mean Sea level. Wikipedia_talkFeatured_lists#Proposed_change_to_all_featured_lists for an explanation of this and other inclusion tags below -->This is a list of U Events 1284 - Statute of Rhuddlan incorporated the Principality of Wales into England 1575 - Indian Year 1845 ( MDCCCXLV) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common A governor is a governing official usually the executive (at least nominally to different degrees also politically and administratively of a non-sovereign level of government Charles Joseph "Charlie" Crist Jr (born July 24 1956 is an American politician of the Republican Party and the current Governor of Florida. This is a complete and current List of United States Lieutenant Governors. Jeffrey "Jeff" Kottkamp (born November 12, 1960) is an American politician from the State of Florida. The United States Senate is the Upper house of the bicameral United States Congress, the Lower house being the House of Representatives For other people named Bill Nelson see Bill Nelson (disambiguation. Melquíades Rafael "Mel" Martínez (born October 23, 1946) is currently the junior United States Senator from Florida and served The United States Congress is the bicameral Legislature of the federal government of the United States of America, consisting of two houses These are tables of congressional delegations from Florida to the United States Senate and United States House of Representatives. This is a list of United States of America States by time zone The Eastern Time Zone ( ET) of the Western Hemisphere falls mostly along the east coast of North America and the west coast of South America Daylight saving time ( DST The Florida Panhandle is the region of the state of Florida which includes the westernmost 16 counties The Central Time Zone observes Standard time by subtracting six hours from UTC during standard time ( UTC−6) and five hours during Daylight saving The traditional abbreviations for US states and territories were widely used in mailing addresses prior to the introduction of two-letter U ISO 3166-2US is an ISO standard which defines Geocodes it is the subset of ISO 3166-2 which applies to the United States of America. A website (alternatively web site or Web site, a back-construction from the Proper noun World Wide Web) is a collection of Web pages The following are official state symbols of the US State of Florida, as defined by state statutes This is a list of US state birds as designated by each state's legislature Mockingbirds are a group of New World Passerine Birds from the Mimidae family. This is a list of official US state butterflies: See also List of U The Zebra Longwing Heliconius charithonia, (also known as the Zebra Heliconian) is a species of Butterfly belonging to the subfamily Heliconiinae This is a list of official and *unofficial US state fish:The only states lacking a state fish as of 2008 are Arkansas Indiana Kansas and Ohio The largemouth bass ( Micropterus salmoides) is a Species of Fish in the sunfish family. This article is about the fish For the submarines see ''USS'' Sailfish. This is a list of US state flowers: See also List of US state trees Lists of U An orange —specifically the sweet orange —is the Citrus fruit Citrus sinensis ( syn This is a list of United States state insects note that some states have more than one designated insect or have multiple categories (e The Zebra Longwing Heliconius charithonia, (also known as the Zebra Heliconian) is a species of Butterfly belonging to the subfamily Heliconiinae A state mammal is the official or representative Animal of a U The Florida panther is a critically endangered representative of Cougar ( Puma concolor) that lives in the low pinelands palm forests and Manatees ( family Trichechidae, Genus Trichechus) are large fully aquatic Marine mammals sometimes known as sea The Bottlenose Dolphin is one of the most common and well-known Dolphins. This is a list of official US state reptiles: See also Lists of United States state insignia The American Alligator, Alligator mississippiensis, (known colloquially as simply gator) is one of the two living Species of Alligator, a genus This List of US state trees includes official trees of the following states and U Sabal palmetto, also known as Cabbage Palm, Palmetto, Cabbage Palmetto, Palmetto Palm, and Sabal Palm, is one of 15 This is a list of official state beverages: Orange juice is a Fruit juice obtained by squeezing pressing or otherwise crushing the interior of an orange. This is a list of official US state foods: Key Lime Pie is a 1989 Album by Camper Van Beethoven, also known as CVB An orange —specifically the sweet orange —is the Citrus fruit Citrus sinensis ( syn Most American states have made a state fossil designation in many cases during the 1980s. This article is about the semi-precious stone For other uses see Agate (disambiguation. Corals are Marine organisms from the class Anthozoa and exist as small Sea anemone –like Polyps typically in colonies of many Not every state has an official state mineral rock stone or gemstone Moonstone is typically a potassium aluminium silicate, with the chemical formula KAlSi3O8 Not every state has an official state mineral rock stone or gemstone This article is about the semi-precious stone For other uses see Agate (disambiguation. Corals are Marine organisms from the class Anthozoa and exist as small Sea anemone –like Polyps typically in colonies of many This is a list of official state shells: See also Lists of US Pleuroploca gigantea, Common name the horse conch is a Species of extremely large Predatory subtropical and tropical sea Snail This list of US state slogans is made up the Advertising slogans currently and formerly used by U This is a list of Representative US State Soils. A state soil is a Soil that has special significance to a particular state. Myakka soil is the official Soil in the state of Florida. It is restricted to the state where it encompasses the largest Acreage More than contain Myakka Introduction Forty-nine states of the United States (all except New Jersey) have one or more state songs, selected by the state "Old Folks at Home" also known by the words of its first line "(Way Down Upon the Swanee River" is a song written in 1851 by composer Stephen Foster, to be Highways in the United States are split into at least four different types of systems The 50 State Quarters program ( is the release of a series of commemorative coins by the United States Mint. These are lists of US state insignia as designated by tradition or the respective state legislatures: List of U A US state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of the United States of America that share Sovereignty with the federal government The US Southeast is the eastern portion of the Southern United States, but the Census Bureau does not provide a standard definition of a "Southeast" region The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Much of the land mass of the state is a large peninsula with the Gulf of Mexico to the west and the Atlantic Ocean to the east. A peninsula is a piece of land that is nearly surrounded by Water but connected to Mainland via an Isthmus. The Gulf of Mexico ( Spanish: Golfo de México) is the ninth largest Body of water in the world Much of the state has a humid subtropical climate; southern Florida has a tropical climate. Humid subtropical climate ( Köppen Cfa or Cwa) is a climate zone characterized by hot humid summers and chilly to mild winters A tropical climate is a kind of Climate typical in the Tropics.  Florida was named by Juan Ponce de León, who landed on the peninsula on 2 April 1513, during Pascua Florida (Spanish for "Flowery Easter," referring to the Easter season). Juan Ponce de León ( IPA: /xwan'ponʒedele'on/ (1460 – July 1521 was a Spanish Conquistador. Events 68 - Galba, Governor of Hispania, names himself legatus senatus populique Romani, breaking the line of Pascua Florida is a Spanish term that means flowery festival or feast of flowers. Eastertide, or the Easter Season, or Paschal Time, is the period of fifty days from Easter Sunday to Pentecost Sunday Florida is the fourth most populous state in the country. 
Archaeological research indicates that Florida had been inhabited for thousands of years before any European settlements. The history of Florida can be traced back to when the first Native Americans began to inhabit the peninsula as early as 14000 years ago The Seminole Wars, also known as the Florida Wars, were three conflicts in Florida between various groups of Native Americans collectively known as Origins Secession took place January 10, 1861, and after less than a month as an independent republic Florida became one of the founding members Of the many indigenous peoples, the largest known were the Ais, the Apalachee, the Calusa, the Timucua and the Tocobago tribes. For other uses of the word or the acronym see AIS. The Ais, or Ays were a tribe of Native Americans who inhabited the Atlantic The Calusa, sometimes spelled Caloosa, Calos, Carlos or Caalus, were a Native American group that lived on the coast and along The Timucua were an American Indian people who lived in Northeast and North Central Florida and southeast Georgia. Tocobaga is the name of a group of Native Americans who lived in Chiefdoms along the middle Gulf coast of the Florida peninsula at the time of Juan Ponce de León, a Spanish conquistador, named Florida in honor of his discovery of the land on April 2, 1513, during Pascua Florida, a Spanish term for the Easter season (Juan Ponce de León may not have been the first European to reach Florida; according to one report, at least one indigenous tribesman who he encountered in Florida in 1513 spoke Spanish. This article is about the Spanish explorer soldiers of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuriesfor other uses see Conquistador (disambiguation A Conquistador Events 68 - Galba, Governor of Hispania, names himself legatus senatus populique Romani, breaking the line of ). From that date forward, the land became known as "La Florida" , although from 1630 until the 19th century Tegesta (after the Tequesta tribe) was the name of choice for the Florida peninsula following publication of a map by the Dutch cartographer Hessel Gerritsz in Joannes de Laet's History of the New World. The Tequesta (also Tekesta, Tegesta, Chequesta, Vizcaynos) Native American tribe at the time of first European contact Hessel Gerritsz (c 1581 Assum near Uitgeest – buried Sep 4 1632, Amsterdam) was a Dutch Engraver, Cartographer Joannes de Laet (1581 &ndash 1649 was a Flemish geographer and director of the Dutch West India Company. 
Over the following century, both the Spanish and French established settlements in Florida, with varying degrees of success. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. In 1559, Spanish Pensacola was established by Don Tristán de Luna y Arellano as the first European settlement in the continental United States, but it had become abandoned by 1561 and would not be reinhabited until the 1690s. Pensacola is the westernmost city in the Florida Panhandle and the County seat of Escambia County. Tristán de Luna y Arellano (1519 – 1571 was a Spanish Conquistador of the 16th century French Huguenots founded Fort Caroline in modern-day Jacksonville in 1564, but the fort was conquered by forces from the new Spanish colony of St. The Huguenots were members of the Protestant Reformed Church of France (or French Calvinists) from the sixteenth to the eighteenth Fort Caroline was the first French colony in the present-day United States. Augustine the following year. After Huguenot leader Jean Ribault had learned of the new Spanish threat, he launched an expedition to sack the Spanish settlement; en route, however, severe storms at sea waylaid the expedition, which consisted of most of the colony's men, allowing St. Jean Ribault (1520 – October 12, 1565) was a French naval officer navigator and a colonizer of what would become the southeastern United States Augustine founder Pedro Menéndez de Avilés time to march his men over land and conquer Fort Caroline. Pedro Menéndez de Avilés ( February 15, 1519 - September 17, 1574) was a sixteenth century Spanish admiral and pirate hunter known most notably Most of the Huguenots were slaughtered, and Menéndez de Avilés marched south and captured the survivors of the wrecked French fleet, ordering all but a few Catholics executed beside a river subsequently called Matanzas (Spanish for 'killings'). Matanzas River is a body of water located in St Johns and Flagler Counties in Florida. The Spanish never had a firm hold on Florida, and maintained tenuous control over the region by converting the local tribes, briefly with Jesuits and later with Franciscan friars. The Society of Jesus ( Latin: Societas Iesu, SJ and SI or SJ, SI) is a Catholic religious order The term Franciscan is commonly used to refer to members of Catholic The local leaders (caciques) demonstrated their loyalty to the Spanish by converting to Roman Catholicism and welcoming the Franciscan priests into their villages. Cacique or Cazique (female form Cacica) from the Taíno word for the Pre-Columbian tribal chiefs or leaders, of the Taino
The area of Spanish Florida diminished with the establishment of English colonies to the north and French colonies to the west. Bernard Picart (1673-1733 was a French Engraver, son of Etienne Picart also an engraver England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland The English weakened Spanish power in the area by supplying their Creek Indian allies with firearms and urging them to raid the Timucuan and Apalachee client-tribes of the Spanish. The English attacked St. Augustine, burning the city and its cathedral to the ground several times, while the citizens hid behind the walls of the Castillo de San Marcos. The Castillo de San Marcos is a Spanish built Fort located in the city of St
The Spanish, meanwhile, encouraged slaves to flee the English-held Carolinas and come to Florida, where they were converted to Roman Catholicism and given freedom. The Carolinas is a term used in the United States to refer collectively to the states of North and South Carolina. They settled in a buffer community north of St. Augustine, called Gracia Real de Santa Teresa de Mose, the first completely black settlement in what would become the United States. Fort Mose Historic State Park (originally known as Gracia Real de Santa Teresa de Mose) is a U
Great Britain gained control of Florida diplomatically in 1763 through the Peace of Paris. The Treaty of Paris, often called the Peace of Paris, or the Treaty of 1763, was signed on February 10, 1763, by the kingdoms of Great Britain The British divided the colony into East Florida, with its capital at St. East Florida was originally a part of Spanish Florida. Under the terms of the Treaty of Paris (1763, which ended the Seven Years' War, Spain ceded Augustine, and West Florida, with its capital at Pensacola. West Florida was a region on the north shore of the Gulf of Mexico, which underwent several boundary and sovereignty changes during its history Britain tried to develop the Floridas through the importation of immigrants for labor, including some from Minorca and Greece, but this project ultimately failed. Minorca ( Catalan and Spanish: Menorca; from Latin Balearis Minor, later Minorica "minor island" is one of the Greece (Ελλάδα transliterated: Elláda, historically, Ellás,) officially the Hellenic Republic (Ελληνική Δημοκρατία Spain regained the Floridas after Britain's defeat by the American colonies and the subsequent Treaty of Versailles in 1783, continuing the division into East and West Florida. The Peace of Paris (1783 was the set of treaties which ended the American Revolutionary War. They offered land grants to anyone who settled in the colonies, and many Americans moved to them.
After settler attacks on Indian towns, Seminole Indians based in East Florida began raiding Georgia settlements, purportedly at the behest of the Spanish. The Seminole are a Native American people originally of Florida and now residing in Florida and Oklahoma. East Florida was originally a part of Spanish Florida. Under the terms of the Treaty of Paris (1763, which ended the Seven Years' War, Spain ceded The State of Georgia ( is a state in the United States and was one of the original Thirteen Colonies that revolted against British rule The United States Army led increasingly frequent incursions into Spanish territory, including the 1817 – 1818 campaign against the Seminole Indians by Andrew Jackson that became known as the First Seminole War. The United States Army is a military organization whose primary mission is to "provide necessary forces and capabilities. Andrew Jackson (March 15 1767 June 8 1845 was the seventh President of the United States (1829&ndash1837 The Seminole Wars, also known as the Florida Wars, were three conflicts in Florida between various groups of Native Americans collectively known as Following the war, the United States effectively controlled East Florida. In 1819, by terms of the Adams-Onís Treaty, Spain ceded Florida to the United States in exchange for the American renunciation of any claims on Texas and $5 million. The Adams-Onís Treaty of 1819 settled a border dispute in North America between the United States and Spain. Texas ( is a state geographically located in the South Central United States and is also known as the Lone Star State.
As settlement increased, pressure grew on the United States government to remove the Indians from their lands in Florida. To the chagrin of Georgia landowners, the Seminoles harbored and integrated runaway blacks, and clashes between whites and Indians grew with the influx of new settlers. The Black Seminoles are descendants of free Africans and some Runaway slaves who escaped from coastal South Carolina and Georgia into the Florida wilderness In 1832, the United States government signed the Treaty of Payne's Landing with some of the Seminole chiefs, promising them lands west of the Mississippi River if they agreed to leave Florida voluntarily. The Treaty of Payne's Landing (Treaty with the Seminole 1832 was an agreement signed on 9 May 1832 between the government of the United States and several Many of the Seminoles left at this time, while those who remained prepared to defend their claims to the land. White settlers pressured the government to remove all of the Indians, by force if necessary, and in 1835, the U. S. Army arrived to enforce the treaty.
The Second Seminole War began at the end of 1835 with the Dade Massacre, when Seminoles ambushed Army troops marching from Fort Brooke (Tampa) to reinforce Fort King (Ocala), killing or mortally wounding all but one of the 108 troops. The Second Seminole War, also known as the Florida War, was a conflict from 1835 to 1842 in Florida between various groups of Native Americans collectively The "Dade Massacre" was a 1835 defeat for the United States Army that started the Second Seminole War, which lasted until 1842 Fort Brooke was a historical military post situated on the east bank (at the mouth of the Hillsborough River in present-day Tampa Florida. Fort King (also known as Camp King or Cantonment King) was a United States Military Fort in north central Florida. Between 900 and 1,500 Seminole Indian warriors effectively employed hit and run guerrilla tactics against United States Army troops for seven years. Osceola, a charismatic young war leader, came to symbolize the war and the Seminoles after he was arrested at truce negotiations in 1837 and died in prison less than a year later. Osceola (1804 &ndash January 20, 1838) was a war chief of the Seminole in Florida. The war dragged on until 1842. The U. S. government is estimated to have spent between US$20 million and US$40 million on the war, at the time an astronomical sum. Even after three bloody wars, the U. S. failed to force all of the Seminole Indians in Florida to the West.  Though most of the Seminoles were forcibly exiled to Creek lands west of the Mississippi, hundreds, including Seminole leader Aripeka (Sam Jones), remained in the Everglades and refused to leave the native homeland of their ancestors. The Trail of Tears was the forced relocation of Native Americans from their homelands to Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma in the Western United States Everglades is also the name of a city in Collier County Florida Their descendants remain there to this day.
On March 3, 1845, Florida became the 27th state of the United States of America. Events 1284 - Statute of Rhuddlan incorporated the Principality of Wales into England 1575 - Indian Year 1845 ( MDCCCXLV) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Its population grew slowly. White settlers continued to encroach on lands used by the Seminoles, and the United States government resolved to make another effort to move the remaining Seminoles to the West. The Third Seminole War lasted from 1855 to 1858, and resulted in the removal of most of the remaining Seminoles. The Seminole Wars, also known as the Florida Wars, were three conflicts in Florida between various groups of Native Americans collectively known as White settlers began to establish cotton plantations in Florida, which required numerous laborers. By 1860 Florida had only 140,424 people, of whom 44% were enslaved. There were fewer than 1000 free people of color before the Civil War. A free Negro or free black is the term used prior to the abolition of slavery in the United States to describe African Americans who were not Slaves 
On January 10, 1861, before the formal outbreak of the Civil War, Florida seceded from the Union; ten days later, the state became a founding member of the Confederate States of America. Events 49 BC - Julius Caesar crosses the Rubicon, signaling the start of civil war. Year 1861 ( MDCCCLXI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Causes of the war See also Origins of the American Civil War, Timeline of events leading to the American Civil War The coexistence of a slave-owning South During the American Civil War, the Union was a name used to refer to the federal government of the United States, which was supported by the twenty-three The Confederate States of America (also called the Confederacy, the Confederate States, and CSA) formed as the government set up from 1861 The war ended in 1865. On June 25, 1868, Florida's congressional representation was restored. Events 524 - Battle of Vézeronce, the Franks defeat the Burgundians Year 1868 ( MDCCCLXVIII) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap The United States Congress is the bicameral Legislature of the federal government of the United States of America, consisting of two houses After Reconstruction, white Democrats succeeded in regaining power in the state legislature. In 1885 they created a new constitution, followed by statutes through 1889 that effectively disfranchised most blacks and many poor whites over the next several years. Provisions included poll taxes, literacy tests, and residency requirements. A poll tax, head tax, or capitation is a Tax of a uniform fixed amount per individual (as opposed to a percentage of income Literacy Test refers to the government practice of testing the literacy of potential citizens at the federal level and potential voters at the state level Disfranchisement for most African Americans in the state persisted until the Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s gained federal legislation to protect their suffrage.
Until the mid-twentieth century, Florida was the least populous Southern state. In 1900 its population was only 528,542, of whom nearly 44 percent were African American.  The boll weevil devastated cotton crops, and early 20th century lynchings and racial violence caused a record number of African Americans to leave the state in the Great Migration to northern and midwestern industrial cities. The boll weevil ( Anthonomus grandis) is a Beetle measuring an average length of six Millimeters which feeds on Cotton buds and flowers Forty thousand blacks, roughly one-fifth of their 1900 population, left for better opportunities.  National economic prosperity in the 1920s stimulated tourism to Florida. Combined with its sudden elevation in profile was the Florida land boom of the 1920s, which brought a brief period of intenseland development. The Florida land boom of the 1920s was Florida 's first Real estate bubble, which burst in 1925 leaving behind entire new cities and the remains of failed development The stock market crash and Great Depression brought that period to a halt.
Florida's economy did not fully recover until the buildup for World War II. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including The climate, tempered by the growing availability of air conditioning, and low cost of living made the state a haven. Migration from the Rust Belt and the Northeast sharply increased the population after the war. The Rust Belt, sometimes called the Manufacturing Belt, is an area in parts of the Northeastern United States, Mid-Atlantic States, and portions of the In recent decades, more migrants have come for the jobs in a developing economy. Today, with an estimated population of more than 18 million, Florida is the most populous state in the Southeastern United States, the second most populous state in the South behind Texas, and the fourth most populous in the United States. The Census Bureau estimates that "Florida, now the fourth most populous state, would edge past New York into third place in total population by 2011". The United States Census Bureau (officially Bureau of the Census as defined in Title) is the government agency that is responsible for the United States Census 
Much of the state of Florida is situated on a peninsula between the Gulf of Mexico, the Atlantic Ocean, and the Straits of Florida. ImageFlorida counties mappng|thumb|right|400px|Florida counties (clickable map poly 42 38 86 40 79 44 74 47 71 55 69 69 74 72 76 87 77 90 87 97 87 102 87 108 78 111 77 115 80 117 Map of State Parks of Florida Hold The Straits of Florida, Florida Straits, or Florida Strait is a Strait located south-southeast of the North American Mainland, generally accepted It extends to the northwest into a panhandle, extending along the northern Gulf of Mexico. It is bordered on the north by the states of Georgia and Alabama, and on the west, at the end of the panhandle, by Alabama. The State of Georgia ( is a state in the United States and was one of the original Thirteen Colonies that revolted against British rule Alabama (formally the State of Alabama;) is a State located in the southern region of the United States of America. It is near several Caribbean countries, particularly the Bahamas and Cuba. The Caribbean (ˌkærəˡbiən kæ'rəbiən Cariben|Caraïben or Caraïben; Caraïbe or more commonly Antilles; Caribe is a Region consisting The Bahamas, officially the Commonwealth of The Bahamas, is an independent sovereign English -speaking country consisting of two thousand Cays and The Republic of Cuba (ˈkjuːbə or) consists of the island of Cuba (the largest and second-most populous island of the Greater Antilles) Isla de la Florida's extensive coastline made it a perceived target during World War II, so the government built airstrips throughout the state; today, approximately 400 airports are still in service. According to the National Drug Intelligence Center, Florida has 131 public airports, and more than 700 private airports, airstrips, heliports, and seaplane bases.  Florida is one of the largest states east of the Mississippi River, and only Alaska and Michigan are larger in water area. The Mississippi River is the second longest River in the United States, with a length of from its source in Lake Itasca in Minnesota to Alaska ( Аляска Alyaska) is a state in the United States of America, in the northwest of the North American continent Michigan ( is a Midwestern state of the United States of America.
The Florida peninsula is a porous plateau of karst limestone sitting atop bedrock. Karst topography is a landscape shaped by the dissolution of a layer or layers of soluble Bedrock, usually Carbonate rock such as Limestone Limestone is a Sedimentary rock composed largely of the Mineral Calcite ( Calcium carbonate: CaCO3 Extended systems of underwater caves, sinkholes and springs are found throughout the state and supply most of the water used by residents. A sinkhole, also known as a sink, shake hole, swallow hole, swallet, doline or Cenote, is a natural depression The limestone is topped with sandy soils deposited as ancient beaches over millions of years as global sea levels rose and fell. Beaches (also known as Forever Friends) is a 1988 Academy Award -nominated movie adapted by Mary Agnes Donoghue from the During the last Ice Age, lower sea levels and a drier climate revealed a much wider peninsula, largely desert. An ice age is a period of long-term reduction in the Temperature of the Earth 's surface and atmosphere resulting in an expansion of continental Ice sheets A desert is a Landscape or region that receives very little precipitation. The Everglades, an enormously wide, very slow-flowing river encompasses the southern tip of the peninsula. Everglades is also the name of a city in Collier County Florida
Because Florida is not located near any tectonic plate boundaries, earthquakes are very rare, but not totally unknown. Everglades National Park is a national park in the US state of Florida. Plate tectonics (from Greek τέκτων tektōn "builder" or "mason" describes the large scale motions of Earth 's Lithosphere In January, 1879, a shock occurred near St. Augustine, Florida. St Augustine is the County seat of St Johns County, Florida, in the United States. There were reports of heavy shaking that knocked plaster from walls and articles from shelves. Similar effects were noted at Daytona Beach, Florida 50 miles (80 km) south. The tremor was felt as far south as Tampa and as far north as Savannah, Georgia. Savannah is a city located in the state of Georgia, United States. In January 1880, Cuba was the center of two strong earthquakes that sent severe shock waves through the city of Key West, Florida. Key West is a city in Monroe County Florida, United States. The city encompasses Key West, the namesake island the part of Stock Island Another earthquake centered outside Florida was the great Charleston, South Carolina earthquake of 1886. The shock was felt throughout northern Florida, ringing church bells at St. Augustine and severely jolting other towns along that section of Florida's east coast. Jacksonville residents felt many of the strong aftershocks that occurred in September, October, and November of 1886.  As recently as 2006, a magnitude 6. 0 earthquake centered about 260 miles (420 km) southwest of Tampa in the Gulf of Mexico sent shock waves through southwest and central Florida. The earthquake was too small to trigger a tsunami and no damage was reported. 
At 345 feet (105 m) above mean sea level, Britton Hill is the highest point in Florida and the lowest highpoint of any U. Crandon Park is a park owned and operated by Miami-Dade County Florida. Key Biscayne is a village in Miami-Dade County, Florida, United States on the island of Key Biscayne. The term above mean sea level ( AMSL) refers to the Elevation (on the ground or Altitude (in the Air) of any object relative to the Britton Hill is the highest point in the state of Florida, USA, with a summit elevation of 345 feet (105 meters above mean Sea level. S. state.  Much of the state south of Orlando is low-lying and fairly level; however, some places, such as Clearwater, feature vistas that rise 50 to 100 feet (15 – 30 m) above the water. Orlando is a major City in central Florida, USA and is the County seat of Orange County Florida. Clearwater is a City located in Pinellas County Florida, USA, nearly due west of Tampa and northwest of St Much of Central and North Florida, typically 25 miles (40 km) or more away from the coastline, features rolling hills with elevations ranging from 100 to 250 feet (30 – 76 m). The highest point in peninsular Florida, Sugarloaf Mountain, is a 312-foot (95 m) peak in Lake County. Sugarloaf Mountain is the highest point in peninsular Florida at 312 feet (95 Meters above Sea level. Lake County is a County located in the state of Florida, United States. 
Areas under control of the National Park Service include:
Areas under the control of the USDA United States Forest Service include:
The state line begins in the Atlantic Ocean, traveling west, south, and north up the thalweg of the Saint Mary's River. Thalweg (ˈtɑːlvɛg an English word compounded from the German elements Thal (since Duden 's orthography reform of 1901 written Tal The St Marys River (sometimes spelled as the St Mary's River) is a river approximately 90 mi (144 km long in the southeastern United States. At the origin of that river, it then follows a straight line nearly due west and slightly north, to the point where the confluence of the Flint River (from Georgia) and the Chattahoochee River (down the Alabama/Georgia line) used to form Florida's Apalachicola River. Confluence, in Geography, describes the meeting of two or more Bodies of water. For other rivers named Flint see Flint River (disambiguation page. The Chattahoochee River runs from the Chattahoochee Spring in the Appalachian Mountains of northeastern Georgia, near the Carolinas to the southwestward (Since Woodruff Dam was built, this point has been under Lake Seminole. ) The border with Georgia continues north through the lake for a short distance up the former thalweg of the Chattahoochee, then with Alabama runs due west along latitude 31°N to the Perdido River, then south along its thalweg to the Gulf via Perdido Bay. Latitude, usually denoted symbolically by the Greek letter phi ( Φ) gives the location of a place on Earth (or other planetary body north or south of the The Perdido River is a river in the US states of Alabama and Florida, approximately 60 miles (100 km long Much of the state is at or near sea level. Mean sea level (MSL is the average (mean height of the Sea, with reference to a suitable reference surface
The climate of Florida is tempered somewhat by its proximity to water. The climate of North and Central Florida is humid subtropical Climate change is any long-term significant change in the “average weather” that a given region experiences The List of Florida hurricanes encompasses 485  tropical or Subtropical cyclones that affected the state of Florida. The following table lists the highest and lowest temperatures recorded in each state in the United States, in both Fahrenheit and Celsius. The state has a humid subtropical climate, except for the southern part below Lake Okeechobee, which has a true tropical climate.  Cold fronts can occasionally bring high winds and cool to cold temperatures to the entire state during late fall and winter. One such front swept through the peninsula on November 25, 1996, bringing cold temperatures and winds up to 95 miles per hour (150 km/h), knocking out power to thousands and damaging mobile homes. Events 1034 - Máel Coluim mac Cináeda, King of Scots dies Donnchad, the Year 1996 ( MCMXCVI) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar) The seasons in Florida are actually determined more by precipitation than by temperature with mild to cool, relatively dry winters and autumns (the dry season) and hot, wet springs and summers (the wet season). In Meteorology, precipitation (also known as one class of hydrometeors, which are atmospheric water phenomena is any product of the condensation of atmospheric Spring is one of the four Temperate Seasons Spring marks the transition from Winter into Summer. The Gulf Stream has a moderating effect on the climate, and although much of Florida commonly sees a high summer temperature over 90 degrees Fahrenheit (32 °C), the mercury seldom exceeds 100 degrees Fahrenheit (38 °C). The Gulf Stream, together with its northern extension towards Europe the North Atlantic Drift, is a powerful warm and swift Atlantic Ocean current that Fahrenheit is a temperature scale named after Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686–1736 a German Physicist who proposed it in 1724 The hottest temperature ever recorded in the state was 109 °F (43 °C), set on June 29, 1931 in Monticello. Events 512 - A Solar eclipse is recorded by a monastic chronicler in Ireland. Year 1931 ( MCMXXXI) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Monticello is a city in Jefferson County, Florida, United States. The coldest was – 2 °F (−19 °C), on February 13, 1899, just 25 miles (40 km) away, in Tallahassee. Events 1258 - Baghdad falls to the Mongols, and the Abbasid Caliphate is destroyed Year 1899 ( MDCCCXCIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Mean high temperatures for late July are primarily in the low 90s Fahrenheit (32 – 35 °C). Mean low temperatures for late January range from the low 40s Fahrenheit (4 – 7 °C) in northern Florida to the mid-50s (≈13 °C) in southern Florida.
The Florida Keys, surrounded by water, have a more tropical climate, with lesser variability in temperatures. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration ( NASA, ˈnæsə is an agency of the United States government, responsible for the nation's public space program This article is about artificial satellites For natural satellites also known as moons see Natural satellite. At Key West, temperatures rarely exceed 90 °F (32 °C) in the summer or fall below 60 °F (16 °C) in the winter, and frost has never been reported in the Keys. Key West is a city in Monroe County Florida, United States. The city encompasses Key West, the namesake island the part of Stock Island
Florida's nickname is the "Sunshine State", but severe weather is a common occurrence in the state. Central Florida is known as the lightning capital of the United States, as it experiences more lightning strikes than anywhere else in the country. Lightning is an atmospheric discharge of Electricity, which typically occurs during Thunderstorms and sometimes during volcanic eruptions or  Florida has the highest average precipitation of any state, in large part because afternoon thunderstorms are common in most of the state from late spring until early autumn. A fair day may be interrupted with a storm, only to return to sunshine. These thunderstorms, caused by collisions between airflow from the Gulf of Mexico and airflow from the Atlantic Ocean, pop up in the early afternoon and can bring heavy downpours, high winds, and sometimes tornadoes. A tornado is a violent rotating column of air which is in contact with both the surface of the earth and a Cumulonimbus cloud or in rare cases the base of a Cumulus Florida leads the United States in tornadoes per square mile (when including waterspouts) but these tornadoes do not typically reach the intensity of those in the Midwest and Great Plains. A waterspout is an intense columnar Vortex (usually appearing as a Funnel -shaped Cloud) that occurs over a Body of water and is connected to The Great Plains are the broad expanse of Prairie and Steppe which lie east of the Rocky Mountains in the United States and Canada Hail often accompanies the most severe thunderstorms. Hail is a form of precipitation which consists of balls or irregular lumps of ice (hailstones
Snow in Florida is a rare occurrence. Wikipedia_talkFeatured_lists#Proposed_change_to_all_featured_lists for an explanation of this and other inclusion tags below --> During the Great Blizzard of 1899, Florida experienced blizzard conditions; the Tampa Bay area had "gulf-effect" snow, similar to lake-effect snow. The Great Blizzard of 1899 was a unprecedented winter weather event that affected the southern United States A blizzard is a severe Winter storm condition characterized by low Temperatures strong Winds and heavy blowing Snow Blizzards are formed when Tampa Bay is a large natural Harbor and Estuary along the Gulf of Mexico on the western coast of Florida, comprising Old Tampa Bay "Snowfall" redirects here For other uses see Snow (disambiguation or Snowfall (disambiguation. Lake-effect snow is produced in the winter when cold Arctic winds move across long expanses of warmer lake water providing energy and picking up Water vapor which freezes  The Great Blizzard of 1899 is the only time the temperature in the state is known to have fallen below 0 degrees Fahrenheit (−18 °C). The most widespread snowfall in Florida history happened on 19 January 1977, when snow fell over much of the state, as far south as Homestead. Events 1419 - Hundred Years' War: Rouen surrenders to Henry V of England completing his reconquest of Normandy. Also 1977 (album by Ash. Year 1977 ( MCMLXXVII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays Homestead is a city in Miami-Dade County, Florida, United States nestled between Biscayne National Park to the east and Everglades Snow flurries fell on Miami Beach for the only time in recorded history. "Snowfall" redirects here For other uses see Snow (disambiguation or Snowfall (disambiguation. A hard freeze in 2003 brought "ocean-effect" snow flurries to the Atlantic coast as far south as Cape Canaveral. Cape Canaveral from the Spanish Cabo Cañaveral, is a headland in Brevard County Florida, United States, near the center of that 
The 1993 Superstorm brought blizzard conditions to the panhandle, while heavy rain and tornadoes beset the peninsula. The Storm of the Century, also known as the ’93 Superstorm, No-Name Hurricane, the White Hurricane, or the ( Great) Blizzard The storm is believed to have been similar in composition to a hurricane, and even brought storm surges of six feet or more to regions of the Gulf coast. A tropical cyclone is a storm system characterized by a low pressure center and numerous Thunderstorms that produce strong winds and Flooding Storm surge or tidal surge is an offshore rise of water associated with a low pressure weather system typically a Tropical cyclone.
Although some storms have formed out of season, tropical cyclones pose a severe threat during hurricane season, which lasts from June 1 to November 30. A tropical cyclone is a storm system characterized by a low pressure center and numerous Thunderstorms that produce strong winds and Flooding Events 193 - Roman Emperor Didius Julianus is Assassinated 987 - Hugh Capet is elected Events 1700 - Battle of Narva — A Swedish army of 8500 men under Charles XII defeats Florida is the most hurricane-prone US state, with subtropical or tropical water on three sides and a lengthy coastline. It is rare for a hurricane season to pass without any impact in the state by at least a tropical storm. August to October is the most likely period for a hurricane in Florida.
In 2004, Florida was hit by a record four hurricanes. Hurricanes Charley (August 13), Frances (September 4 – 5), Ivan (September 16), and Jeanne (September 25 – 26) cumulatively cost the state's economy US$42 billion. Hurricane Charley was the third named storm the second Hurricane, and the second major hurricane of the 2004 Atlantic hurricane season. Events 3114 BC - According to the Lounsbury correlation the start of the Maya calendar. Hurricane Frances was the sixth named storm, the fourth hurricane, and the third major hurricane of the 2004 Atlantic hurricane season. Events 476 - Romulus Augustus, last emperor of the Western Roman Empire, is deposed when Odoacer proclaims himself Hurricane Ivan was the strongest hurricane of the 2004 Atlantic hurricane season. Events 1400 - Owain Glyndŵr is declared Prince of Wales by his followers Hurricane Jeanne was the tenth named storm, the seventh hurricane, and the fifth major hurricane of the 2004 Atlantic hurricane season. Events 303 - On a voyage preaching the Gospel, Saint Fermin of Pamplona is beheaded in Amiens, France In 2005, Hurricane Dennis (July 10) became the fifth storm to strike Florida within eleven months. Hurricane Dennis was an early-forming major Hurricane in the Caribbean and Events 48 BC - Battle of Dyrrhachium, Julius Caesar barely avoids a catastrophic defeat to Pompey in Macedonia. Later, Hurricane Katrina (August 25) passed through South Florida and Hurricane Rita (September 20) swept through the Florida Keys. Hurricane Katrina of the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season was the costliest hurricane, as well as one of the five deadliest in the history of the United States Events 1248 - The Dutch city of Ommen receives city rights and fortification rights from Otto III the Hurricane Rita was the fourth-most intense Atlantic hurricane ever recorded and the most intense Tropical cyclone ever observed in the Gulf of Mexico Events 451 - The Battle of Chalons takes place in North Eastern France. The Florida Keys are an Archipelago of about 1700 islands in the southeast United States. Hurricane Wilma made landfall in Florida in the early morning of October 24 as a Category 3 hurricane, with the storm's eye hitting near Cape Romano, just south of Marco Island, according to the National Hurricane Center. Hurricane Wilma was the most intense hurricane ever recorded in the Atlantic basin. Events 69 - Second Battle of Bedriacum, forces under Antonius Primus the commander of the Danube armies loyal to Vespasian, defeat The Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale is a classification used for most Western Hemisphere Tropical cyclones that exceed the intensities of Tropical depressions Cape Romano is a Cape at the southern end of Caxambas Island, just south of Marco Island and northwest of the Ten Thousand Islands in Collier Marco Island is a city in Collier County, Florida, United States. The US National Hurricane Center, located at Florida International University in Miami Florida, is the division of National Weather Service
Florida was the site of the second costliest weather disaster in U. S. history, Hurricane Andrew, which caused more than US$25 billion in damage when it struck on August 24, 1992. Hurricane Andrew is the second most powerful and the last of three Category 5 hurricanes that made U Events 49 BC - Julius Caesar 's General Gaius Scribonius Curio is defeated in the Second Battle of the Bagradas River Year 1992 ( MCMXCII) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar) In a long list of other infamous hurricane strikes are the 1926 Great Miami Hurricane, the 1928 Okeechobee Hurricane, the Labor Day Hurricane of 1935, Hurricane Donna in 1960, and Hurricane Opal in 1995. The 1926 Miami Hurricane (or Great Miami Hurricane) was an intense hurricane that devastated Miami Florida in September 1926 The Okeechobee hurricane, or Hurricane San Felipe Segundo, was a deadly hurricane that struck the Leeward Islands, Puerto Rico, the The Labor Day Hurricane of 1935 was the strongest tropical cyclone during the 1935 Atlantic hurricane season. Hurricane Donna in the 1960 Atlantic hurricane season was a Cape Verde-type hurricane which moved across the Leeward Islands, Puerto Rico Hurricane Opal was a major hurricane that formed in the Gulf of Mexico in September 1995 Recent research suggests the storms are part of a natural cycle and not a result of Global Warming. Global warming is the increase in the average measured temperature of the 
|Monthly Normal High and Low Temperatures For Various Florida Cities|
Florida is host to many types of wildlife including:
Since their accidental importation from South America into North America in the 1930s, the Red imported fire ant population has increased its territorial range to include most of the Southern United States, including Florida. The red imported fire ants ( Solenopsis invicta) or simply RIFA, is one of over 280 members of the widespread Genus Solenopsis. The Southern United States &mdashcommonly referred to as the American South, Dixie, or simply the South &mdashconstitutes a large distinctive They are more aggressive than most native ant species and have a painful sting. 
Florida ranks forty-fifth in total energy consumption per capita, despite the heavy reliance on air conditioners and pool pumps. The state of Florida possesses a rich and diverse array of land and marine life and a mild subtropical Climate. This includes coal, natural gas, petroleum, and retail electricity sales.  It is estimated that approximately 4% of energy in the state is generated through renewable resources.  Florida's energy production is 6 percent of the nation's total energy output, while total production of pollutants is lower, with figures of 5. 6 percent for nitrogen oxide, 5. The term nitrogen oxide typically refers to any Binary compound of Oxygen and Nitrogen, or to a mixture of such compounds Nitric 1 percent for carbon dioxide, and 3. Carbon dioxide ( Chemical formula:) is a Chemical compound composed of two Oxygen Atoms covalently bonded to a single 5 percent for sulfur dioxide. 
It is believed that significant energy resources are located off of Florida's western coast in the Gulf of Mexico, but that region has been closed to exploration since 1981. The Gulf of Mexico ( Spanish: Golfo de México) is the ninth largest Body of water in the world  Governor Charlie Crist and both of Florida's U.S. Senators, Bill Nelson and Mel Martinez, oppose offshore drilling and exploration. Charles Joseph "Charlie" Crist Jr (born July 24 1956 is an American politician of the Republican Party and the current Governor of Florida. The United States Senate is the Upper house of the bicameral United States Congress, the Lower house being the House of Representatives For other people named Bill Nelson see Bill Nelson (disambiguation. Melquíades Rafael "Mel" Martínez (born October 23, 1946) is currently the junior United States Senator from Florida and served Former governor Jeb Bush, originally opposed to all drilling, changed his position on a bill introduced into the House of Representatives in 2005, which would allow unrestricted drilling 125 miles (201 km) or more from the coast. John Ellis "Jeb" Bush (born February 11, 1953) is an American Politician and was the 43rd Governor of Florida  Martinez, Nelson, and Crist opposed that bill, but Martinez and Nelson voted for a Senate alternative which prohibited drilling within 125 miles (201 km) of the Panhandle coast, and 235 miles (378 km) of the peninsular coast. 
In July 2007, Florida Governor Charlie Crist announced plans to sign executive orders that would impose strict new air-pollution standards in the state, with aims to reduce so called greenhouse gas emissions by 80 percent of 1990 levels by 2050. Greenhouse gases are gaseous constituents of the atmosphere bothnatural and anthropogenic that absorb and emit radiation at specific wavelengths within the spectrum of thermal infrared Crist's orders would set new emissions targets for power companies, automobiles and trucks, and toughen conservation goals for state agencies and require state-owned vehicles to use alternative fuels. 
Red tide has also been an issue on the Southwest coast of Florida. "Red tide" is a common name for a phenomenon known as an Algal bloom, an event in which estuarine marine or fresh water algae accumulate rapidly in the Water While there has been a great deal of conjecture over the cause of the toxic algae bloom, there is no evidence that it is being caused by pollution or that there has been an increase in the duration or frequency of red tides. 
|Est. 2007||18,251,243||14. 2%|
Florida has the 4th highest state population in the United States. The center of population of Florida is located in Polk County, in the town of Lake Wales. In Demographics, the center of population of a region is the geographical point nearest to all the inhabitants of that region on average Polk County is a County located in the US state of Florida. As of 2000 the population was 483924 Lake Wales is a city in Polk County, Florida, United States. The population was 10194 at the 2000 census  As of 2007, Florida's population was 18,251,243.  The state grew 321,647, or 1. 8% from 2005. Florida grows an average of 26,803 every month, 6700 every week, and 957 daily. Florida is the nation's third-fastest-growing state. 
|Demographics of Florida (csv)|
|2000 (total population)||82. 45%||15. 66%||0. 75%||2. 11%||0. 16%|
|2000 (Hispanic only)||15. 94%||0. 74%||0. 14%||0. 09%||0. 03%|
|2005 (total population)||81. 47%||16. 31%||0. 84%||2. 52%||0. 18%|
|2005 (Hispanic only)||18. 48%||0. 87%||0. 21%||0. 11%||0. 04%|
|Growth 2000–05 (total population)||9. 99%||15. 93%||23. 95%||33. 09%||29. 08%|
|Growth 2000–05 (non-Hispanic only)||5. 43%||15. 23%||15. 67%||32. 55%||24. 49%|
|Growth 2000–05 (Hispanic only)||28. 99%||29. 93%||58. 98%||45. 89%||45. 66%|
|* AIAN is American Indian or Alaskan Native; NHPI is Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander|
According to the 2006 ACS Estimates, Florida's population is:
The largest reported ancestries in the 2000 Census were German (11. Hispanic (hispano hispánico hispânico Hispānus adjective from ''Hispānia'', the Roman name for the Iberian Peninsula) is a term that historically The German people (Deutsche are an Ethnic group, in the sense of sharing a common German culture, descent and speaking the German language as 8%), Irish (10. The Irish people ( Irish: Muintir na hÉireann, na hÉireannaigh, na Gaeil) are a Western European Ethnic group who originate 3%), English (9. The English people (from the adjective in Englisc) are a Nation and Ethnic group native to England who predominantly speak English 2%), American (8%), Italian (6. The ancestry of the people of the United States is widely varied and includes descendants of Populations from around the World, some presumably extinct The' Italian people' are a Southern European Ethnic group located primarily in Italy, Switzerland, France and by virtue of a wide-ranging 3%), French (2. Legal residents and citizens To be French according to the first article of the Constitution is to be a citizen of France regardless of one's origin race or religion ( 8%), Polish (2. The Polish people, or Poles, (Polacy) are a Western Slavic Ethnic group of Central Europe, living predominantly in Poland. 7%) and Scottish (1. The Scots people ( Scots Gaelic: Albannaich) are a Nation and an Ethnic group indigenous to Scotland. 8%). 
Before the American Civil War, when slavery was legal, and during the Reconstruction era that followed, African Americans made up nearly half of the state's population. Causes of the war See also Origins of the American Civil War, Timeline of events leading to the American Civil War The coexistence of a slave-owning South Slavery in the United States began soon after English colonists first settled Virginia in 1607 and lasted until the passage of the Thirteenth In the History of the United States, " Reconstruction " refers to the time between 1863 and 1877 when the U African Americans or Black Americans are citizens or residents of the United States who have origins in any of the black populations of Africa  Their proportion declined over the next century, as many moved north in the Great Migration while large numbers of northern whites moved to the state. See also Second Great Migration (African American The Great Migration was the movement of approximately seven million African-Americans out of the A European American (Euro-American is a person who resides in the United States and is either from Europe or is the descendant of European immigrants Recently, the state's proportion of black residents has begun to grow again. Today, large concentrations of black residents can be found in northern Florida (notably in Jacksonville, Gainesville and Pensacola), the Tampa Bay area, the Orlando area (especially in the city of Orlando and Sanford), and South Florida (where their numbers have been bolstered by significant immigration from Haiti and Jamaica). Gainesville is the largest City in and County seat of Alachua County, Florida, United States. Tampa Bay is a large natural Harbor and Estuary along the Gulf of Mexico on the western coast of Florida, comprising Old Tampa Bay Sanford is a city in and the County seat of Seminole County, Florida, United States. American immigration ( emigration to the United States of America) refers to the movement of non-residents to the United States. Haiti ( English: ˈheɪ·tiː or haɪ·ˈjiː·tiː French Haïti a·i·ti Haitian Creole: Jamaican Americans are Americans of Jamaican heritage or Jamaican-born people who live in the United States of America.
Florida's Hispanic population includes large communities of Cuban Americans in Miami and Tampa, Puerto Ricans in Tampa and Orlando, and Central American migrant workers in inland West-Central and South Florida. Hispanic and Latino Americans are Americans of Hispanic or Latino descent, which comprises ancestry or origins in Hispanic America A Cuban American ( Cubanoamericano) is a United States citizen who traces his or her "national origin" to Cuba. Puerto Ricans in the United States (also referred to as the "Puerto Rican Diaspora," " Nuyorican " "Stateside Puerto Ricans" "mainland The Hispanic community continues to grow more affluent and mobile: between the years of 2000 and 2004, Lee County in Southwest Florida, which is largely suburban in character, had the fastest Hispanic population growth rate of any county in the United States. Lee County is a County located in the US state of Florida. The county makes up the entirety of the Cape Coral-Fort Myers Florida Metropolitan Statistical Southwest Florida is a region of Florida, United States located along its gulf coast south of the Tampa Bay area, west of Lake Okeechobee and mostly north of
Whites of all ethnicities are present in all areas of the state. White People is the second album by Handsome Boy Modeling School. Those of British and Irish ancestry are present in large numbers in all the urban/suburban areas across the state. Irish Americans (Gael-Mheiriceánach are citizens of the United States who can claim ancestry originating in Ireland. There is a large German population in Southwest Florida, a large Greek population in the Tarpon Springs area, a sizable and historic Italian community in the Miami area, and white Floridians of longer-present generations in the culturally southern areas of inland and northern Florida. German Americans ( German: Deutschamerikaner) are citizens of the United States of Ethnic German ancestry A Greek American (Ελληνοαμερικανοί Ellinoamerikani) is a citizen of the United States, who is of Greek heritage or origin Tarpon Springs is a city in Pinellas County, Florida, United States. An Italian American is an American of Italian descent and/or dual citizenship Native white Floridians, especially those who have descended from long-time Florida families, affectionately refer to themselves as "Florida crackers. Florida Cracker refers to the original colonial era American Pioneer Settlers of the State of Florida. " Like all the other southern states, they descend mainly from Scots-Irish as well as some other British settlers. Scotch-Irish (the historically common term in North America) or Scots-Irish refers to inhabitants of the United States and by some of Canada
Florida has twenty Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) defined by the United States Office of Management and Budget (OMB). The United States Census Bureau defines an Urbanized Area to be "one or more places ('central place' and the adjacent densely settled surrounding territory ('urban fringe' that The United States Census Bureau has defined 3 Combined Statistical Areas (CSAs 20 Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs and 10 Micropolitan Statistical Table of United States Metropolitan Statistical Areas|Table of United States Core Based Statistical AreasIn the United States, the Office of Management and Budget (OMB has produced The Office of Management and Budget (OMB is a Cabinet -level office and is the largest office within the Executive Office of the President of the United States (EOP Thirty-nine of Florida's sixty-seven counties are in an MSA. Reflecting the distribution of population in Florida, Metropolitan areas in the state are concentrated around the coast of the peninsula. They form a continuous band on the east coast of Florida, stretching from the Jacksonville MSA to the Miami-Fort Lauderdale-Pompano Beach MSA, including every county on the east coast, with the exceptions of Monroe County. Monroe County is a County located in the state of Florida. As of 2000 the population was 79589 There is also a continuous band of MSAs on the west coast of the peninsula from the Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater MSA to the Naples-Marco Island MSA, including all of the coastal counties from Hernando County to Collier County. Hernando County is a County located in the US state of Florida. Collier County is a County located in the US state of Florida. The interior of the northern half of the peninsula also has several MSAs, connecting the east and west coast MSAs. A few MSAs are scattered across the Florida panhandle. The largest metropolitan area in the state as well as the entire southeastern United States is the Miami-Fort Lauderdale-Pompano Beach Metropolitan Statistical Area, with over five million people. A metropolitan area is a large population center consisting of a large Metropolis and its adjacent zone of influence or of more than one closely adjoining neighboring central
City Population > 700,000
City Population > 400,000
City Population > 300,000
City Population > 200,000
City Population > 150,000
City Population > 100,000
As of 2000, 76. Orlando is a major City in central Florida, USA and is the County seat of Orange County Florida. Fort Lauderdale, known as the "Venice of America" due to its expansive and intricate Canal system is a city in Broward County, Florida, West Palm Beach, also known as West Palm, is the most populous city in Palm Beach County, Florida, USA. St Petersburg (often shortened to St Pete) is a city in Pinellas County Florida, United States. The following is a list of incorporated Cities in Florida. At the top is a list of the ten largest cities followed by the complete list of incorporated cities arranged in alphabetical Florida has the eighteenth highest Per capita income in the United States of America, at $21557 (2000 St Petersburg (often shortened to St Pete) is a city in Pinellas County Florida, United States. Hialeah is a city in Miami-Dade County, Florida, United States. Orlando is a major City in central Florida, USA and is the County seat of Orange County Florida. Fort Lauderdale, known as the "Venice of America" due to its expansive and intricate Canal system is a city in Broward County, Florida, Cape Coral is a city in Lee County, Florida, United States. With over 400 miles of navigable waterways Cape Coral has more miles of canals than any Pembroke Pines is a city in Broward County, Florida, United States. Hollywood is a city in Broward County, Florida, United States. Port St Lucie is a city in St Lucie County Florida, United States. Coral Springs, officially chartered July 10 1963 is a city in Broward County, Florida, United States approximately northwest of Fort Lauderdale Florida Clearwater is a City located in Pinellas County Florida, USA, nearly due west of Tampa and northwest of St Gainesville is the largest City in and County seat of Alachua County, Florida, United States. West Palm Beach, also known as West Palm, is the most populous city in Palm Beach County, Florida, USA. Miramar is a city in Broward County, Florida, United States. The city was named after the Miramar district of Havana, Cuba This article is about the city in Miami-Dade County Florida. For the census-designated place in Broward County Florida, please see Miami Gardens Broward Pompano Beach is a City in Broward County, Florida, along the coast of the Atlantic Ocean just to the north of Fort Lauderdale. 91 percent of Florida residents age 5 and older spoke only English at home as a first language, while 16. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States A first language (also mother tongue, native language, arterial language, or L1) is the language a human being learns from birth 46 percent spoke Spanish, and French-based creole languages (predominantly Haitian Creole) was spoken by 1. A French creole, or French-based creole language, is a Creole language based on the French language, more specifically on a 17th century koiné Haitian Creole language ( kreyòl ayisyen) often called simply Creole or Kreyòl ( pronounced) is a language spoken in Haiti 38 percent of the population. French was spoken by 0. French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people 83 percent, followed by German at 0. The German language (de ''Deutsch'') is a West Germanic language and one of the world's major languages. 59 percent, and Italian at 0. Italian ( or lingua italiana) is a Romance language spoken by about 63 million people as a First language, primarily in Italy. 44 percent of all residents.  Florida's climate makes it a popular state for immigrants. Florida's public education system identifies over 200 first languages other than English spoken in the homes of students. In 1990, the League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC) won a class action lawsuit against the state Department of Education that required educators to be trained in teaching English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL). The League of United Latin American Citizens ( LULAC) is a political advocacy group for Latinos in the United States.
Article II, Section 9, of the Florida Constitution provides that "English is the official language of the State of Florida. An official language is a Language that is given a special legal status in a particular Country, State, or other territory " This provision was adopted in 1988 by a vote following an Initiative Petition.
Florida is mostly Protestant, but Roman Catholicism is the single largest denomination in the state. Protestantism refers to the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated in the 16th century Protestant Reformation. There is also a sizable Jewish community, located mainly in South Florida; no other Southern state has such a large Jewish population. American Jews, or Jewish Americans PLEASE TAKE NOTE************ Florida's current religious affiliations are shown in the table below:
|2004||52. A religion is a set of Tenets and practices often centered upon specific Supernatural and moral claims about Reality, the Cosmos Protestantism refers to the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated in the 16th century Protestant Reformation. Baptist is a term describing individuals belonging to a Baptist church or a Baptist denomination. Methodism is a movement within Protestant Christianity represented by a number of denominations and organizations Pentecostalism is a renewalist religious movement within Christianity that places special emphasis on the direct personal experience of God through the Baptism PLEASE TAKE NOTE************ The Government of the State of Florida is established and operated according to the Florida Constitution List of Governors Military governor Spanish Florida was acquired from Spain in the Adams-Onís Treaty, which took effect July 10 These are tables of congressional delegations from Florida to the United States Senate and United States House of Representatives. The Democratic Party is one of two major Political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. The United States presidential election of 2004 was held on Tuesday November 2, 2004, to elect the President of the United States. 10% 3,964,522||47. 09% 3,583,544|
|2000||48. The United States presidential election of 2000 was a contest between Democratic candidate Al Gore, then Vice President, and Republican 85% 2,912,790||48. 84% 2,912,253|
|1996||42. The United States presidential election of 1996 was a contest between the Democratic national ticket of President Bill Clinton of Arkansas and Vice 32% 2,244,536||48. 02% 2,546,870|
|1992||40. The United States presidential elections of 1992 featured a battle between incumbent President, Republican George H 89% 2,173,310||39. 00% 2,072,698|
|1988||60. -->The United States presidential election of 1988 featured an open primary for both major parties 87% 2,618,885||38. 51% 1,656,701|
|1984||65. The United States presidential election of 1984 was a contest between the incumbent President Ronald Reagan, the Republican candidate and former Vice President 32% 2,730,350||34. 66% 1,448,816|
|1980||55. The United States presidential election of 1980 featured a contest between incumbent Democrat Jimmy Carter and his Republican opponent Ronald Reagan 52% 2,046,951||38. 50% 1,419,475|
|1976||46. The United States presidential election of 1976 followed the resignation of President Richard M 64% 1,469,531||51. 93% 1,636,000|
|1972||71. The United States presidential election of 1972 was waged on the issues of radicalism and the Vietnam War. 91% 1,857,759||27. 80% 718,117|
|1968||40. Please DO NOT flip the colors -->The United States presidential election of 1968 was a wrenching national experience and included the assassination of Democratic candidate 53% 886,804||30. 93% 676,794|
|1964||48. Please DO NOT flip the colors -->The United States presidential election of 1964 was one of the most lopsided presidential elections in the history of the United States 85% 905,941||51. 15% 948,540|
|1960||51. The United States presidential election of 1960 marked the end of Dwight D 51% 795,476||48. 49% 748,700|
The basic structure, duties, function, and operations of the government of the State of Florida are defined and established by the Florida Constitution, which establishes the basic law of the state and guarantees various rights and freedoms of the people. The Constitution of the State of Florida is the document that establishes and describes the duties powers structure and function of the government of the U The state government consists of three separate branches: judicial, executive, and legislative. The legislature enacts bills, which, if signed by the governor, become Florida Statutes. List of Governors Military governor Spanish Florida was acquired from Spain in the Adams-Onís Treaty, which took effect July 10 The Florida Statutes are the codified statutory laws of the state of Florida.
The Florida Legislature comprises the Florida Senate, which has 40 members, and the Florida House of Representatives, which has 120 members. The Florida Legislature is the state legislature of the US state of Florida. The Florida Senate is part of the legislative branch of government for the state of Florida. The Florida House of Representatives, one of the two Chambers of the Florida Legislature, is composed of 120 members each representing a district The current Governor of Florida is Republican Charlie Crist. Charles Joseph "Charlie" Crist Jr (born July 24 1956 is an American politician of the Republican Party and the current Governor of Florida. The Florida Supreme Court consists of a Chief Justice and six Justices. The Supreme Court of the State of Florida is the State supreme court of Florida.
There are 67 Counties in Florida, but some reports show only 66 because of Duval County, which is consolidated with the City of Jacksonville. There are 379 cities in Florida that report regularly to the Florida Department of Revenue, but there are other incorporated municipalities that do not. The primary source of revenue for the State government is sales tax, but the primary revenue source for cities and counties is property tax.
After Reconstruction, white-elite Democrats wrestled for power until they regained it in 1877, partly through violent paramilitary tactics targeting freedmen and allies to reduce their voting. From 1885 to 1889, the state legislature passed statutes with provisions to reduce voting by blacks and poor whites, which had threatened white Democratic power with a populist coalition. As these groups were stripped from voter rolls, white Democrats established power in a one-party state, as happened across the South. In 1900 African Americans comprised 44% of the state's population, the same proportion as before the Civil War, but they were effectively disfranchised.  From 1877 to 1948, Florida voted for the Democratic candidate for president in every election except for the 1928 election. The United States presidential election of 1928 pitted Republican Herbert Hoover against Democrat Al Smith.
In response to segregation, disfranchisement and agricultural depression, many African Americans migrated from Florida to northern cities in the Great Migration, in waves from 1910-1940, and again starting in the later 1940s. They moved for jobs, better education for their children and the chance to vote and participate in society. Given migration of other groups into Florida (as noted in other sections of this article), by 1960 the proportion of African Americans in the state had declined to 18%. 
From 1952 through 2004, despite having a majority of registered Democrats, the state voted for the Republican presidential candidate in every election except for the 1964, 1976, and 1996 elections. Please DO NOT flip the colors -->The United States presidential election of 1964 was one of the most lopsided presidential elections in the history of the United States The United States presidential election of 1976 followed the resignation of President Richard M The United States presidential election of 1996 was a contest between the Democratic national ticket of President Bill Clinton of Arkansas and Vice The first post-reconstruction Republican congressional representative was elected in 1954. Userpolbot from http//bioguidecongressgov/scripts/biodisplaypl?index=C000869  The state's first post-reconstruction Republican senator was elected in 1968, two years after the first post-reconstruction Republican governor. Edward John Gurney ( January 12, 1914 &ndash May 14, 1996) was an American politician from Florida, where he served Claude Roy Kirk Jr (born January 7, 1926) was the thirty-sixth governor of the U 
In 1998, Democrats were described as most dominant in areas of the state with high percentages of racial minorities, as well as transplanted white liberals coming primarily from the Northeastern United States. The Northeast is a region of the United States. As defined by the U  The South Florida metropolitan area was a good example of this as it had a particularly high level of both racial minorities and white liberals. Because of this, the area has been one of the most Democratic areas of the state. The Daytona metropolitan area has been, to a lesser extent, somewhat similar to South Florida demographically and the city of Orlando had a large Hispanic population, which often favored Democrats. Republicans remain dominant through out much of the rest of Florida particularly in the more rural and suburban areas. 
The fast growing I-4 corridor area, which runs through Central Florida and connects the cities of Daytona Beach, Orlando, and Tampa/St. Petersburg, had a fairly similar number of both Republican and Democratic voters. Interstate 4 (I-4 is a 13230-mile (21291 km intrastate Interstate Highway located entirely within the state of Florida, United States. Central Florida is the central region of the United States state of Florida, on the East Coast Orlando is a major City in central Florida, USA and is the County seat of Orange County Florida. St Petersburg (often shortened to St Pete) is a city in Pinellas County Florida, United States. The area is often seen as a merging point of the conservative northern portion of the state and the liberal southern portion making it the biggest swing area in the state. In recent times, whichever way the I-4 corridor area, containing 40% of Florida voters, votes has often determined who will win the state of Florida in presidential elections. 
The Democratic Party has maintained an edge in voter registration, both statewide and in 40 of the 67 counties, including Miami-Dade County, Broward County, and Palm Beach County, the state's three most populous counties. Miami-Dade County (often referred to as simply Miami or Dade) is a County located in the southeastern part of the state of Florida Broward County is a County located in the US state of Florida. Palm Beach County is located in the state of Florida. As of 2007 the county had a population of 1351236 according to the University of Florida Bureau of Economic  Despite the Democratic advantage in registration, as of 2008, Republicans controlled the governorship and most other statewide elective offices; both houses of the state legislature; and 16 of the state's 25 seats in the House of Representatives. The United States House of Representatives is one of the two chambers of the United States Congress; the other is the Senate. Florida is consistently listed as a swing state in Presidential elections. A swing state (also battleground state or purple state) in United States In the closely contested 2000 election the state played a pivotal role. The outcome of the 2000 United States presidential election was not known for more than a month after balloting because of the extended process of counting and then recounting of
In 2008, delegates of the Democratic Florida primary election might not count when the convention meets in August due to violation of Democratic Party national rules. PLEASE DO NOT MAKE STRUCTURAL CHANGES TO THIS PAGE WITHOUT FIRST DISCUSSING THEM ON THIS ARTICLE'S DISCUSSION PAGE
The Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Florida in 2006 was $713. 5 billion. Its GDP is the fourth largest economy in the United States.  Personal income was $36,665 per capita, ranking 20th in the nation.  Tourism makes up the largest sector of the state economy. Tourism is Travel for Recreational or Leisure purposes The World Tourism Organization defines tourists as people who "travel Warm weather and hundreds of miles of beaches attract about 60 million visitors to the state every year. Amusement parks, especially in the Orlando area, make up a significant portion of tourism. Theme park is the generic term for a collection of rides and other Entertainment attractions assembled for the purpose of entertaining a large group Orlando is a major City in central Florida, USA and is the County seat of Orange County Florida. The Walt Disney World Resort is the largest vacation resort in the world, consisting of four theme parks and more than 20 hotels in Lake Buena Vista, Florida; it, and Universal Orlando Resort, Busch Gardens, SeaWorld, and other major parks drive state tourism. Walt Disney World Resort is the most visited and largest recreational resort in the world containing four Theme parks two Water parks twenty-three themed hotels Theme park is the generic term for a collection of rides and other Entertainment attractions assembled for the purpose of entertaining a large group Lake Buena Vista is a city in Orange County, Florida, United States. Universal Orlando Resort is a Theme park Resort in Orlando Florida. Busch Gardens is the name of two Amusement parks in the United States, and a planned amusement park in Dubai, owned and operated by Busch Entertainment History Milton C Shedd, Ken Norris, David Demott, and George Millay brought SeaWorld to life yet that was not the initial idea Many beach towns are also popular tourist destinations, particularly in the winter months.
The second largest industry is agriculture. Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants and fungi and the raising of domesticated Animals The study of agriculture Citrus fruit, especially oranges, are a major part of the economy, and Florida produces the majority of citrus fruit grown in the U. Citrus is a common term and Genus of Flowering plants in the family Rutaceae, originating in tropical and subtropical southeast regions of The term fruit has different meanings dependent on context and the term is not synonymous in Food preparation and Biology. An orange —specifically the sweet orange —is the Citrus fruit Citrus sinensis ( syn S. – in 2006 67 percent of all citrus, 74 percent of oranges, 58 percent of tangerines, and 54 percent of grapefruit. The tangerine ( Citrus reticulata) is an orange - or red -colored Citrus Fruit. The grapefruit is a subtropical Citrus Tree grown for its Fruit which was originally named the "forbidden fruit " of Barbados About 95 percent of commercial orange production in the state is destined for processing (mostly as orange juice, the official state beverage). Orange juice is a Fruit juice obtained by squeezing pressing or otherwise crushing the interior of an orange. This is a list of official state beverages:  Citrus canker continues to be an issue of concern. Citrus canker is a disease affecting Citrus species that is caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas axonopodis. Other products include sugarcane and celery. Sugarcane ( Saccharum) is a genus of 6 to 37 species (depending on taxonomic interpretation of tall perennial grasses (family Poaceae tribe Andropogoneae See also Wild celery Apium graveolens is a plant species in the family Apiaceae, and yielding celery and Celeriac  The Everglades Agricultural Area is a major center for agriculture. The environmental impact of agriculture — especially water pollution— is a major issue in Florida today. Water pollution is the contamination of Water bodies such as Lakes Rivers Oceans and Groundwater caused by human activities
Phosphate mining, concentrated in the Bone Valley, is the state's third-largest industry. A phosphate, an Inorganic chemical, is a salt of Phosphoric acid. The Bone Valley is a region of central Florida, encompassing portions of present-day Hardee, Hillsborough, Manatee, and Polk counties The state produces about 75 percent of the phosphate required by farmers in the United States and 25 percent of the world supply, with about 95 percent used for agriculture (90 percent for fertilizer and 5 percent for livestock feed supplements) and 5 percent used for other products. Fertilizers ( also spelt fertiliser are chemical compounds given to Plants to promote growth they are usually applied either through the soil for uptake by plant Livestock is the term used to refer (singularly or plurally to a Domesticated Animal intentionally reared in an agricultural setting to produce such as Food 
Since the arrival of the NASA Merritt Island launch sites on Cape Canaveral (most notably Kennedy Space Center) in 1962, Florida has developed a sizable aerospace industry. Merritt Island, off of the eastern coast of Florida, is home to two Spaceports servicing several Launch sites for rockets This article is about the field of research and industry for the corporation see The Aerospace Corporation Aerospace comprises the
In addition, the state has seen a recent boom in medical and bio-tech industries throughout its major metropolitan areas. Orlando was recently chosen as the official site for the new headquarters of the Burnham Institute, a major bio-tech and medical research company.
The state was one of the few states to not have a state minimum wage law until 2004, when voters passed a constitutional amendment establishing a state minimum wage and (unique among minimum wage laws) mandating that it be adjusted for inflation every six months. A minimum wage is the lowest hourly daily or monthly Wage that employers may legally pay to employees or workers Currently, the minimum wage in the state of Florida is $6. 79 as of January 1, 2008. New Year See also New Year The Ancient Romans began their consular year on January 1st since 153 BC 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common
Historically, Florida's economy was based upon cattle farming and agriculture (especially sugarcane, citrus, tomatoes, and strawberries). Sugarcane ( Saccharum) is a genus of 6 to 37 species (depending on taxonomic interpretation of tall perennial grasses (family Poaceae tribe Andropogoneae Citrus is a common term and Genus of Flowering plants in the family Rutaceae, originating in tropical and subtropical southeast regions of The tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum, syn Lycopersicon lycopersicum) is a herbaceous usually sprawling plant in the Solanaceae or nightshade family Garden strawberries are a common variety of strawberry cultivated worldwide In the early 1900, land speculators discovered Florida, and businessmen such as Henry Plant and Henry Flagler developed railroad systems, which led people to move in, drawn by the weather and local economies. Henry Bradley Plant ( October 27, 1819 - June 23, 1899) was involved with many Transportation projects mostly railroads Henry Morrison Flagler ( January 2 1830 &ndash May 20 1913) was an American tycoon, Real estate promoter From then on, tourism boomed, fueling a cycle of development that overwhelmed a great deal of farmland.
In 2004 and 2005, key industries along the west coast — commercial fishing and water-based tourist activities (sports fishing and diving) — were threatened by outbreaks of red tide, a discoloration of seawater caused by an efflorescence of toxin-producing dinoflagellates.
Florida is one of the nine states that do not impose a personal income tax (list of others). State income tax is an Income tax in the United States that is levied by each individual state. The state had imposed a tax on "intangible personal property" (stocks, bonds, mutual funds, money market funds, etc. ), but this tax was abolished after 2006. The state sales tax rate is 6%. A sales tax is a Consumption tax charged at the Point of purchase for certain goods and services  Local governments may levy an additional local option sales tax of up to 1. 5%. A locale's use tax rate is the same as its sales tax rate, including local options, if any. A use tax is a type of Excise tax levied in the United States. Use taxes are payable for purchases made out of state and brought into Florida within six months of the purchase date. Documentary stamps are required on deed transfers and mortgages. A revenue stamp, tax stamp or fiscal stamp is a type of Adhesive label used to collect Taxes or fees on various items Other taxes include corporate income, communication services, unemployment, solid waste, insurance premium, pollutants, and various fuel taxes.
Florida's public primary and secondary schools are administered by the Florida Department of Education. Primary and secondary schools In the state of Florida, public primary and secondary schools are administered by the Florida Department of Education.
The State University System of Florida manages and funds Florida's eleven public universities:
The Florida Community Colleges System manages and funds Florida's 28 community colleges. The State University System of Florida ( SUS, or SUSF out-of-state is a system of universities governed by the Florida Board of Governors Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University, commonly known as Florida A&M or FAMU, is a historically black university located in Tallahassee Florida Gulf Coast University is the youngest public four-year University in the U Florida International University, commonly referred to as FIU or Florida International, is a public Research University located Florida State University (commonly referred to as Florida State or FSU) is a public Research University located in Tallahassee New College of Florida is a public Liberal arts college located in Sarasota Florida. The University of Florida ( Florida or UF) is a public land-grant, sea-grant, space-grant major Research The University of South Florida ( USF) known within its system as USF Tampa, is a public research University system located in Tampa, Florida The University of West Florida (also known as West Florida and UWF) is a public university located in Pensacola Florida, United States of America Community Colleges in Florida A community college is a type of Educational institution. The term has different meanings in different countries
The Independent Colleges and Universities of Florida is an association of 28 private, educational institutions in the state of Florida. Brevard Community College, founded in 1960, is a Community college on Florida's Space Coast, in Brevard County Florida. Central Florida Community College is a fully accredited Community college located in central Florida. Chipola College is a small Community college located in Marianna Florida and named for the Chipola River less than a mile from the campus The Florida Community College at Jacksonville ( FCCJ) is located in Jacksonville Florida, USA. Florida Keys Community College is the southernmost college in the United States. Gulf Coast Community College is a Community college, located in Panama City Florida, United States. Hillsborough Community College ( HCC) is a two-year Community college, located in Hillsborough County Florida. Lake City Community College (LCCC located near Lake City Florida, was founded in 1947 as Columbia Forestry School (CFS Lake-Sumter Community College, alternatively Lake Sumter Community College is a college in Central Florida. Manatee Community College (MCC with the main campus based in Bradenton Florida, is a two-year Community college accredited by the Commission on Colleges of the Miami Dade College, or simply Miami Dade, is a Public College with its main campus in Miami Florida and with seven other campuses throughout North Florida Community College is a Public community college, located in Madison Florida. Located in Palm Beach County, Florida, Palm Beach Community College (PBCC enrolls nearly 46000 students in more than 100 programs of study including associate of Pasco-Hernando Community College (PHCC is the newest two-year Community college in Florida. Pensacola Junior College (usually shortened to PJC) is a Community college in Pensacola Florida. Polk Community College is located in Polk County Florida, USA St Johns River Community College is a two year Associates degree and Vocational Technical school located in Northeast Florida encompassing St Petersburg College (commonly referred to as SPC, formerly known as St Seminole Community College (SCC is a Community college with four campuses throughout Seminole County Florida, offering two-year college credit degrees (A South Florida Community College (SFCC serving more than 19000 area residents annually has campuses and centers in Highlands, DeSoto and Hardee counties Tallahassee Community College, founded in 1966, is a Community college in Tallahassee Florida that feeds into Florida State University Valencia Community College is a multi-campus college located in Orlando Florida in the United States. The Independent Colleges & Universities of Florida (ICUF is an association of 28 private educational institutions in the state of Florida. 
Florida has many large and small private institutions. The "Independent Colleges and Universities of Florida", serves the interests of the private universities in Florida. This Association reported that their member institutions served over 121,000 students in the fall of 2006. 
Florida's interstates, state highways and U.S. Highways are maintained by the Florida Department of Transportation. The Dwight D Eisenhower National System of Interstate and Defense Highways, commonly called the Interstate Highway System (or simply the Interstate System) Roads maintained by the Florida Department of Transportation or a toll authority are referred to officially as State Roads, abbreviated SR. The system of United States Numbered Highways (often called U The Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT is a decentralized agency charged with the establishment maintenance and regulation of public transportation in the state of
Florida's interstate highway system contains 1,473 miles (2,371 km) of highway, and there are 9,934 miles (15,987 km) of non-interstate highway in the state, such as Florida state highways and U.S. Highways. The Dwight D Eisenhower National System of Interstate and Defense Highways, commonly called the Interstate Highway System (or simply the Interstate System) Roads maintained by the Florida Department of Transportation or a toll authority are referred to officially as State Roads, abbreviated SR. The system of United States Numbered Highways (often called U
Florida's primary interstate routes include:
Prior to the construction of routes under the Federal Aid Highway Act of 1956, Florida began construction of a long cross-state toll road, Florida's Turnpike. The Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1956, popularly known as the National Interstate and Defense Highways Act (Public Law 84-627 was enacted on June 29 1956 when Dwight D A toll road, (also known as a tollway, turnpike, pike, or toll highway, especially if it is constructed to Freeway standards Florida's Turnpike (TPK which has carried the Ronald Reagan Turnpike legislative designation since 1998 is a Toll road that runs 312 miles (497 km down The first section, from Fort Pierce south to the Golden Glades Interchange was completed in 1957. Fort Pierce is a city in St Lucie County, Florida, USA. It is also known as the Sunrise City sister to San Francisco California, the The Golden Glades Interchange, located in Miami Gardens and North Miami Beach Florida, USA is the confluence of five major roads serving eastern and southern Florida After a second section north through Orlando to Wildwood (near present-day The Villages), and a southward extension around Miami to Homestead, it was finished in 1974. Wildwood is a city in Sumter County, Florida, United States. The population was 3924 at the 2000 census For the Memorial Villages see Bunker Hill Village, Hedwig Village, Hilshire Village, Hunters Creek Village, Piney Point Village Homestead Extension of Florida's Turnpike ( HEFT) assigned the State Road 821 ( SR 821) designation by the Florida Department of Transportation Homestead is a city in Miami-Dade County, Florida, United States nestled between Biscayne National Park to the east and Everglades
North-south state highways are all odd numbered, two-digit, with low numbers on the east coast and higher numbers on its west coast and in the panhandle. East-west state highways have three digits. They are low numbered in the north, high numbered in the south.  County roads often follow this same system.
Florida is served by Amtrak: Sanford, in Greater Orlando, is the southern terminus of the Amtrak Auto Train, which originates at Lorton, Virginia, south of Washington, DC. The National Railroad Passenger Corporation, Doing business as Amtrak, is a Government-owned corporation that was organized on May 1, 1971 Sanford is a city in and the County seat of Seminole County, Florida, United States. Greater Orlando, alternatively known as the Orlando Area or Metro Orlando, is the third most populated metropolitan region in the state of Florida, and Auto Train is an long scheduled train service for passengers and their automobiles operated by Amtrak between Lorton Virginia (near Washington D Lorton is a Census-designated place (CDP in Fairfax County, Virginia, United States. Washington DC ( formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D Orlando is also the eastern terminus of the Sunset Limited, which travels across the southern United States via New Orleans, Houston, and San Antonio to its western terminus of Los Angeles. The Sunset Limited is a Passenger train that for most of its history has run between New Orleans and Los Angeles California, and that from early The United States of America —commonly referred to as the New Orleans (nʲuːˈɔrliənz nʲuːˈɔrlənz French: La Nouvelle-Orléans) is a major United States port city and the largest city in Louisiana Los Angeles (lɑˈsændʒələs los ˈaŋxeles in Spanish) is the largest City in the state of California and the American West Florida is served by two additional Amtrak trains (the Silver Star and the Silver Meteor), which operate between New York City and Miami. History The Silver Star was originally a service of the Seaboard Air Line Railroad, running from New York to Miami and later also St History The Silver Meteor was originally a train of the Seaboard Air Line Railroad (SAL placed in service on February 2, 1939. The City of New York
Major international airports in Florida which processed more than 15 million passengers each in 2006 are Orlando International Airport (34,128,048), Miami International Airport (32,533,974), Fort Lauderdale-Hollywood International Airport(21,369,577) and Tampa International Airport (18,867,541). tags they are used to transclude this state's "Commercial Service - Primary" airports in the List of An international airport is an Airport typically equipped with Customs and Immigration facilities to handle international flights to and from other Miami International Airport is a public Airport located eight miles (13 km) northwest of the Central business district of Miami, in unincorporated Fort Lauderdale-Hollywood International Airport is an international commercial Airport located in Dania Beach, three miles (5 km) southwest of the Tampa International Airport is a public Airport located six miles (10 km) west of the Central business district of Tampa, in Hillsborough
Secondary airports, with annual passenger traffic exceeding 5 million each in 2006, include Southwest Florida International Airport (Fort Myers) (7,643,217), Palm Beach International Airport (West Palm Beach) (7,014,237), and Jacksonville International Airport (5,946,188). Palm Beach International Airport is a public Airport located 3 miles (5 kilometers west of West Palm Beach Florida and serves Palm Beach County. Jacksonville International Airport is a joint civil-military public Airport located nine miles (14 km) north of the Central business district of
Regional Airports which processed over one million passengers each in 2006 are Pensacola (1,620,198) and Sarasota-Bradenton (1,423,113). A regional airport is an Airport serving traffic within a relatively small or lightly populated geographical area Pensacola Gulf Coast Regional Airport is a public Airport located 3 miles (5 km northeast of the city of Pensacola in Escambia County, Florida Sarasota-Bradenton International Airport is an airport located in Sarasota Florida and just south of Bradenton Florida. Sanford, which is primarily served by international charter airlines processed 1,649,565 passengers in 2006. Orlando-Sanford International Airport is a public commercial air service airport in Sanford Florida, near Orlando. 
Although Florida is the traditional home to Major League Baseball's spring training, and nearly 2/3 of all MLB teams still have a spring training presence in the state, Florida did not have a permanent major-league-level professional sports team until the American Football League added the Miami Dolphins in 1966. In Major League Baseball, spring training is a series of practices and exhibition games preceding the start of the Regular season. Note There were three earlier and unrelated major American professional football leagues of the same name One in 1926, one in 1936-1937 and one in 1940-1941 The Miami Dolphins are a professional American football team based in the Miami Florida Metropolitan Area. The state now has three NFL teams, two MLB teams, two NBA teams, and two NHL teams. The National Football League ( NFL) is the largest professional American football league. The National Hockey League ( NHL) is a professional Ice hockey league composed of 30 teams in North America With two of its most historically-important teams, Florida is one of the most important markets for the Arena Football League. The Arena Football League (AFL was founded in 1987 as an American football indoor league. Golf, tennis and auto racing are also popular. Tennis is a sport played between two players ( singles) or between two teams of two players each ( doubles) Auto racing (also known as automobile racing, motor racing or car racing) is a Motorsport involving Racing Cars It Florida also hosts a variety of minor league baseball, football, basketball, ice hockey, soccer and indoor football teams. Baseball is a Bat-and-ball Sport played between two teams of nine players each American football, known in the United States and Canada simply as football, is a competitive Team sport known for mixing strategy with Basketball is a team Sport in which two teams of five active players each try to score points against one another by propelling a ball through a 10 feet (3 m Ice hockey, often referred to simply as hockey, is a team Sport played on Ice. Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a Team sport played between two teams of eleven players and is widely considered This article discusses indoor variations of American football for indoor versions of association football (soccer see Futsal and Indoor soccer and for the
|Jacksonville Jaguars||Football||National Football League||Jacksonville Municipal Stadium|
|Miami Dolphins||Football||National Football League||Dolphin Stadium|
|Tampa Bay Buccaneers||Football||National Football League||Raymond James Stadium|
|Miami Heat||Basketball||National Basketball Association||American Airlines Arena|
|Orlando Magic||Basketball||National Basketball Association||Amway Arena|
|Florida Panthers||Ice hockey||National Hockey League||BankAtlantic Center|
|Tampa Bay Lightning||Ice hockey||National Hockey League||St. Pete Times Forum|
|Florida Marlins||Baseball||Major League Baseball||Dolphin Stadium|
|Tampa Bay Rays||Baseball||Major League Baseball||Tropicana Field|
|Orlando Predators||Arena football||Arena Football League||Amway Arena|
|Tampa Bay Storm||Arena football||Arena Football League||St. American football, known in the United States and Canada simply as football, is a competitive Team sport known for mixing strategy with Jacksonville Municipal Stadium is a football Stadium located in downtown Jacksonville, Florida next to the St The Miami Dolphins are a professional American football team based in the Miami Florida Metropolitan Area. Dolphin Stadium (previously known as Joe Robbie Stadium, Pro Player Park, Pro Player Stadium, and Dolphins Stadium) is a football The Tampa Bay Buccaneers (often shortened as the Bucs) are a professional American football team based in Tampa Florida. Raymond James Stadium is a multi-purpose football stadium located in Tampa Florida. The Miami Heat (often referred to simply as the Heat, including in some official team publications with HEAT in all capital letters are a professional Basketball Basketball is a team Sport in which two teams of five active players each try to score points against one another by propelling a ball through a 10 feet (3 m The AmericanAirlines Arena is an Arena located in Downtown Miami, Florida along Biscayne Bay and is used for Basketball The Orlando Magic is a professional Basketball team based in Orlando Florida. Amway Arena (formerly known as the Orlando Arena, TD Waterhouse Centre, and The Arena in Orlando, and colloquially known by the nickname of O-Rena The Florida Panthers are a professional Ice hockey team based in Sunrise Florida, a suburb of Ft Ice hockey, often referred to simply as hockey, is a team Sport played on Ice. The BankAtlantic Center (previously known as Broward County Civic Arena, National Car Rental Center and Office Depot Center) is an indoor The Tampa Bay Lightning is a professional ice hockey team based in Tampa Florida. The St Pete Times Forum is an arena in Tampa, Florida, that is used for hockey games Basketball games Arena football The Florida Marlins are a professional baseball team based in Miami Gardens Florida. Baseball is a Bat-and-ball Sport played between two teams of nine players each The Tampa Bay Rays are a Major League Baseball franchise based in St Tropicana Field is a Domed stadium in St Petersburg Florida, which has been the home of Major League Baseball 's Tampa Bay Rays since The Orlando Predators are an Arena Football League team based in Orlando Florida that was founded in 1991 This article is about the sport of Arena Football See Arena Football (video game for the EA Sports Video game of the same name The Tampa Bay Storm are a member franchise of the Arena Football League. Pete Times Forum|
Florida is the traditional home for Major League Baseball spring training, with teams informally organized into the "Grapefruit League. In Major League Baseball, spring training is a series of practices and exhibition games preceding the start of the Regular season. " As of 2004, Florida hosts the following major league teams for spring training:
|Atlanta Braves||Walt Disney World|
|Baltimore Orioles||Fort Lauderdale|
|Boston Red Sox||Fort Myers|
|Cleveland Indians||Winter Haven|
|Minnesota Twins||Fort Myers|
|New York Mets||Port St. Lucie|
|New York Yankees||Tampa|
|Saint Louis Cardinals||Jupiter|
|Tampa Bay Rays||St. Petersburg|
|Toronto Blue Jays||Dunedin|