The flora of Australia is a vast assemblage of plant species estimated to over 20,000 vascular and 14,000 non-vascular plants, 250,000 species of fungi and over 3,000 lichens. Vascular plants (also known as tracheophytes or higher plants) are those Plants that have lignified tissues for conducting Non-vascular plants is a general term for those Plants (including the Green algae) without a vascular system ( Xylem and Phloem A fungus (ˈfʌŋgəs is a eukaryotic Organism that is a member of the kingdom Fungi (ˈfʌndʒaɪ Lichens (ˈlaɪkən or /lɪtʃən/ are symbiotic associations of a Fungus (the mycobiont with a photosynthetic partner (the photobiont also known as The flora has strong affinities with the flora of Gondwana, and below the family level has a highly endemic angiosperm flora whose diversity was shaped by the effects of continental drift and climate change since the Cretaceous. Gondwana (ɡɒnˈdwɑːnə originally Gondwanaland) was a southern Supercontinent that existed about 500 to 200 Ma ago In Biological classification, family ( Latin Endemism is the Ecological state of being unique to a place Endemic species are not naturally found elsewhere Continental drift is the movement of the Earth 's Continents relative to each other The Cretaceous (kriːˈteɪʃəs, usually abbreviated 'K' for its German translation "Kreide" is a geologic period and system, reaching from the end of Prominent features of the Australian flora are adaptations to aridity and fire which include scleromorphy and serotiny. In general terms the Climate of a local or region is said to be arid when it is characterized by a severe lack of available Water, to the extent of hindering Sclerophyll is a type of vegetation that has hard leaves and short internodes (the distance between leaves along the stem Serotiny is the behaviour of some Plant species that retain their non-dormant Seeds in a cone or woody Fruit for up to several years but release These adaptations are common in species from the large and well-known families Proteaceae (Banksia), Myrtaceae (Eucalyptus - gum trees), and Fabaceae (Acacia - wattle). Proteaceae is a family of Flowering plants. Mainly restricted to the Southern Hemisphere, it is a fairly large family with around 80 genera Banksia is a Genus of around 170 Species in the Plant family Proteaceae. The Myrtaceae or Myrtle family are a family of Dicotyledon Plants placed within the order Myrtales. Eucalyptus (From Greek ευκάλυπτος meaning "well covered" is a diverse Genus of Trees (and a few shrubs the members of which Fabaceae or Leguminosae is a large and economically important family of Flowering plants which is commonly known as the legume family, pea Acacia is a Genus of Shrubs and Trees belonging to the Subfamily Mimosoideae of the family Fabaceae, first
The settlement of Australia by Indigenous Australians more than 40,000 years ago, and by Europeans from 1788, has had a significant impact on the flora. Indigenous Australians are descendants of the first known human inhabitants of the Australian continent and its nearby islands. The use of fire-stick farming by the Aborigines led to significant changes in the distribution of plant species over time, and the large-scale modification or destruction of vegetation for agriculture and urban development since 1788 has altered the composition of most terrestrial ecosystems, leading to the extinction of 61 plant species and endangering over 1000 more. Fire-stick farming is a term coined by Australian archaeologist Rhys Jones in 1969 to describe the practice of Indigenous Australians where fire
Australia was part of the southern supercontinent Gondwana, which also included South America, Africa, India and Antarctica. The natural history of Australia has been shaped by the geological evolution of the Australian continent from Gondwana and the changes in global climate Gondwana (ɡɒnˈdwɑːnə originally Gondwanaland) was a southern Supercontinent that existed about 500 to 200 Ma ago South America is a Continent of the Americas, situated entirely in the Western Hemisphere and mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country Most of the modern Australian flora had its origin in Gondwana during the Cretaceous when Australia was covered in subtropical rainforest. The Cretaceous (kriːˈteɪʃəs, usually abbreviated 'K' for its German translation "Kreide" is a geologic period and system, reaching from the end of Australian ferns and gymnosperm bear strong resemblance to their Gondwanan ancestors, and prominent members of the early Gondwanan angiosperm flora such as the Nothofagus, Myrtaceae and Proteaceae were also present in Australia. Nothofagus, also known as the southern beeches, is a genus of about 35 Species of Trees and shrubs native to the temperate oceanic The Myrtaceae or Myrtle family are a family of Dicotyledon Plants placed within the order Myrtales. Proteaceae is a family of Flowering plants. Mainly restricted to the Southern Hemisphere, it is a fairly large family with around 80 genera 
Gondwana began to break up 140 million years ago (MYA); 50 MYA during the Oligocene Australia separated from Antarctica, and was relatively isolated until the collision of the Indo-Australian Plate with Asia in the Miocene era 5. The Oligocene is a geologic epoch of the Paleogene period and extends from about 33 The Indo-Australian Plate is a major Tectonic plate that includes the continent of Australia and surrounding Ocean, and extends northwest to include the The Miocene is a geological epoch of the Neogene period and extends from about 23 3 MYA. As Australia drifted, local and global climate change had a significant and lasting effect: a circumpolar oceanic current developed, atmospheric circulation increased as Australia moved away from Antarctica, precipitation fell, there was a slow warming of the continent and arid conditions started to develop. Continental drift is the movement of the Earth 's Continents relative to each other Climate change is any long-term significant change in the “average weather” that a given region experiences In general terms the Climate of a local or region is said to be arid when it is characterized by a severe lack of available Water, to the extent of hindering  These conditions of geographic isolation and aridity led to the development of a more complex flora. From 25-10 MYA pollen records suggest the rapid radiation of species like Eucalyptus, Casuarina, Allocasuarina, Banksia and the pea-flowered legumes, and the development of open forest; grasslands started to develop from the Eocene. Eucalyptus (From Greek ευκάλυπτος meaning "well covered" is a diverse Genus of Trees (and a few shrubs the members of which Casuarina is a Genus of 17 species in the family Casuarinaceae, native to Australasia, southeastern Asia, and islands of the Allocasuarina is a Genus in the Flowering plant family Casuarinaceae. Banksia is a Genus of around 170 Species in the Plant family Proteaceae. Faboideae is a Subfamily of the Flowering plant family Fabaceae or Leguminosae The Eocene epoch (558 ± 02 - 339 ± 01 Ma) is a major division of the Geologic timescale and the second epoch of the Palaeogene period in Collision with the Eurasian Plate also led to additional South-east Asian and cosmopolitan elements entering the flora like the Lepidium and Chenopodioideae. The Eurasian Plate is a Tectonic plate which includes most of the continent of Eurasia (a landmass consisting of the traditional Continents of Europe In Biogeography, a Biological category of living things is said to have cosmopolitan distribution if this category can be found almost anywhere around the world Lepidium, commonly known as the peppergrasses or pepperworts, is a genus of plants in the mustard family Brassicaceae. The Chenopodioideae is a subfamily of the Flowering plant family Amaranthaceae, formerly treated as a distinct family Chenopodiaceae, and comprising 
The development of aridity and the old and nutrient poor soils of the continent led to some unique adaptations in the Australian flora and evolutionary radiation of genera – like Acacia and Eucalyptus – that adapted to those conditions. Acacia is a Genus of Shrubs and Trees belonging to the Subfamily Mimosoideae of the family Fabaceae, first Eucalyptus (From Greek ευκάλυπτος meaning "well covered" is a diverse Genus of Trees (and a few shrubs the members of which Hard leaves with a thick outer layer, a condition known as scleromorphy, and C4 and CAM carbon fixation which reduce water loss during photosynthesis are two common adaptations in Australian arid-adapted dicot and monocot species respectively. Plant cuticles are a protective waxy covering produced only by the epidermal cells of leaves, young shoots and all other aerial plant organs without Periderm Sclerophyll is a type of vegetation that has hard leaves and short internodes (the distance between leaves along the stem C4 carbon fixation is one of three biochemical mechanisms along with C3 and CAM photosynthesis, functioning in land Plants to Crassulacean acid metabolism, also known as CAM photosynthesis, is an elaborate Carbon fixation pathway in some Plants These plants fix carbon dioxide Rising aridity also increased the frequency of fires in Australia. Fire is thought to have played a role in the development and distribution of fire-adapted species from the Late Pleistocene. The Late Pleistocene (also known as Upper Pleistocene or the Tarantian) is a stage of the Pleistocene Epoch. An increase in charcoal in sediment around 38,000 years ago coincides with dates for the inhabitation of Australia by the Indigenous Australians and suggests that man-made fires, from practices like fire-stick farming, have played an important role in the establishment and maintenance of sclerophyll forest, especially on the east coast of Australia. Indigenous Australians are descendants of the first known human inhabitants of the Australian continent and its nearby islands. Fire-stick farming is a term coined by Australian archaeologist Rhys Jones in 1969 to describe the practice of Indigenous Australians where fire  Adaptations to fire include lignotubers and epicormic buds in Eucalyptus and Banksia species that allow fast regeneration following fire. A lignotuber is a starchy swelling on underground stems or roots Some genera also exhibit serotiny, the release of seed only in response to heat and/or smoke. Serotiny is the behaviour of some Plant species that retain their non-dormant Seeds in a cone or woody Fruit for up to several years but release Xanthorrhoea grass trees and some species of orchids only flower after fire. 
Australia's terrestrial flora can be collected into characteristic vegetation groups. Vegetation is a general term for the plant life of a region it refers to the Ground cover provided by plants The most important determinant is rainfall, followed by temperature which affects water availability.  Several schemes of varying complexity have been created, the most recent scheme developed by the Natural Heritage Trust divides Australia's terrestrial flora into 30 Major Vegetation Groups, and 67 Major Vegetation Subgroups. The Natural Heritage Trust (NHT was set up by the Australian Government in 1997 to help restore and conserve Australia's environment and natural resources This is a list of Major Vegetations Groups and Subgroups in Australia. This is a list of Major Vegetations Groups and Subgroups in Australia. 
According to the scheme the most common vegetation types are those that are adapted to arid conditions where the area has not been significantly reduced by human activities such as land clearing for agriculture. The dominant vegetation type in Australia is the hummock grasslands that occur extensively in arid Western Australia, South Australia and the Northern Territory. It accounts for 23% of the native vegetation, the predominant species of which are from the genus Triodia. Triodia is a large genus of hummock-forming grass endemic to Australia they are commonly known as spinifex, although they are not a part of Zygochloa also occurs in inland sandy areas like the Simpson Desert. Zygochloa is a monotypic genus of grass endemic to Australia Its only species is Zygochloa paradoxa. The Simpson Desert occupies approximately 176500 square kilometres of central Australia.
A further 39% of native vegetation is covered by a combination of:
Other groups with restricted areas of less than 70,000 square kilometres include tropical or temperate rainforest and vine thickets, tall or open eucalypt forests, callitris and Casuarina forests, and woodlands and heath. Callitris is a genus of Coniferous Trees in the Cupressaceae (cypress family
Australia has over 20,000 described species of vascular plants, these include the angiosperms, seed-bearing non-angiosperms (like the conifers and cycads), and the spore-bearing ferns and fern allies. The flowering plants or angiosperms ( Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta) are the most widespread group  Of these about 11% are naturalised species; the remainder are native or endemic.  The vascular plant flora has been extensively catalogued, the work being published in the ongoing Flora of Australia series. The Flora of Australia is a 59 volume series describing the vascular plants bryophytes and lichens present in Australian and its external territories A list of vascular plant families represented in Australia using the Cronquist system is also available. A system of plant taxonomy, the Cronquist system is a scheme for the classification of flowering plants (or Angiosperms) 
At the higher taxonomic levels the Australian flora is similar to that of the rest of the world; most vascular plant families are represented within the native flora, with the exception of the cacti, birch and a few others, while 9 families occur only in Australia. A cactus (plural cacti) is any member of the Spine plant family Cactaceae, native to the Americas Betulaceae, or the Birch Family, includes six genera of Deciduous nut -bearing Trees and Shrubs including the Birches  Australia's vascular flora is estimated to be 85% endemic; this high level of vascular plant endemism is largely attributable to the radiation of some families like the Proteaceae, Myrtaceae, and Fabaceae. Proteaceae is a family of Flowering plants. Mainly restricted to the Southern Hemisphere, it is a fairly large family with around 80 genera The Myrtaceae or Myrtle family are a family of Dicotyledon Plants placed within the order Myrtales. Fabaceae or Leguminosae is a large and economically important family of Flowering plants which is commonly known as the legume family, pea
|Family||% of total flora1||Notable genera|
|Fabaceae||12. Fabaceae or Leguminosae is a large and economically important family of Flowering plants which is commonly known as the legume family, pea 0||Acacia, Daviesia, Glycine|
|Myrtaceae||9. Acacia is a Genus of Shrubs and Trees belonging to the Subfamily Mimosoideae of the family Fabaceae, first Daviesia is a Genus of Flowering plants in the family Fabaceae that are native to Australia. Glycine is a genus in the Bean family Fabaceae. The most well known species is the Soybean ( Glycine max) The Myrtaceae or Myrtle family are a family of Dicotyledon Plants placed within the order Myrtales. 3||Corymbia, Eucalyptus, Melaleuca, Leptospermum|
|Asteraceae||8. Corymbia is a genus of about 113 species of tree that were classified as Eucalyptus species until the mid-1990s Eucalyptus (From Greek ευκάλυπτος meaning "well covered" is a diverse Genus of Trees (and a few shrubs the members of which Melaleuca is a Genus of Plants in the myrtle family Myrtaceae. Leptospermum is a genus of about 80-86 species of plants in the myrtle family Myrtaceae. The family Asteraceae or Compositae (known as the aster, daisy, or sunflower family) is the largest family of Flowering 0||Goodenia, Olearia|
|Poaceae||6. Goodenia is a Genus consisting of 179 species of Flowering plants The name was published in 1793 by James Edward Smith in honour of the Olearia is a genus of Flowering plants belonging to the family Asteraceae. Poaceae or Gramineae is a family in the Class Liliopsida of the flowering plants. 5||Triodia|
|Proteaceae||5. Triodia is a large genus of hummock-forming grass endemic to Australia they are commonly known as spinifex, although they are not a part of Proteaceae is a family of Flowering plants. Mainly restricted to the Southern Hemisphere, it is a fairly large family with around 80 genera 6||Banksia, Hakea, Grevillea|
|Cyperaceae||3. Banksia is a Genus of around 170 Species in the Plant family Proteaceae. Hakea ( Hakea) is a genus of 149 species of Shrubs and small Trees in the Proteaceae, native to Australia. Grevillea is a diverse Genus of about 360 species of Evergreen Flowering plants in the protea family Proteaceae, native to The family Cyperaceae, or the sedges, is a taxon of monocot Flowering plants that superficially resemble grasses or rushes 3||Cyperus|
|Orchidaceae||3. Cyperus is a large Genus of about 600 Species of sedges distributed throughout all continents in both tropical and temperate regions 0||Caladenia, Pterostylis|
|Ericaceae||2. The genus Caladenia belongs to the subfamily Orchidoideae of the orchid family ( Orchidaceae) Pterostylis is a terrestrial deciduous genus of some 100 or so species of orchids found mainly in New Zealand, Australia, Papua New Guinea and The Plant family Ericaceae (also called the heath family or ericaceous plants) are mostly lime -hating ( Calcifuge) 1||Leucopogon, Epacris|
|Euphorbiaceae||2. Leucopogon is a genus of about 150-160 species of Shrubby Flowering plants belonging to the family Ericaceae, in the section of that family Epacris is a Genus of about 35-40 species of Flowering plants in the family Ericaceae, though formerly often treated in a separate family The Spurge family ( Euphorbiaceae) is a large family of Flowering plants with 300 genera and around 7500 species 0||Ricinocarpos|
|Rutaceae||1. Ricinocarpos is a Plant Genus of the family Euphorbiaceae. Species include Ricinocarpos bowmanii Rutaceae, commonly known as the Rue or Citrus family is a family of Plants usually placed in the order Sapindales. 8||Boronia, Correa, Citrus|
|1 Based on total number of species|
Data from Orchard modified to AGPII classifications. Boronia is a Genus of about 90-100 species of Evergreen Shrubs of the tribe Boronieae in the family Rutaceae. Citrus is a common term and Genus of Flowering plants in the family Rutaceae, originating in tropical and subtropical southeast regions of 
The native Australian flora contains many monocotyledons. Monocotyledons or monocots are one of two major groups of Flowering plants (angiosperms that are traditionally recognised the other being Dicotyledons The family with the most species is the Poaceae which includes a huge variety of species, from the tropical bamboo Bambusa arnhemica to the ubiquitous spinifex that thrives in arid Australia from the genera Triodia and Plectrachne. Poaceae or Gramineae is a family in the Class Liliopsida of the flowering plants. Bambusa arnhemica is one of three Bamboo species native to Australia. Triodia is a large genus of hummock-forming grass endemic to Australia they are commonly known as spinifex, although they are not a part of There are more than 800 described species of orchid in Australia.  About one quarter of these are epiphytes; epiphytic orchids occur along the east coast and in Tasmania and do not occur in South or Western Australia. The terrestrial orchids occur across most of Australia, the majority of species being deciduous – their aboveground parts die back during the dry season and they re-sprout from a tuber when it rains. Botany Autumn leaf color. See --> In Botany and Horticulture, deciduous Plants, including
Other families with well-known representatives include the alpine Tasmanian button grass, which form tussock-like mounds from the Cyperaceae; the genus Patersonia of temperate iris-like grasses from the Iridaceae; and, the kangaroo paws from the family Haemodoraceae. The family Cyperaceae, or the sedges, is a taxon of monocot Flowering plants that superficially resemble grasses or rushes Patersonia (or Purple flag) is a genus of the Iridaceae with about 20 species in Australia and at least one in Timor. Iridaceae is a family of plants in Order Asparagales, taking its name from the Irises. Anigozanthos is a small Genus of Australian plants in the Bloodwort family Haemodoraceae. Haemodoraceae is the Botanical name of a family of Flowering plants. The Xanthorrhoea grass trees, the screw palms of the Pandanaceae and palms are large moncots present in Australia. Pandanus is a Genus of Monocots with about 600 known Species. Pandanaceae is a family of Flowering plants native to the tropics of the Old World. Arecaceae or Palmae (also known by the name Palmaceae, which is taxonomically invalid or commonly palm tree) the palm family is a family of Flowering There are about 57 native palms; 79% of these only occur in Australia.  Livistonia is unusual amongst the palm genera in Australia; rather than tropical habitats, its members are found in inland gorges and open forest. Livistona is a genus of 36 species of palms (family Arecaceae) native to southern and southeastern Asia, Australasia, and the
The dicots are the most diverse group of angiosperms. Dicotyledons, or "dicots", is a name for a group of Flowering plants whose Seed typically has two embryonic leaves or Cotyledons There Australia's best known species come from three large and very diverse dicot families: the Fabaceae, the Myrtaceae and the Proteaceae. Fabaceae or Leguminosae is a large and economically important family of Flowering plants which is commonly known as the legume family, pea The Myrtaceae or Myrtle family are a family of Dicotyledon Plants placed within the order Myrtales. Proteaceae is a family of Flowering plants. Mainly restricted to the Southern Hemisphere, it is a fairly large family with around 80 genera The Myrtaceae is represented by a variety of woody species; gum trees from the genera Eucalyptus, Corymbia and Angophora, Lillipillies (Syzygium), the water-loving Melaleuca and Bottlebrush and the shrubby Darwinia and Leptospermum, commonly known as teatrees, and Geraldton wax. Eucalyptus (From Greek ευκάλυπτος meaning "well covered" is a diverse Genus of Trees (and a few shrubs the members of which Corymbia is a genus of about 113 species of tree that were classified as Eucalyptus species until the mid-1990s Angophora is a genus of ten species of Trees or large Shrubs in the myrtle family ( Myrtaceae) native to eastern Australia. Syzygium is a Genus of Flowering plants belonging to the myrtle family Myrtaceae. Melaleuca is a Genus of Plants in the myrtle family Myrtaceae. Darwinia ( syn Genetyllis DC) is a genus of between 30-60 species of Evergreen Shrubs in the family Myrtaceae Leptospermum is a genus of about 80-86 species of plants in the myrtle family Myrtaceae. Geraldton wax is a Flowering plant endemic to Western Australia. The Proteaceae are also woody, well-known genera include Banksia, Dryandra, Grevillea, Hakea, the waratah and Australia's only commercial native food crop, the macadamia. Banksia is a Genus of around 170 Species in the Plant family Proteaceae. Grevillea is a diverse Genus of about 360 species of Evergreen Flowering plants in the protea family Proteaceae, native to Hakea ( Hakea) is a genus of 149 species of Shrubs and small Trees in the Proteaceae, native to Australia. Waratah ( Telopea) is a genus of five species of large Shrubs or small Trees in the Proteaceae, native to southeastern Australia Macadamia is a Genus of nine Species of Flowering plants in the family Proteaceae, with a Disjunct distribution native Australia also has representatives of all three legume subfamalies. Caesalpinioideae is notably represented by Cassia trees. Caesalpinioideae is a Botanical name at the rank of Subfamily, placed in the large family Fabaceae or Leguminosae. The Faboideae or pea-flowered legumes are common and many are well-known for their flowers, including the golden peas, Glycine species and the Sturt's desert pea. Faboideae is a Subfamily of the Flowering plant family Fabaceae or Leguminosae The mirbelieae, commonly known as the bush, golden or egg-and-bacon peas are a legume tribe endemic to Australia. Glycine is a genus in the Bean family Fabaceae. The most well known species is the Soybean ( Glycine max) Sturt's Desert Pea, Swainsona formosa, is an Australian plant in the genus Swainsona, named after English botanist Isaac The Mimosoideae is best known for the huge genus Acacia which includes Australia's floral emblem the golden wattle. As noted below in some classifications (eg the Cronquist system) "Mimosoideae" refers to what here is considered the tribe Mimoseae. Acacia is a Genus of Shrubs and Trees belonging to the Subfamily Mimosoideae of the family Fabaceae, first Golden Wattle ( Acacia pycnantha) is Australia 's Floral emblem.
Many plant families that occur in Australia are known for their floral displays that follow seasonal rains. The Asteraceae is well represented by its subfamily Gnaphalieae, which included the paper or everlasting daisies; this group has its greatest diversity in Australia. The family Asteraceae or Compositae (known as the aster, daisy, or sunflower family) is the largest family of Flowering Gnaphalieae is a tribe of flowering plants in the family Asteraceae. Other families with flowering shrubs include the Rutaceae, with the fragrant Boronia and Eriostemon, the Myoporaceae with the Eremophila, and members of the Ericaceae with Victoria's Floral Emblem Epacris impressa. Rutaceae, commonly known as the Rue or Citrus family is a family of Plants usually placed in the order Sapindales. Boronia is a Genus of about 90-100 species of Evergreen Shrubs of the tribe Boronieae in the family Rutaceae. Eriostemon is a Genus of Flowering plants belonging to the family Rutaceae. Myoporaceae is a family of Plants, found mostly in Australia which includes the following genera Calamphoreus --> Diocirea Eremophila is a genus of plants of the family Myoporaceae, with species known by the common names of Emu Bush, Poverty Bush or Fuchsia The Plant family Ericaceae (also called the heath family or ericaceous plants) are mostly lime -hating ( Calcifuge) "Common Heath" redirects here For the Geometer moth, see Ematurga atomaria.
Amongst the most ancient species of flowering hardwood trees are the Casuarinaceae, including beach, swamp and river oaks, and Fagaceae represented in Australia by three species of Nothofagus. Casuarinaceae is a family of dicotyledonous Flowering plants placed in the order Fagales, consisting of 3 or 4 genera and approximately 70 The family Fagaceae, or beech family, comprises about 900 species of both Evergreen and Deciduous trees and shrubs which are characterized by alternate Nothofagus, also known as the southern beeches, is a genus of about 35 Species of Trees and shrubs native to the temperate oceanic Trees of the Rosales are notably representented by the Moraceae whose species include the Moreton Bay Fig and the Port Jackson Fig, and the Urticaceae whose members include several tree sized stinging nettles; Dendrocnide moroides is the most virulent. For other meanings see Rosales (disambiguation. Rosales is an order of Flowering plants including nine families Moraceae is a family of Flowering plants commonly known as the mulberry or fig family Ficus macrophylla, commonly known as the Moreton Bay Fig, is a large evergreen Banyan tree of the Moraceae family that is a native of most The Port Jackson Fig ( Ficus rubiginosa), also known as the Little-leaf Fig or the Rusty Fig, is a native of eastern Australia and a Urticaceae, or the nettle family is a family of Flowering plants The family name comes from the genus Urtica (nettles Dendrocnide moroides also known as the Gympie Gympie, moonlighter or stinger is a large shrub native to rainforest areas in North Eastern There are also numerous sandalwood species including the quandongs and native cherry, Exocarpus cupressiformis. Santalaceae is a widely distributed family of Flowering plants which like other members of Santalales are partially parasitic on other plants Quandong (alternative spelling Quongdong) is the name given to a number of Australian wild bush plants and their edible fruits Exocarpos cupressiformis, is an Australian endemic plant species commonly known as the native cherry or ballart. The bottle tree of the Malvaceae is one of 30 tree species from the Brachychiton. The Queensland Bottle Tree ( Brachychiton rupestris) originally classified in the family Sterculiaceae, which is now within Malvaceae, is Malvaceae, or the mallow family, is a family of Flowering plants containing over 200 genera with close to 2300 species Brachychiton ( Kurrajong, Bottletree) is a Genus of 31 Species of Trees and large Shrubs native to There are about 75 native mistletoes that parasitise Australian tree species, including two terrestrial parasitic trees, one of which is the spectacular Western Australian Christmas tree. Loranthaceae is a family of Flowering plants which has been universally recognized by taxonomists A parasitic plant is one that derives some or all of its sustenance from another plant Nuytsia floribunda, commonly known as Western Australian Christmas tree, is a parasitic tree found in Western Australia.
Australia's salt marshes and wetlands are covered by a large variety of salt and drought tolerant species from the Amaranthaceae which include the saltbushes (Atriplex) and bluebushes (Maireana and Chenopodium). The Flowering plant family Amaranthaceae, the Amaranth family contains about 160 genera and 2400 species Atriplex ( Á-tri-plex) is a plant Genus of 100-200 Species, known by the common names of saltbush and orache Maireana is a Genus of around 57 species of perennial shrubs and herbs in the family Amaranthaceae which are endemic to Australia. "Goosefoot" redirects here The unrelated Smearwort ( Aristolochia rotunda) is sometimes called "Mercury Goosefoot" Many of these plants have succulent leaves; other native succulents are from the genera Carpobrotus,Calandrinia and Portulaca. Carpobrotus is a Genus of ground-creeping plants with Succulent leaves and large daisy-like flowers The plant Genus Calandrinia contains many species of purslane, including the redmaids. Portulaca ( purslane) is the Type genus of the purslane family Portulacaceae, comprising about 40-100 species (probably much fewer and potentially Succulent stems are present in many of the Euphorbiaceae in Australia, though the best known members are the non-succulent looking fragrant Wedding bushes of the genus Ricinocarpos. The Spurge family ( Euphorbiaceae) is a large family of Flowering plants with 300 genera and around 7500 species Ricinocarpos is a Plant Genus of the family Euphorbiaceae. Species include Ricinocarpos bowmanii Carnivorous plants which favour damp habitats are represented by four families including the sundews, bladderworts, pitcher-plants from the Cephalotaceae, which are endemic to Western Australia, and the Nepenthaceae. Carnivorous plants (sometimes called insectivorous plants) are Plants that derive some or most of their Nutrients (but not Energy) from trapping Droseraceae is the Botanical name for a family of Flowering plants. Lentibulariaceae (bladderwort family is a family of Carnivorous plants containing three genera Genlisea, the corkscrew plants Cephalotus (kɛfələʊtəs/ but frequently /sɛfələʊtəs is a Genus of Flowering plants which contains one Species, Cephalotus Western Australia is a state occupying the entire western third of the Australian continent. The Nepenthes (nəˈpɛnθiːz from Greek: ne = not penthos = grief sorrow named after the ancient drug Nepenthe) popularly
Aquatic moncots and dicots both occur in Australian waters. Australia has about 51,000 square kilometres of seagrass meadows and the most diverse group seagrass species in the world. Seagrasses (or sea-grasses in British English) are Flowering plants from one of four plant families ( Posidoniaceae, Zosteraceae, There are 22 species found in temperate waters and 15 in tropical waters out of a known 70 species worldwide.  Aquatic dicots include the mangroves; in Australia there are 39 mangrove species that cover 11,500 square kilometres and comprise the third largest area of mangroves in the world. Mangroves (generally are Trees and Shrubs that grow in saline coastal habitats in the Tropics and Subtropics.  Other native marine dicots here include water lilies and water milfoils. Nymphaeaceae is a family of Flowering plants Members of this family are commonly called water lilies and live in freshwater areas in temperate and tropical climates Myriophyllum ( water milfoil) is a genus of about 45 species of freshwater Aquatic plants with a Cosmopolitan distribution.
Seed bearing non-angiosperms present in Australia include the cycads and conifers. Cycads are a group of Seed plants characterized by a large crown of compound leaves and a stout trunk. There are 69 species of cycad from 4 genera and 3 families – they are all endemic and their distribution is confined to forests of eastern and northern Australia, with a few in south-western Western Australia and central Australia. Native pines are distributed through 3 families, 14 genera and 43 species, of which 39 are endemic. Most species are present in wetter mountainous areas consistent with their Gondwanan origins, including the genera Athrotaxis, Actinostrobus, Microcachrys, Microstrobos, Diselma and the Tasmanian Huon pine, sole member of the genus Lagarostrobos. Athrotaxis is a genus of two to three species (depending on taxonomic opinion of conifers in the cypress family Cupressaceae. Actinostrobus is a genus of Coniferous Trees in the Cupressaceae (cypress family Microcachrys tetragona is a Species of Dioecious Conifers belonging to the podocarp family ( Podocarpaceae) Microstrobos is a Genus of Plant belonging to the podocarp family ( Podocarpaceae) Diselma archeri ( syn Fitzroya archeri (Hookf Benth & Hook) is a Species of Plant of the family The species Lagarostrobos franklinii is a species of conifer native to the wet southwestern corner of Tasmania, Australia; it is the sole Callitris is a notable exception; species from this genus are found mainly in drier open woodlands. Callitris is a genus of Coniferous Trees in the Cupressaceae (cypress family  The most recently discovered species of conifer is the living fossil Wollemi pine, which was first described in 1994. Living fossil is an informal term for any living Species (or Clade) of organism which appears
Spore bearing vascular plants include the ferns and fern allies. A fern is any one of a group of about 20000 Species of Plants classified in the phylum or division Pteridophyta, also known as Filicophyta Fern ally is a general term covering a somewhat diverse group of Vascular plants that are not Flowering plants and not true Ferns Like ferns these plants True ferns are found over most of the country and are most abundant in tropical and subtropical areas with high rainfall. Australia has a native flora of 30 families, 103 genera and 390 species of ferns, with another 10 species being naturalised. The fern allies are represented by 44 native species of psilophytes, horsetails and lycophytes. Psilotopsida is a class of Fern -like plants As circumscribed by Smith et al Equisetum is a genus of Vascular plants that reproduce by spores rather than seeds The Division Lycopodiophyta (sometimes called Lycophyta) is a tracheophyte subdivision of the Kingdom Plantae It is the oldest extant (living  Ferns prefer a cool and damp environment since water is required for reproduction, the majority of Australian species are found in bushland and rainforest, there are aquatic, epiphytic (Platycerium, Huperzia and Asplenium), and terrestrial species including large tree ferns from the genera Cyathea and Dicksonia. Platycerium is a genus of ~ 18 Fern species in the Polypod family Polypodiaceae. Huperzia is a Genus of Lycophyte plants sometimes known as the Firmosses or Fir clubmosses. Asplenium is a Genus of about 700 Species of Ferns often treated as the only genus in the family Aspleniaceae, though Cyathea is a Genus of Tree ferns the type genus of the Fern order Cyatheales. Dicksonia is a genus of Tree ferns in the order Cyatheales It is regarded as related to Cyathea, but is considered more primitive dating
The algae are a large and diverse group of photosynthetic organisms. Algae ( sing. alga are a large and diverse group of simple typically Autotrophic organisms ranging from Unicellular to Multicellular forms Many studies of algae include the cyanobacteria, in addition to micro and macro eukaryotic types that inhabit both fresh and saltwater. Cyanobacteria, also known as blue-green algae, blue-green bacteria or Cyanophyta, is a phylum of Bacteria that obtain their energy Animals Plants fungi, and Protists are eukaryotes (juːˈkærɪɒt or -oʊt Organisms whose cells are organized into complex Currently, about 10,000 to 12,000 species of algae are known for Australia.  The algal flora of Australia is unevenly documented: northern Australia remains largely uncollected for seaweeds and marine phytoplankton, descriptions of freshwater algae are patchy, and the collection of terrestrial algae has been almost completely neglected. 
The bryophytes – mosses, liverworts and hornworts – are primitive, usually terrestrial, plants that inhabit the tropics, cool-temperate regions and montane areas; there are some specialised members that are adapted to semi-arid and arid Australia. Bryophytes are all Embryophytes ('land Plants) that are non-vascular: they have tissues and enclosed reproductive systems but they lack Vascular tissue Mosses are small soft Plants that are typically 1–10  cm (0 The Marchantiophyta are a division of Bryophyte Plants commonly referred to as hepatics or liverworts. This is an article about the non-vascular plants The name Hornwort is also often applied to an aquatic plant Ceratophyllum demersum in the family Ceratophyllaceae There are slightly fewer that 1,000 recognised species of moss in Australia. The five largest genera are the Fissidens, Bryum, Campylopus, Macromitrium and Andreaea. UserPolbot. --> Fissidens is the only genus of Moss in family Fissidentaceae. Andreaea is a genus of rock Mosses with about 45 species  There are also over 800 species of liver- and horn-worts in 148 genera in Australia. 
The fungal flora of Australia is not well characterised; Australia is estimated to have about 250,000 fungal species of which roughly 5% have been described. Compared with many other nations and continents the knowledge of the fungal flora of Australia is meagre Knowledge of distribution, substrates and habitats is poor for most species, with the exception of common plant pathogens. 
Lichens are a composite organisms comprising, in most cases, an Ascomycete fungus and a unicellular green alga, their classification is based on the type of fungi. Lichens (ˈlaɪkən or /lɪtʃən/ are symbiotic associations of a Fungus (the mycobiont with a photosynthetic partner (the photobiont also known as The lichen flora of Australia and its island territories, including Christmas Island, Heard Island, Macquarie Island and Norfolk Island, currently comprises 3,238 species and infra-specific taxa in 422 genera, 34% of which are considered to be endemic. The Territory of Christmas Island is a small territory of Australia located in the Indian Ocean, 2600 kilometres (1600 mi northwest of Heard Island and McDonald Islands (abbreviated as HIMI are barren islands located in the Southern Ocean, about two-thirds of the way from Madagascar to Macquarie Island lies in the southwest corner of the Pacific Ocean, about half-way between Australia and Antarctica. Norfolk Island ( Norfuk: Norfuk Ailen) is a small inhabited island in the Pacific Ocean located between Australia, New Zealand 
The Australia flora was utilised by the Indigenous inhabitants of Australia. Conservation in Australia is an issue of state and federal policy Indigenous Australians are descendants of the first known human inhabitants of the Australian continent and its nearby islands. They used hundreds of species for food, medicine, shelter, tools and weapons. For example, the starchy roots of Clematis microphylla were used in western Victoria to make a dough that was baked, and the leaves of the plant were used as a poultice applied to skin irritations and blisters. Clematis microphylla is one of 8 Clematis species native to Australia.  Economic exploitation of the flora by settlers since 1788 has not been extensive; forestry has been the most extensive use of the flora. Forestry species include a number of eucalypts used for paper and timber, huon pine, hoop pine, cypress pine, Australian Blackwood, and sandalwood from Santalum spicatum and S. lanceolatum are also timber producing species. The species Lagarostrobos franklinii is a species of conifer native to the wet southwestern corner of Tasmania, Australia; it is the sole Araucaria cunninghamii is a species of Araucaria known as Moreton Bay Pine, or Hoop Pine. Callitris columellaris is a species of Coniferous Tree in the family Cupressaceae (cypress family native to most of Australia The Australian Blackwood ( Acacia melanoxylon) is an Acacia Species native in eastern Australia. Santalum spicatum, a species known as Australian sandalwood, is a tree native to semi-arid areas at the edge of Southwest Australia. Santalum lanceolatum is an Australian tree of the family Santalaceae. A significant area used by the pastoral industry is based on native pasture species including Mitchell grass, saltbush, bluebush, wallaby grass, spear grass, tussock grasses and kangaroo grass. Astrebla is a small genus of Xerophytic grasses endemic to Australia Atriplex ( Á-tri-plex) is a plant Genus of 100-200 Species, known by the common names of saltbush and orache Maireana sedifolia, also known as the bluebush or pearl bluebrush is a compact shrub endemic to Australia. Austrodanthonia is a genus of 28 grass species found in Australia New Guinea and New Zealand This article is about a type of grass For the aircraft built by Caproni, see Stipa-Caproni. Poa is a Genus of about 500 Species of grasses native to the temperate regions of both hemispheres Themeda triandra is a perennial Grass widespread in Australia, Africa, Asia and the Pacific
Until recently the macadamia nut was the only species grown widely for food, and commercial cultivation was started in Hawaii rather than in Australia. Macadamia is a Genus of nine Species of Flowering plants in the family Proteaceae, with a Disjunct distribution native The State of Hawaii ( or həˈwaɪʔiː Hawaiian: Mokuāina o Hawaii) is a state in the United States located on an Archipelago in the  Increasing interest in bushfoods, in part due to the popular television series Bush Tucker Man narrated by Les Hiddins, has led to some species being investigated for wider use. Bushfood (also called bush tucker) refers to any food native to Australia and used as sustenance by the original inhabitants the Australian Aborigines, Major Leslie John (Les Hiddens OAM (born August 13, 1946 in Brisbane Queensland) aka "The Bush Tucker Man" Species identified to have prospects for commercial cultivation include: Acacia victoriae for edible wattleseed; Davidson's Plum, wild lime, finger lime, quandong, riberry, Kakadu plum, muntries, bush tomato, Illawarra plum for fruit; Tetragonia tetragonioides as a green vegetable; and, lemon aspen, lemon myrtle, native mountain pepper as seasonings. Description Acacia victoriae commonly known as Gundabluie or Bardi bush is a shrub or tree native to Australia. For the Brachiopod genus see Davidsonia (brachiopod. For the botanical journal see Davidsonia (journal. Citrus glauca (formerly Eremocitrus glauca) is also known as Desert Lime. The Finger Lime plant Citrus australasica (formerly Microcitrus australasica) is a thorny Understorey Shrub of the lowland subtropical Santalum acuminatum, the Desert Quandong, is an Australian plant in the Sandalwood family Santalaceae. Syzygium luehmannii, also known as riberry, small leaved lilly pilly, cherry satinash, cherry alder, or clove lilli pilli Terminalia ferdinandiana, also called the Gubinge, billygoat or Kakadu plum or Murunga is a Flowering plant in the Muntries ( Kunzea pomifera) - also known as emu apples native cranberries munthari muntaberry or monterry - are low-growing plants found along the southern coast of Kutjera, or Australian desert raisin ( Solanum centrale) is a Plant native to the more arid parts of Australia. Podocarpus elatus, commonly known as the Illawarra plum, the plum pine or the brown pine is a species of Podocarpus Lemon aspen, Acronychia acidula is a small to medium sized Rainforest tree of Queensland, Australia. Backhousia citriodora (common names lemon myrtle, lemon scented myrtle, lemon scented ironwood) is a Flowering plant in the family Tasmannia is a Genus of woody Evergreen Flowering plants of the family Winteraceae. A few Australian native plants are used by the pharameceutical industry, such as two scopolamine and hyoscyamine producing Duboisia species and Solanum aviculare and S. The fictional truth drug Hyoscine-pentothal does not describe real hyoscine accurately Hyoscyamine, pronounced hi-oh-SYE-uh-meen, is a chemical compound a Tropane alkaloid it is the levo- Isomer to Atropine. The orchid genus described by Karsten as Duboisia is now included in Myoxanthus. laciniatum for the steroid solasodine. Essential oils from Melaleuca, Callitris, Prostanthera, Eucalyptus and Eremophila are also used medicinally. Melaleuca is a Genus of Plants in the myrtle family Myrtaceae. Callitris is a genus of Coniferous Trees in the Cupressaceae (cypress family Prostanthera commonly known as Mintbush, is a genus of plants of the family Lamiaceae. Due to the wide variety of flowers and foliage, Australian plant species are also popular for floriculture internationally.
Modification of the Australian environment by Indigenous Australians and following European settlement has impacted on the extent and the distribution of the flora. The changes since 1788 have been rapid and significant: displacement of Indigenous Australians disrupted fire régimes that had been in place for thousands of years; forestry practices have modified the structure of native
forests; wetlands have been filled in; and broad scale land-clearing for crops, grazing and urban development has reduced native vegetation cover and led to landscape salinisation, increased sediment, nutrient and salt loads in rivers and streams, loss of habitat and a decline in biodiversity.  The intentional and unintentional release of invasive plant and animal species into delicate ecosystems is a major threat to floral biodiversity; 20 introduced species have been declared weeds of national significance. Invasive species are a serious threat to the native Biodiversity of Australia and are an ongoing cost to Australian agriculture.  Since European settlement of Australia, 61 plant species are known to have become extinct; a further 1,239 species are presently considered threatened. 
Protected areas have been created in every state and territory to protect and preserve the country's unique ecosystems. Protected areas of Australia include Commonwealth and off-shore Protected areas managed by the Australian government as well as protected areas within each of the six states These protected areas include national parks and other reserves, as well as 64 wetlands registered under the Ramsar Convention and 16 World Heritage Sites. The Ramsar Convention is an international Treaty for the conservation and sustainable utilization of Wetlands i A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a site (such as a Forest, Mountain, Lake, Desert, Monument, Building, complex As of 2002, 10. 8% (774,619. 51 km²) of the total land area of Australia is within protected areas.  Protected marine zones have been created in many areas to preserve marine biodiversity; as of 2002, these areas cover about 7% (646,000 km²) of Australia's marine jurisdiction.  The Australian Government's Threatened Species Scientific Committee has identified 15 biodiversity hotspots in Australian and 85 characteristic ecosystems, as classified by the Interim Biogeographic Regionalisation for Australia, cover the continent; some effort is being made to ensure each is represented within a protected area under Australia's Biodiversity Action Plan. A biodiversity hotspot is a Biogeographic region with a significant reservoir of biodiversity that is threatened with destruction This article is about a conservation biology topic For other uses of BAP see BAP (disambiguation.