Flint (or flintstone) is a hard, sedimentary cryptocrystalline form of the mineral quartz, categorized as a variety of chert. Sedimentary rock is one of the three main rock types (the others being igneous and Metamorphic rock) Cryptocrystalline is a rock texture which is so finely crystalline being made up of such minute Crystals that its crystalline nature is only vaguely revealed A mineral is a naturally occurring substance formed through geological processes that has a characteristic chemical composition a highly ordered atomic structure and specific Quartz (from German) is the most abundant Mineral in the Earth 's Continental crust (although Feldspar is more common in Chert (ˈtʃɝt is a fine-grained Silica -rich Microcrystalline, Cryptocrystalline or Microfibrous Sedimentary rock that may contain Flint is usually dark grey, black, green, white, or deep brown in colour, and often has a waxy appearance. It occurs chiefly as nodules and masses in sedimentary rocks, such as chalks and limestones. A nodule in Petrology or Mineralogy is a secondary structure generally spherical or irregularly rounded in shape Chalk (ʧɔːk is a soft white porous Sedimentary rock, a form of Limestone composed of the Mineral Calcite. Limestone is a Sedimentary rock composed largely of the Mineral Calcite ( Calcium carbonate: CaCO3  From a petrological point of view, "flint" refers specifically to the form of chert which occurs in chalk or marly limestone. In Geology, petrology (from Greek πέτρα petra, rock and λόγος logos, knowledge is the study of rocks and the conditions on which Chert (ˈtʃɝt is a fine-grained Silica -rich Microcrystalline, Cryptocrystalline or Microfibrous Sedimentary rock that may contain Similarly, "common chert" (sometimes referred to simply as "chert") occurs in limestone.
The exact mode of formation of flint is not yet clear but it is thought that it occurs as a result of chemical changes in compressed sedimentary rock formations, during the process of diagenesis. In Geology and Oceanography, diagenesis is any chemical physical or biological change undergone by a Sediment after its initial deposition and during One hypothesis is that a gelatinous material fills cavities in the sediment, such as holes bored by crustaceans or molluscs and that this becomes silicified. A hypothesis (from Greek) consists either of a suggested explanation for a phenomenon (an event that is observable or of a reasoned proposal suggesting a possible Structure of crustaceans As Arthropods crustaceans have a stiff Exoskeleton, which must be shed to allow the animal to grow ( Ecdysis or molting Molluscs are animals belonging to the phylum Mollusca. There are around 250000 extant Species within the phylum with an estimated 70000 This theory certainly explains the complex shapes of flint nodules that are found. The source of dissolved silica in the porous media could arise from the spicules of silicious sponges. 
Flint was used for the manufacture of flint tools during the Stone Age, as it splits into thin, sharp splinters called flakes or blades (depending in the shape) when struck by another hard object (such as a hammerstone made of another material). Chipped stone tools were made by Stone age peoples worldwide Paleolithic tools were relatively simple repeated small flakes being struck or pressed from a cobble The Stone Age is a broad prehistoric time period during which Humans widely used stone for toolmaking In Archaeology, a hammerstone is a hard Cobble used to strike Lithic flakes off a lump of Tool stone during the process of Lithic reduction This process is referred to as knapping. A knapper is a person who shapes Flint, Chert, Obsidian or other stone through the process of knapping or Lithic reduction to manufacture
In Europe, some of the best toolmaking flint has come from Belgium (Obourg, flint mines of Spiennes), the coastal chalks of the English Channel, the Paris Basin, Thy in Jutland (flint mine at Hov), the Sennonian deposits of Rügen, Grimes Graves in England and the Jurassic deposits of the Kraków area in Poland. The Kingdom of Belgium is a Country in northwest Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts its headquarters as well as those Spiennes is a Walloon village in the municipality of Mons, Belgium. The Paris Basin is one of the major geological regions of France having developed since the Triassic on a basement formed by the Variscan orogeny. Thy (tʰyʔ locally) is a traditional district in northwestern Jutland, Denmark. This article is about the region of Denmark. For the World War I naval battle see Battle of Jutland. Rügen (ˈʁyːgən or Rugia is Germany 's largest Island. It is located in the Baltic Sea off the coast of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Grimes Graves is a large Neolithic Flint mining complex near Brandon in England close to the border between Norfolk and The Jurassic is a geologic period and system that extends from about Ma (million years ago to  Ma that is from the end of the Triassic to the beginning Kraków, in English also spelled Krakow or Cracow (ˈkrækaʊ M-W: krăk'ou krāk'ō is one of the largest and oldest cities in Poland Poland (Polska officially the Republic of Poland Flint mining is attested since the Palaeolithic, but became more common since the Neolithic (Michelsberg culture, Funnelbeaker culture). The term Paleolithic (or Palaeolithic) (from Greek παλαιός palaios, " Old " and λίθος Lithos, "stone" The Neolithic (from Greek νεολιθικός — neolithikos from νέος neos, "new" + λίθος lithos Old Europepng|350px|right|thumb|Ca 3500 BC map of Europe showing an approximation of the Funnelbeaker culture in green and a number of important contemporary cultures see Vinca,
When struck against steel, flint will produce sparks, which when directed onto tinder can be used to start a fire. Steel is an Alloy consisting mostly of Iron, with a Carbon content between 0 Tinder is easily combustible material used to ignite Fires by rudimentary methods Fire is the heat and light energy released during a Chemical reaction, in particular a combustion reaction. This occurs when the hard flint knocks off a particle of the steel, which is heated by the impact, and then burns with oxygen from the atmosphere. This method is popular in woodcraft and among campers who want to have an 'authentic' experience. The term woodcraft denotes skills and experience in matters relating to living and thriving in the woods — such as Hunting, Fishing, and Camping Definition Camping describes a range of activities Survivalist campers set off with little more than their boots whereas Recreational vehicle travelers arrive equipped Striking a lump of flint against a piece of steel to make fire is not particularly easy or convenient (although it is much easier than other primitive fire-making methods such as using a bow and drill). Many different techniques for making fire exist Smoldering plants and trees or any source of hot Coals from natural fires is the oldest way to make a fire Because of this, a similar technology has been miniaturized and integrated into lighters, which are easy to use without skill or practice. Ferrocerium is a man-made metallic material that has the ability to give off a large number of hot sparks when scraped against a rough surface ( Pyrophoricity) such as ridged A lighter is a portable device used to create a Flame. It consists of a metal or plastic container filled with lighter fluid (usually Naphtha or liquid Butane The ferrocerium used in these lighters, while sometimes called "flint", works differently from true flint-and-steel, with the steel scraping off slivers of burning ferrocerium, the reverse of traditional flint-and- steel. Ferrocerium is a man-made metallic material that has the ability to give off a large number of hot sparks when scraped against a rough surface ( Pyrophoricity) such as ridged  Starting a fire with flint, however, is a staple of scouting lore. Scouting, also known as the Scout Movement, is a worldwide Youth movement with the stated aim of supporting young people in their physical mental and spiritual
A later major use was to create the spark that would ignite the powder that would fire a ball or bullet from a flintlock firearm. Flintlock is the general term for any Firearm based on the flintlock mechanism While the military use of a flintlock declined after the British military generally applied the percussion cap on their muskets in 1842, it is still popular to use the flintlock as a hunting rifle during special muzzleloader seasons or general rifle seasons in several states in the US. The Armed forces of the United Kingdom, commonly known as the British Armed Forces or Her Majesty's Armed Forces, and sometimes legally the Armed Forces The percussion cap, introduced around 1830, was the crucial invention that enabled muzzle-loading firearms to fire reliably in any weather A musket is a muzzle -loaded Smoothbore Long gun, which is intended to be fired from the shoulder Year 1842 ( MDCCCXLII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common A muzzleloader is any Firearm into which the projectile and usually the Propellant charge is loaded from the muzzle of the Gun (i A hunting season is a a period marked by the Legality to kill a particular Species in the field of Hunting. A rifle is a Firearm designed to be fired from the shoulder with a barrel that has a helical groove or pattern of grooves ("rifling" cut into the barrel walls The United States of America —commonly referred to as the
Flint was used from the 13th century until the present day as a material for building stone walls, especially in parts of the UK. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located In chalky areas, mostly coastal, but also including inland areas such as the North and South Downs in southern England, flint has also been used as a building and walling material, predating the common use of bricks but laid in a similar manner, using lime mortar. The North Downs are a ridge of Chalk hills in south east England that stretch for 120 miles (190 km from Farnham in Surrey to the White The South Downs is one of the four areas of Chalk Downland in southern England. For instance, flint was used in the construction of many churches and other buildings in East Anglia, Kent, Sussex and Surrey. East Anglia is often used as a shorthand for the Kingdom of the East Angles. KENT (1400 AM) is a Radio station broadcasting a Adult Standards/MOR format Sussex is a historic county in South East England corresponding roughly in area to the ancient Kingdom of Sussex. Surrey is a county in the South East of England and is one of the Home Counties.
Flint pebbles are used as the media in ball mills to grind glazes and other raw materials for the ceramics industry. The pebbles are hand-selected for colour, with those showing a reddish tint, indicating the presence of iron, being discarded. Iron (ˈаɪɚn is a Chemical element with the symbol Fe (ferrum and Atomic number 26 The remaining blue-grey stones have a low content of chromophoric oxides and so should impart lesser amounts of colouring contaminants. A chromophore is part (or moiety) of a Molecule responsible for its Color.
In the UK, flint pebbles were traditionally an important raw material for clay-based ceramic bodies; after high temperature treatment, to remove organic impurites and induce certain physical reactions, calcined flint performed a similar role to the quartz sand used in other countries, i. The word ceramic is derived from the Greek word κεραμικός ( keramikos) Calcination (also referred to as calcining) is a thermal treatment process applied to ores and other solid materials in order to bring about a Thermal decomposition e. after milling to fine particle size was the filler component in pottery bodies. Pottery is the Ceramic ware made by potters It also refers to a group of materials that includes Earthenware, Stoneware Because of this historical use, the term flint is now used by American potters for all siliceous fillers.