Linnaeus. Carl Linnaeus (Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as, May 23 new style (13 May old style 1707 who laid the foundations for
Flax (also known as common flax or linseed) (binomial name: Linum usitatissimum) is a member of the genus Linum in the family Linaceae. Linum ( flax) is a Genus of about 200 species of Flowering plants in the family Linaceae, native to temperate regions of the The Linaceae is a family of Flowering plants mostly Herbaceous or rarely woody plants sometimes large Trees in the tropics It is native to the region extending from the eastern Mediterranean to India and was probably first domesticated in the Fertile Crescent. The Mediterranean Basin refers to the lands around and surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country The Fertile Crescent is a Crescent -shaped region in the Middle East, originally incorporating the Levant and Ancient Mesopotamia, and often  It was extensively cultivated in ancient Egypt. Ancient Egypt was an Ancient Civilization in eastern North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in what is now (New Zealand flax is not related to flax, but was named after it as both plants are used to produce fibres. New Zealand flax describes common New Zealand perennial plants Phormium tenax and Phormium cookianum, known by the Māori names harakeke )
Flax is an erect annual plant growing to 1. Botanically an annual plant is a Plant that usually germinates, Flowers and dies in one Year. 2 m tall, with slender stems. The leaves are glaucous green, slender lanceolate, 20-40 mm long and 3 mm broad. In Botany, a leaf is an above-ground Plant organ specialized for Photosynthesis. Glaucous (from the Latin glaucous, meaning "bluish-grey or green" from the Greek glaukos) is a Botanical term In Botany, the following terms are used to describe the shape of plant leaves: Acicular ( acicularis) Slender and pointed needle-like The flowers are pure pale blue, 15-25 mm diameter, with five petals. A flower, also known as a bloom or Blossom, is the reproductive structure found in Flowering plants (plants of the division Magnoliophyta, also The fruit is a round, dry capsule 5-9 mm diameter, containing several glossy brown seeds shaped like an apple pip, 4-7 mm long. The term fruit has different meanings dependent on context and the term is not synonymous in Food preparation and Biology. In Botany a capsule is a type of simple dry Fruit produced by many species of Flowering plants A capsule is a dehiscent structure composed of two A seed (in some plants referred to as a kernel) is a small embryonic Plant enclosed in a covering called the seed coat usually with some stored The apple is the pomaceous Fruit of the apple tree Species Malus domestica in the Rose family Rosaceae.
In addition to referring to the plant itself, "flax" may refer to the unspun fibres of the flax plant.
Flax is grown both for its seeds and for its fibers. A seed (in some plants referred to as a kernel) is a small embryonic Plant enclosed in a covering called the seed coat usually with some stored Various parts of the plant have been used to make fabric, dye, paper, medicines, fishing nets and soap. It is also grown as an ornamental plant in gardens. Ornamental plants are typically grown in the flower Garden or as House plants Most commonly they are grown for the display of their Flowers Other common A garden is a planned space usually outdoors set aside for the display cultivation and enjoyment of Plants and other forms of Nature.
Nutritional value per 100 g (3. 5 oz)
|Energy 530 kcal 2230 kJ|
|Percentages are relative to US|
recommendations for adults. Reference Daily Intake (or Recommended Daily Intake ( RDI) is the daily dietary intake level of a nutrient which was considered (at the time they were defined to be sufficient
Source: USDA Nutrient database
Flax seeds come in two basic varieties, brown and yellow or golden, with most types having similar nutritional values and equal amounts of short-chain omega-3 fatty acids. n −3 fatty acids (popularly referred to as ω−3 fatty acids or omega-3 fatty acids) are a family of unsaturated Fatty acids that The exception is a type of yellow flax called Linola or solin, which has a completely different oil profile and is very low in omega-3. Linola is the trademark name of solin, a mutant strain of Flax ( Linum usitatissimum) developed in the early 1990s by the Commonwealth Scientific and Although brown flax can be consumed as readily as yellow, and has been for thousands of years, it is better known as an ingredient in paints, fiber and cattle feed. Flax seeds produce a vegetable oil known as flaxseed or linseed oil; it is one of the oldest commercial oils and solvent-processed flax seed oil has been used for centuries as a drying oil in painting and varnishing. Linseed oil, also known as flax seed oil or simply flax oil, is a clear to yellowish Drying oil derived from the dried ripe seeds of the Flax A drying oil is an Oil which hardens to a tough solid film after a period of exposure to air
100 grams of ground flax seed supplies about 450 kilo-calories, 41 grams of fat, 28 grams of fibre, and 20 grams of protein. 
One tablespoon of ground flax seeds and three tablespoons of water may serve as a replacement for one egg in baking by binding the other ingredients together. An egg is a round or oval body laid by the female of many animals consisting of an Ovum surrounded by layers of Membranes and an outer casing which acts to nourish Ground flax seeds can also be mixed in with oatmeal, yogurt, wafer (similar to Metamucil), or any other food item where a nutty flavour is appropriate. Breakfast cereal health benefits There has been increasing interest in oatmeal in recent years due to its beneficial health effects Yoghurt, yogurt, yoghourt, youghurt or yogourt (see spelling below is a Metamucil is a bulk-producing Laxative and fiber supplement manufactured by Procter & Gamble. Flax seed sprouts are edible, with a slightly spicy flavour. Sprouting is the practice of soaking draining and then rinsing seeds at regular intervals until they Germinate, or sprout Excessive consumption of flax seeds can cause diarrhea. In Medicine, diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea (see spelling differences) is frequent loose or liquid Bowel movements Acute diarrhea 
Flax seeds are chemically stable while whole, and milled flaxseed can be stored at least 4 months at room temperature with minimal or no changes in taste, smell, or chemical markers of rancidity.  Refrigeration and storage in sealed containers will keep ground flax from becoming rancid for even longer.
Flax seeds contain high levels of lignans and Omega-3 fatty acids. Linseed oil, also known as flax seed oil or simply flax oil, is a clear to yellowish Drying oil derived from the dried ripe seeds of the Flax The lignans are a group of Chemical compounds found in Plants particularly in flax seed n −3 fatty acids (popularly referred to as ω−3 fatty acids or omega-3 fatty acids) are a family of unsaturated Fatty acids that Lignans may benefit the heart, possess anti-cancer properties and studies performed on mice found reduced growth in specific types of tumours. Initial studies suggest that flaxseed taken in the diet may benefit individuals with certain types of breast and prostate cancers. Breast cancer is a Cancer that starts in the cells of the Breast in women and men  Flax may also lessen the severity of diabetes by stabilizing blood-sugar levels.  There is some support for the use of flax seed as a laxative due to its dietary fiber content though excessive consumption without liquid can result in intestinal blockage. Laxatives (or purgatives) are foods compounds or drugs taken to induce bowel movements or to loosen the stool most often taken to treat Constipation. Dietary fibers are the indigestible portion of plant foods that move food through the Digestive system, absorbing water and easing Defecation.  Consuming large amounts of flax seed can impair the effectiveness of certain oral medications, due to its fiber content. 
Raw flax seed contains the chemical hydrogen cyanide (HCN) or cyanogenic glucosides which can be toxic if consumed in large quantities. Hydrogen cyanide is a Chemical compound with Chemical formula HCN 
Flax fibers are amongst the oldest fiber crops in the world. Fiber crops are field crops grown for their Fibers which are used to make Paper, Cloth, or Rope. The use of flax for the production of linen goes back 5000 years. Linen is a Textile made from the Fibers of the Flax plant Linum usitatissimum. Pictures on tombs and temple walls at Thebes depict flowering flax plants. Thebes ( Thēbai) was a city in Ancient Egypt located about 800 km south of the Mediterranean on the east bank of the river Nile ( The use of flax fibre in the manufacturing of cloth in northern Europe dates back to Neolithic times. A textile is a flexible material comprised of a network of natural or artificial Fibres often referred to as thread or Yarn. The Neolithic (from Greek νεολιθικός — neolithikos from νέος neos, "new" + λίθος lithos In North America, flax was introduced by the Puritans. A Puritan of 16th and 17th century England was an associate of any number of religious groups advocating for more "purity" of Worship and Doctrine, Currently most flax produced in the USA and Canada are seed flax types for the production of linseed oil or flaxseeds for human nutrition.
Flax fiber is extracted from the bast or skin of the stem of flax plant. Flax fiber is soft, lustrous and flexible. It is stronger than cotton fiber but less elastic. Cotton is a soft staple Fibre that grows around the seeds of the cotton plant ( Gossypium sp The best grades are used for linen fabrics such as damasks, lace and sheeting. Linen is a Textile made from the Fibers of the Flax plant Linum usitatissimum. Damask ( دمسق) is a figured fabric of Silk, Wool, Linen, Cotton, or Synthetic fibers with a pattern Coarser grades are used for the manufacturing of twine and rope. Twine is a strong Thread or String composed of two or more smaller strands or Yarns twisted together A rope is a length of Fibers twisted or Braided together to improve strength for pulling and Connecting. Flax fiber is also a raw material for the high-quality paper industry for the use of printed banknotes and rolling paper for cigarettes. A banknote (often known as a bill, paper money or simply a note) is a kind of Negotiable instrument, a Promissory note made by a Rolling papers are small sheets rolls or leaves of Paper which are sold for rolling one's own Cigarettes A cigarette ( French "small Cigar " from cigar + -ette) is a product consumed through Smoking and manufactured Flax mills for spinning flaxen yarn were invented by John Kendrew and Thomas Porthouse of Darlington in 1787. Flax Mills are mills concerned with the manufacture of Flax. The earliest mills were ones for spinning Yarn for the Linen industry This article is about the fiber product For the type of joke see Shaggy dog story. John Kendrew was a Darlington Optician who invented the process of the mechanical spinning of Flaxen Yarn in a Flax mill. Darlington is a town in County Durham, England and the main population centre in the Borough of Darlington. 
The major fibre flax-producing countries are Canada, USA and China, though there is also significant production in India and throughout Europe. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page The United States of America —commonly referred to as the China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country In the United States, three states, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Minnesota, raise nearly 100% of this plant. North Dakota ( is a state located in the Midwestern and Western regions of the United States of America. South Dakota ( is a state located in the Midwestern region of the United States of America. Minnesota ( Native Americans demonstrated the name to early settlers
The soils most suitable for flax, besides the alluvial kind, are deep friable loams, and containing a large proportion of organic matter. Soil, often typeset as SOiL, is a four piece rock band from Chicago Illinois United States founded by Shaun Glass Tom Schofield Tim King and Adam Zadel Alluvium (from the Latin, alluvius, from alluere, "to wash against" is Soil or Sediments deposited by a river or other running Loam is Soil composed of Sand, Silt, and Clay in relatively even concentration (about 40-40-20% concentration respectively considered Organic matter (or organic material) is Matter that has come from a once-living Organism; is capable of Heavy clays are unsuitable, as are soils of a gravelly or dry sandy nature. Clay is a naturally occurring material composed primarily of fine-grained Minerals which show plasticity through a variable range of Water content, and Gravel is rock that is of a specific Particle size range In Geology, gravel is any loose rock that is larger than two millimeters (2mm Sand is a naturally occurring Granular material composed of finely divided rock and Mineral particles Farming flax requires few fertilizers or pesticides. Fertilizers ( also spelt fertiliser are chemical compounds given to Plants to promote growth they are usually applied either through the soil for uptake by plant A pesticide is a substance or mixture of substances used to kill a pest. Within six weeks of sowing, the plant will reach 10-15 cm in height, and will grow several centimetres per day under its optimal growth conditions, reaching 70-80 cm within fifteen days.
Flax is harvested for fibre production after approximately 100 days, a month after the plant flowers and two weeks after the seed capsules form. The base of the plant will begin to turn yellow; if the plant is still green the seed will not be useful, and the fiber will be underdeveloped. The fiber degrades once the plant is brown. The mature plant is pulled up with the roots (not cut), so as to maximize the fiber length. After this the flax is allowed to dry, the seeds are removed, and is then retted. Retting is a stage in the manufacturing of vegetable fibers, especially the Bast fibers It is a process that employs water and microbial action to separate the bast Dependant upon climatic conditions, characteristics of the sown flax and fields, the flax remains in the ground between 2 weeks and 2 months for retting. As a result of alternating rain and the sun, an enzymatic action degrades the pectins which bind fibres to the straw. The farmers turn over the straw during retting to evenly rett the stalks. When the straw is retted and sufficiently dry, it is rolled up. It will then be stored by farmers before scutching to extract fibres.
Flax grown for seed is allowed to mature until the seed capsules are yellow and just starting to split; it is then harvested by combine harvester and dried to extract the seed. The combine harvester, or simply combine, also known as a thresher is a machine that combines the
Threshing is the process of removing the seeds from the rest of the plant.
The process is divided into two parts: the first part is intended for the farmer, or flax-grower, to bring the flax into a fit state for general or common purposes. This is performed by three machines: one for threshing out the seed, one for breaking and separating the straw (stem) from the fibre, and one for further separating the broken straw and matter from the fibre. In some cases the farmers thrash out the seed in their own mill and therefore, in such cases, the first machine will be unnecessary.
The second part of the process is intended for the manufacturer to bring the flax into a state for the very finest purposes, such as lace, cambric, damask, and very fine linen. Cambric or chambray is a lightweight Cotton cloth used as fabric for Lace and Needlework. Damask ( دمسق) is a figured fabric of Silk, Wool, Linen, Cotton, or Synthetic fibers with a pattern Linen is a Textile made from the Fibers of the Flax plant Linum usitatissimum. This second part is performed by the refining machine only.
The threshing process would be conducted as follows:
Before the flax fibers can be spun into linen, they must be separated from the rest of the stalk. The Roscheider Hof Open Air Museum is the Open air museum and Folklore Museum of the Greater SaarLorLux Region The first step in this process is called "retting". Retting is the process of rotting away the inner stalk, leaving the outer fibres intact. At this point there is still straw, or coarse fibers, remaining. To remove these the flax is "broken", the straw is broken up into small, short bits, while the actual fiber is left unharmed, then "scutched", where the straw is scraped away from the fiber, and then pulled through "hackles", which act like combs and comb the straw out of the fiber.
There are several methods of retting flax. Retting is a stage in the manufacturing of vegetable fibers, especially the Bast fibers It is a process that employs water and microbial action to separate the bast It can be retted in a pond, stream, field or a container. When the retting is complete the bundles of flax feel soft and slimy, and quite a few fibres are standing out from the stalks. When wrapped around a finger the inner woody part springs away from the fibres.
Pond retting is the fastest. It consists of placing the flax in a pool of water which will not evaporate. It generally takes place in a shallow pool which will warm up dramatically in the sun; the process may take from only a couple days to a couple weeks. Pond retted flax is traditionally considered lower quality, possibly because the product can become dirty, and easily over-retts, damaging the fiber. This form of retting also produces quite an odor.
Stream retting is similar to pool retting, but the flax is submerged in bundles in a stream or river. This generally takes longer than pond retting, normally by two or three weeks, but the end product is less likely to be dirty, does not stink as much, and because the water is cooler it is less likely to be over-retted.
Both Pond and Stream retting were traditionally used less because they pollute the waters used for that process.
Field retting is laying the flax out in a large field, and allowing dew to collect on it. This process normally takes a month or more, but is generally considered to provide the highest quality flax fibers, and produces the least pollution.
Retting can also be done in a plastic trash can or any type of water tight container of wood, concrete, earthenware or plastic. Wood is hard fibrous lignified structural tissue produced as secondary Xylem in the stems of Woody plants notably trees but also shrubs Concrete is a construction material composed of Cement (commonly Portland cement) as well as other cementitious materials such as Fly ash and Slag Earthenware is a common Ceramic material which is used extensively for Pottery tableware and decorative objects Plastic is the general common term for a wide range of synthetic or semisynthetic organic solid materials suitable for the manufacture of industrial products Metal containers will not work, as an acid is produced when retting, and it would corrode the metal. In Computer science, ACID ( Atomicity Consistency Isolation Durability) is a set of properties that guarantee that Database transactions are Corrosion means the breaking down of essential properties in a material due to Chemical reactions with its surroundings If the water temperature is kept at 80 °F, the retting process under these conditions takes 4 or 5 days. If the water is any colder it takes longer. Scum will collect at the top and an odour is given off like in pond retting.
Dressing the flax is the term given to removing the straw from the fibers. It consists of three steps, breaking, scutching, and heckling. The breaking breaks up the straw, then some of the straw is scraped from the fibers in the scutching process, then the fiber is pulled through heckles to remove the last bits of straw.
The dressing is done as follows: