Flavius Aëtius or simply Aëtius, (c. 396–454), was a Roman general of the closing period of the Western Roman Empire. Events By Place Western Roman Empire The Romans enlist the Franks and the Alemanni to defend the Rhine border Events By Place Western Roman Empire September 21 — During a meeting in his throne room in Ravenna, Emperor Valentinian The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial The Western Roman Empire refers to the western half of the Roman Empire, from its division by Diocletian in 285 the other half of the Roman Empire was the Eastern Along with his rival Count Boniface, he has often been called "the last of the Romans". See also Saint Boniface (Bonifacius in Latin Comes Bonifacius (anglicized in Count Boniface) (d The description Last of the Romans ( Ultimus Romanorum) has historically been given to any man thought to embody the values of Ancient Roman civilization - values which Edward Gibbon refers to him as "the man universally celebrated as the terror of Barbarians and the support of the Republic" for his victory over Attila the Hun at the Battle of Chalons, though it has been argued that this battle had no victor. Edward Gibbon ( April 27, 1737 January 16, 1794) was an English historian and Member of Parliament. "Barbarian" is a pejorative term for an uncivilized person either in a general reference to a member of a nation or Ethnos perceived
Aëtius was born at Durostorum in Moesia (modern Silistra, Bulgaria), in the late 4th century. Silistra (Силистра, historically Bulgarian: Дръстър Drastar, ( and Romanian: Dârstor) is a Port city of northeastern Moesia (Μοισία Moisía; Мизия Miziya; Moesia Мезија Mezija) was an ancient region and Roman province situated in the Silistra (Силистра, historically Bulgarian: Дръстър Drastar, ( and Romanian: Dârstor) is a Port city of northeastern The state of Bulgaria (България transliterated bg-Latn ''Balgaria'' The country preserves the traditions (in ethnic name language and alphabet of the First Bulgarian As a means of recording the passage of Time, the 4th century (per the Julian calendar and Anno Domini / Common era) was that Century He was the son of an Italian mother, Aurelia, and a Scythian father, Flavius Gaudentius, though Jordanes, in his Getica, claimed his father Gaudentius to be of Gothic stock. The' Italian people' are a Southern European Ethnic group located primarily in Italy, Switzerland, France and by virtue of a wide-ranging The Scythians or Scyths (Σκύθες Σκύθοι were an Iranian speaking people of horse-riding Nomadic pastoralists who dominated the Pontic For other people named Gaudentius see Gaudentius Flavius Gaudentius or simply Gaudentius (unknown - 432 was the father of the Roman Jordanes (also Jordanis or even Iornandes) was a 6th century Roman Bureaucrat, who turned his hand to History later in life De origine actibusque Getarum (lit The Origin and Deeds of the Getae but referring to the Goths whom Jordanes considered Getae or the Getica The Goths ( Gothic: Gothic usvg|14px|u]]Gothic asvg|14px|a]]Gothic s He rose in the service of the Western empire to be master of the horse, and later count of Africa. The Master of the Horse was (and in some cases is a historical position of varying importance in several European nations Aëtius passed some years as a hostage, first with Alaric and the Goths (probably 405–408), and later in the camp of Rugila, a king of the Huns. Alaric I ( Alareiks in the original Gothic; Alarik or Alarich in modern Germanic languages Alaricus in Latin and Alarico The Goths ( Gothic: Gothic usvg|14px|u]]Gothic asvg|14px|a]]Gothic s Rugila also referred to as Ruhas, Ruga and Rua ( ΄Ρούγας, ΄Ροϋνας, ΄Ρωίλας The Huns were an early confederation of Central Asian equestrian nomads or semi-nomads with a Turkic core of aristocracy Gibbon and some other historians maintain that Aëtius's upbringing among vigorous and warlike peoples such as the Huns gave him a martial vigour lacking in Rome itself at that period. Certainly he learned every trick the Huns themselves utilized in battle, and he used that knowledge well in his conflicts with Attila.
In 425, Aëtius led an army of Huns into Italy. For the US area code see Area code 425. Events By Place Western Roman Empire Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest He first moved to support Joannes, who had proclaimed himself emperor, but his arrival in Ravenna came three days after Joannes' defeat and execution. Joannes or Ioannes was a Roman usurper (423-425 against Valentinian III. Ravenna is a City and Comune in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy. With his large force of Huns, Aëtius was able to secure a pardon and obtain the office of Magister militum per Gallias (or Master of Soldiers in Gaul) from Galla Placidia, the empress-mother and regent for Valentinian III. Magister militum ( Latin for "Master of the Soldiers" was a top-level military command used in the later Roman Empire, dating from the reign of Gaul (Gallia was the Roman name for the region of Western Europe comprising present day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Aelia Galla Placidia (392 – November 27, 450) was the Empress consort of Constantius III, Western Roman Emperor. Flavius Placidius Valentinianus ( July 2, 419 &ndash March 16, 455) known in English as Valentinian III, was among the last
In Gaul, Aëtius defeated the Visigoths at Arles, forcing them to return to Aquitaine. The Visigoths (Visigothi, Wisigothi, Vesi, Visi, Wesi, or Wisi were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East Arles (aʁl̥ Provençal Occitan: Arles in both classical and Mistralian norms is a City in the south of France, Aquitaine (Aquitània Akitania archaic Guyenne / Guienne (Occitan Guiana) is one of the 26 Regions of France, in the south-western part of He then proceeded to reinforce the Rhine frontier and defend Noricum against German attacks. The Rhine (Rhein Rijn Rhin Reno Rain Rhenus is one of the longest and most important Rivers in Europe at 1320 kilometres (820 mi with an average discharge Noricum, in ancient Geography, was a Celtic kingdom (perhaps better described as a federation of by tradition twelve tribes stretching over the area of Meanwhile, in Africa, Count Boniface fell into disfavour with Placidia, perhaps partly due to the intrigues of Aëtius and other Roman generals. See also Saint Boniface (Bonifacius in Latin Comes Bonifacius (anglicized in Count Boniface) (d
Boniface was eventually returned to favour by Placidia, not before revolting in Africa and calling in the Vandals. In 432, Boniface was recalled to Italy and given the rank of patrician. Events By Place Western Roman Empire The Battle of Ravenna is fought between the two strong men of the Empire general Flavius Aëtius Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest The term " patrician " originally referred to a group of elite families in Ancient Rome, including both their natural and Aëtius, believing that Placidia had decided to get rid of him, marched against Boniface and fought against him in a battle near Rimini. Rimini is a city in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy and capital city of the Province of Rimini. Boniface won the battle tactically but was mortally wounded and died a few months later. Aëtius escaped to Dalmatia, and, with the help of the Huns (for which they were rewarded with territory in Pannonia), was restored to power by Placidia in 433. Dalmatia ( Croatian: Dalmacija, see names in other languages) is a region on the eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea, situated mostly in modern Pannonia is an ancient province of the Roman Empire bounded north and east by the Danube, coterminous westward with Noricum and upper Italy, For the John Cage composition see 4′33″. Events By Place Western Roman Empire Petronius Maximus becomes Consul
From 433 to 450, Aëtius was the dominant personality in the Western empire. For the John Cage composition see 4′33″. Events By Place Western Roman Empire Petronius Maximus becomes Consul For the area code see Area code 450. Events By Place Eastern Roman Empire August 25 — Marcian is proclaimed He continued to devote his attention to Gaul after his restoration to power. In 436, the Burgundians, taking advantage of disturbances caused by Bagaudae (bands of rebellious peasants, slaves and bandits), tried to seize more territory. Events By Place Western Roman Empire The Huns attack the Burgundians, wiping out the royal family The Burgundians or Burgundes were an East Germanic tribe which may have emigrated from mainland Scandinavia to the island of Bornholm, whose In the time of the Roman Empire bagaudae (also spelled bacaudae) were groups of peasant insurgents who emerged during the " Crisis of the Third Century Aëtius responded by calling upon the Huns to intervene, and 20,000 Burgundians were killed in a slaughter which became the basis of the Nibelungenlied, a German epic. The Huns were an early confederation of Central Asian equestrian nomads or semi-nomads with a Turkic core of aristocracy The Nibelungenlied, translated as The Song of the Nibelungs, is an epic poem in Middle High German. An epic is a lengthy Narrative poem, ordinarily concerning a serious subject containing details of heroic deeds and events significant to a culture or nation In 443, Aëtius settled the remaining Burgundians in Savoy, south of Lake Geneva. Events By Place Western Roman Empire The Burgundians create a kingdom on the banks of the Rhone. For the two French départements of the region of Savoy see Savoie and Haute-Savoie Savoy ( French Lake Geneva or Lake Léman (Lac Léman Léman Lac de Genève is the second largest freshwater Lake in Central Europe in terms of surface area (after His most pressing concern in the 440s was with problems in Gaul and Spain, mainly with the Bagaudae. Events and Trends Armorica rebels against the Roman empire. Cunedda begins his reign as Monarch of Wales. Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. He settled Alans around Valence and Orleans to contain unrest around present-day Brittany. The Alans or Alani (occasionally but more rarely termed Alauni or Halani) were an Iranian nomadic group among the Sarmatian people Valence ( Occitan Valença) is a commune in southeastern France, the capital of the department of Drôme, situated This article is about the French city of Orléans for other meanings see Orleans (disambiguation. Brittany (Breizh bʁejs Bretagne; Gallo: Bertaèyn) is a former independent Celtic kingdom and Duchy, now incorporated into
In 451 a large army of Huns, led by Attila, invaded Gaul and captured several cities, and proceeded towards Orleans. Events By Place Western Roman Empire April 7 — The Huns sack Metz. One of the great achievements of military history was the assembling of the coalition against Attila. Arthur Ferrill, addressing this issue, says
When the Alans living in the region were ready to defect to Attila, Aëtius and the Visigothic king Theodoric I moved in to relieve the besieged city of Orleans. The Visigoths (Visigothi, Wisigothi, Vesi, Visi, Wesi, or Wisi were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East Theodoric I, sometimes called Theodorid and in Spanish, Portuguese and Italian Teodorico, was the King of the Visigoths The Huns abandoned the siege and retreated to open country, where, on September 20, 451 (some sources place the date at June 20, 451), they and their allies battled the Romans and Visigoths, along with their Alan, Frankish, and Burgundian allies, on the Catalaunian Fields near Châlons-en-Champagne. Events 451 - The Battle of Chalons takes place in North Eastern France. Events By Place Western Roman Empire April 7 — The Huns sack Metz. Events 451 - Battle of Chalons: Flavius Aetius ' defeats Attila the Hun. Events By Place Western Roman Empire April 7 — The Huns sack Metz. Francia or Frankia, later also called the Frankish Empire (imperium Francorum Frankish Kingdom (Latin regnum Francorum, "Kingdom of the Châlons-en-Champagne is a city and commune in France. It is the administrative centre ( Préfecture) of both the département Although tactically the outcome of the Battle of Chalons was indecisive, it was a great triumph for Aëtius and the Romans. Attila was forced to retreat beyond the Rhine (because of winter) and threatened Gaul again next year, though he returned once more to Italy. The Rhine (Rhein Rijn Rhin Reno Rain Rhenus is one of the longest and most important Rivers in Europe at 1320 kilometres (820 mi with an average discharge
Attila returned in 452 to again press his claim of marriage to Honoria, invading and ravaging Italy along the way; his army sacked numerous cities and razed Aquileia completely, leaving no trace of it behind. Justa Grata Honoria was the sister of the Western Roman Emperor Valentinian III. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Aquileia (also called Aquilegia, Friulian Acuilee/Aquilee, Slovene Oglej) is an ancient Roman city in what is Valentinian fled from Ravenna to Rome; Aëtius remained in the field but lacked the strength to offer battle. Ravenna is a City and Comune in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy. Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 Gibbon however says Aëtius never showed his greatness more clearly in managing to harass and slow Attila's advance with only a shadow force. Attila finally halted at the Po, where he met an embassy including the prefect Trigetius, the consul Aviennus, and Pope Leo I. The Po ( Latin: Padus, Po Ligurian: Bo, Greek: Eridanus) is a river that flows 652 km(405 miles (682 km by considering Prefect (from the Latin praefectus, perfect participle of praeficere: "make in front" i Consul (abbrev cos; Latin plural consules) was the highest elected office of the Roman Republic and an appointive office under the Empire Pope Saint Leo I or Pope Saint Leo the Great was Pope from September 29, 440 to November 10, 461. After the meeting he turned his army back, having gained neither Honoria's hand nor the territories he desired.
Although in 453 Aëtius had been able to betroth his son Gaudentius to Valentinian's daughter Placidia, Valentinian felt intimidated by Aëtius, who had once supported Joannes against him and whom Valentinian believed wanted to place his son upon the imperial throne. Flavius Placidius Valentinianus ( July 2, 419 &ndash March 16, 455) known in English as Valentinian III, was among the last The Roman senator Petronius Maximus and the chamberlain Heraclius were therefore able to enlist Valentinian in a plot to assassinate Aëtius. Flavius Anicius Petronius Maximus (c 396 - May 31 455) was a Roman aristocrat and briefly Western Roman Emperor with the designation On September 21, 454, when at court in Ravenna delivering a financial account, Aëtius was slain by Valentinian's own hand. Events 1217 - The Estonian tribal leader Lembitu of Lehola was killed in a battle against Teutonic Knights. Events By Place Western Roman Empire September 21 — During a meeting in his throne room in Ravenna, Emperor Valentinian Ravenna is a City and Comune in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy. Edward Gibbon credits Sidonius Apollinaris with the famous observation, "I am ignorant, sir, of your motives or provocations; I only know that you have acted like a man who has cut off his right hand with his left" (Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, ch. Edward Gibbon ( April 27, 1737 January 16, 1794) was an English historian and Member of Parliament. For the Franco-Irish saint see Sidonius of Saint-Saëns. Gaius Sollius (Modestus Apollinaris Sidonius or Saint Sidonius Apollinaris 35).
Maximus expected to be made patrician in place of Aëtius, but was blocked by Heraclius. Seeking revenge, Maximus arranged with two Hun friends of Aëtius, Optila and Thraustila, to assassinate both Valentinian III and Heraclius. Flavius Placidius Valentinianus ( July 2, 419 &ndash March 16, 455) known in English as Valentinian III, was among the last On March 16, 455, Optila stabbed the emperor in the temple as he dismounted in the Campus Martius and prepared for a session of archery practice. Events 597 BC - Babylonians capture Jerusalem, replace Jehoiachin with Zedekiah as king Events By Place Western Roman Empire March 16 — Valentinian III is murdered by former soldiers of Aëtius, in revenge As the stunned emperor turned to see who had struck him, Optila finished him off with another thrust of his blade. Meanwhile, Thraustila stepped forward and killed Heraclius. Most of the soldiers standing close by had been faithful followers of Aëtius and none lifted a hand to save the emperor.
Aëtius is universally viewed as a great military commander. Most historians consider the Battle of Chalons as of decisive importance, having crippled Attila by destroying his aura of invincibility.
It is important to note that while J. B. Bury viewed Aëtius as a great military commander, and giant figure of history, he does not consider that Chalons was particularly decisive. John Bagnell Bury ( 16 October 1861 &ndash 1 June 1927) known as J He argues that Aëtius attacked the Huns when they were already retreating from Orleans, so Gaul was not in immediate danger; and he declined to renew the attack on the next day, to preserve the balance of power. This article is about the French city of Orléans for other meanings see Orleans (disambiguation. Then again, the Huns may have abandoned the siege of Orleans precisely because Aëtius's armies were advancing on them.
In Bury's view, the Battle of Nedao, three years later, was more important. The Battle of Nedao named after the Nedava, a tributary of the Sava, was a Battle fought in Pannonia in 454. The Germans rose up against the Huns after Attila's death, and defeated them at Nedao, in 454. Events By Place Western Roman Empire September 21 — During a meeting in his throne room in Ravenna, Emperor Valentinian This determined that there would be no Hunnic Empire, which Bury thinks would have been unlikely even if they had crushed the Germans that time. For Bury, Chalons determined chiefly whether Attila spent his last year looting Gaul or Italy.
Bury's view remains in the minority, and Chalons is considered crucial by virtually every other major historian. What is more, Bury does not challenge the majority view that Aëtius was a major historical figure, who singlehandedly held up the dying Empire for three decades. As to Chalons, Gibbon states the majority view quite eloquently:
John Julius Norwich also strongly disagrees with Bury, as does William E. Watson, Sir Edward Creasy, and Poke, saying that "the entire fate of western civilization hung in the balance" in the campaigns of Attila, and that Chalons was a pivotal turning point in history. John Julius Cooper 2nd Viscount Norwich CVO (born 15 September 1929) is an English historian travel writer and television personality William E Watson is a Historian, associate Professor of History at Immaculata University and also working for the nonprofit organization De Re Militari He also caustically referred to the assassination of Valentinian by his own guards as an act he brought on himself by his foolish execution of Aëtius, the "Empire's greatest commander. " Certainly Aëtius' military legacy is defined by Chalons, even though he effectively ruled the western empire from 433-450, and attempted to stabilize the European borders under a deluge of barbarians, including foremost, Attila and the Huns.
His legacy has been filled with controversy somewhat similar to that of Stilicho. Flavius Stilicho (occasionally written as Stilico) (ca 359 &ndash August 22, 408) was a high-ranking general ( Magister militum The two best Roman generals of their time, both were killed by jealous emperors, and both left the Empire significantly weaker when they died. The main difference between the two was that all major historians hail Aëtius as a loyal Roman and pillar of the Empire, while Bury finds Stilicho an unwitting traitor. Unfortunately, while Stilicho was succeeded by Aëtius, the Empire simply had no one to take Aëtius's place. At the time of Aëtius's death, all the Roman provinces in western Europe had a significant barbarian presence. This had begun a full three generations earlier, when the barbarians were allowed to stay inside the Empire's borders in exchange for peace and their military service. Edward Gibbon maintains that Aëtius could not have expelled them if he had wanted to, as he lacked Roman troops to do the task, and the barbarians were the only army he had to keep the peace. Gibbon argues in great detail that Roman citizens had lost their martial vigour, with the consequence that the only troops available to Stilicho or Aëtius were mostly barbarians. 
Gibbon views Aëtius in a positive light, as does Norwich, Creasy, Ferrill, and Watson. In 1980, Robert F. Year 1980 ( MCMLXXX) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar) Pennel wrote in Ancient Rome from the Earliest Times Down to 476AD:
Gibbon believes it was not indifference but rather preoccupation with the Huns and other barbarians that led Aëtius to neglect the navy. The subsequent loss of Africa came after Boniface invited the Vandals. Gibbon makes clear that Aëtius simply lacked the means to preserve the declining Western Empire in its entirety, while Norwich concludes that he guarded the Empire for three decades and that the after-effects of Aëtius's death lie at the feet of the Emperor who foolishly killed him. At a time when Romans did little or none of their own fighting, and no effective navy existed in the West, Aëtius had all he could do to preserve some vestige of order in continental Europe.
One could argue that later Emperors Majorian, Leo I and Anthemius saw the necessity of regaining the African provinces. Iulius Valerius Maiorianus (November 420 - 7 August 461) commonly known as Majorian, was Western Roman Emperor (457 See Anthemius of Tralles for an architect of Hagia Sophia. For the Praetorian prefect and grandfather of the Emperor see Anthemius (praetorian prefect Should Aëtius have concentrated his efforts on saving Africa, to the detriment of maintaining some vestige of Empire in Europe? Michael Grant in his History of Rome states flatly that Aëtius was powerless to stop the loss of Africa. Aëtius had begun to move against the Vandals when the forces he sent had to be recalled to fight Attila. Since Aëtius relied on barbarian federates, and as no other Roman General had the respect of those barbarian troops, his death left the Empire bereft of virtually any army in the west.
It is highly notable that Bury, who does not believe the Battle of Chalons was significant, does believe Aëtius's rule in general was, saying "From the end of the regency to his own death, Aëtius was master of the Empire in the west, and it must be imputed to his policy and arms that Imperial rule did not break down in all the provinces by the middle of the fifth century. "
In the end, there is some disagreement among historians as to the historical place of Aëtius. Was he the protector of Rome for three decades described by Gibbon, Norwich and Bury, the hero of Chalons described by Sir Edward Creasy, or should he be condemned for the loss of Africa, though most historians say he was powerless to stop that loss? Although Bury is cited as a critic of Aëtius, he was not, and said of Aëtius's death: "Who was now to save Italy from the Vandals?" The answer was no one. There was not one figure in the Empire able to take Aëtius's place as the champion and defender of the West. The certain thing about Aëtius's place in history is that he will forever be remembered as the last great Western Roman General, and the General who defeated the dreaded Attila the Hun. 
Aëtius is played by Powers Boothe in the 2001 TV Miniseries Attila. Powers Allen Boothe (born June 1, 1948) is an American Television and Film Actor. Attila (also known as Attila the Hun in the UK takes place during the waning days of Roman Empire, the barbarian Huns are making Here he is portrayed as an anti-hero who accomplishes his goals through unorthodox methods. Aëtius is portrayed as the heroic 'Last of the Romans' in William Napier's Attila trilogy (2005), uniting the Romans and the Goths in one final, titanic battle to stop the Huns in their tracks, in the epochal Battle of the Catalaunian Fields.
While he does not appear in person, Aëtius' battle with Attila is documented in detail in Jack Whyte's book "The Eagle," during a conversation between King Arthur and Seur Clothar. Jack Whyte ( Johnstone, Renfrewshire, Scotland, 1940) is an author and Writer born and raised in Scotland, but living in King Arthur is a legendary British leader who according to medieval histories and romances, led the defence of Britain against the Saxon invaders
Aëtius, Galla Placidia and Stilicho all appear as central characters in Jose Gomez-Rivera's historical novel "Flavius Aëtius: The Last Conqueror," published in 2004.
Aëtius, Attila and Theodoric all appear in Michael Curtis Ford's fourth novel entitled "The Sword of Attila," published by Thomas Dunne Books in 2005. Michael Curtis Ford is an American Historical novelist writing novels about Ancient Rome and Ancient Greece.
Flavius Anicius Auchenius Bassus,
|Consul of the Roman Empire|
with Flavius Valerius
Imp. Caesar Flavius Theodosius Augustus XIV,
Flavius Anthemius Isidorus Theophilus,
|Consul of the Roman Empire|
with Flavius Sigisvultus
Imp. Caesar Flavius Theodosius Augustus XVI,
Anicius Acilius Glabrio Faustus
Imp. Caesar Flavius Placidus Valentinianus Augustus VI,
|Consul of the Roman Empire|
with Q. This is a list of Roman consuls Key Abbreviations Imp = Imperator suff The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial Events By Place Western Roman Empire The Battle of Ravenna is fought between the two strong men of the Empire general Flavius Aëtius Flavius Theodosius ( 10 April, 401 – July 28, 450) called the Calligrapher, known in English as Theodosius II, was Flavius Anicius Petronius Maximus (c 396 - May 31 455) was a Roman aristocrat and briefly Western Roman Emperor with the designation This is a list of Roman consuls Key Abbreviations Imp = Imperator suff The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial 437 can also refer to MS-DOS Code page 437. Events By Place Roman Empire October 29 — Valentinian Flavius Sigisvultus ( fl 427–448 was a general of the late Western Roman Empire. Flavius Theodosius ( 10 April, 401 – July 28, 450) called the Calligrapher, known in English as Theodosius II, was Flavius Placidius Valentinianus ( July 2, 419 &ndash March 16, 455) known in English as Valentinian III, was among the last This is a list of Roman consuls Key Abbreviations Imp = Imperator suff The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial Events By place British Isles The Cor Tewdws (Collage of Theodosius Llantwit Major is burned down Aurelius Symmachus
Flavius Ardaburius Iunior