The First Party System is a term of periodization used by some political scientists and historians to describe the political system existing in the United States between roughly 1792 and 1824. Periodization is the attempt to categorize or divide Time into discrete named blocks The United States of America —commonly referred to as the It featured two national parties competing for control of the presidency, Congress, and the states: the Federalist Party (created by Alexander Hamilton) and the Democratic-Republican Party (created by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison). The Federalist Party (or Federal Party) was an American political party in the period 1792 to 1816 with remnants lasting into the 1820s Thomas Jefferson (April 13 1743 – July 4 1826 was the third President of the United States (1801–1809 the principal author of the Declaration of Independence James Madison Jr (March 16 1751 – June 28 1836 was an American Politician, the fourth President of the United States (1809–1817 and one of the Founding
The First Party System ended during the Era of Good Feelings (1816-1824), as the Federalists shrank to a few isolated strongholds. The Era of Good Feelings (1815–24 describes a period in United States political history in which partisan bitterness abated In 1824-28, as the Second Party System emerged, the Democratic-Republican Party split into the Jacksonian faction, which became the modern Democratic Party in the 1830s, and the Henry Clay faction, which was largely absorbed by Clay's Whig Party. The Second Party System is a term of Periodization used by historians and political scientists to name the political system existing in the United States from about Andrew Jackson (March 15 1767 June 8 1845 was the seventh President of the United States (1829&ndash1837 The History of the United States Democratic Party is an account of the oldest Political party in the United States and arguably TalkDemocratic Henry Clay Sr ( April 12, 1777 &ndash June 29, 1852) was a nineteenth-century American statesman and Orator who The Whig Party was a Political party of the United States during the era of Jacksonian democracy.
Political parties leading nationalists, led by George Washington, Alexander Hamilton and Benjamin Franklin, called the Constitutional Convention in 1787. George Washington (February 22 1732 December 14 1799 served as the first President of the United States of America (1789&ndash1797 and led the Benjamin Franklin ( April 17 1790 was one of the Founding Fathers of the United States of America. The Philadelphia Convention (now also known as the Constitutional Convention, the Federal Convention, or the " Grand Convention at Philadelphia It drew up a new constitution that was submitted to state ratification conventions for approval. (The old Congress of the Confederation approved the process. ) James Madison was the most prominent figure; he is often referred to as "the father of the Constitution. James Madison Jr (March 16 1751 – June 28 1836 was an American Politician, the fourth President of the United States (1809–1817 and one of the Founding "
An intense debate on ratification pitted the "Federalists" against the "Anti-Federalists," with the former gaining the upper hand. The Anti-Federalists were deeply concerned about the theoretical danger of a strong central government (like that of Britain) that some day could usurp the rights of the states. Madison and Alexander Hamilton countered toward a strong central government, especially those promoted by Hamilton.
The term "Federalist Party" originated around 1792-3 and refers to a somewhat different coalition comprised of supporters of the Constitution in 1787-88 as well as entirely new elements, and even some opponents of the Constitution (such as Patrick Henry). Patrick Henry ( May 29, 1736 June 6, 1799) was a prominent figure in the American Revolution, known and remembered for his " Madison largely wrote the Constitution and thus was a Federalist in 1787-88, but opposed the program of the Hamiltonians and their new "Federalist Party. "
At first, there were no parties in the nation. Factions soon formed around dominant personalities such as Treasury Secretary Alexander Hamilton and Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson, who opposed Hamilton's broad vision of a powerful federal government. Thomas Jefferson (April 13 1743 – July 4 1826 was the third President of the United States (1801–1809 the principal author of the Declaration of Independence Jefferson especially objected to Hamilton's flexible view of the Constitution, which Hamilton stretched to include a national bank. Washington was re-elected without opposition in 1792.
Hamilton built a national network of supporters that emerged about 1792–93 as the Federalist Party. The Federalist Party (or Federal Party) was an American political party in the period 1792 to 1816 with remnants lasting into the 1820s In response, Jefferson and James Madison built a network of supporters of the republic in Congress and in the states that emerged in 1792-93 as the Democratic-Republican Party. James Madison Jr (March 16 1751 – June 28 1836 was an American Politician, the fourth President of the United States (1809–1817 and one of the Founding The elections of 1792 were the first to be contested on anything resembling a partisan basis. In most states, the congressional elections were recognized in some sense, as Jefferson strategist John Beckley put it, as a "struggle between the Treasury department and the republican interest. John James Beckley ( August 4, 1757 &ndash April 8, 1807) political campaign manager and the first U " In New York, the race for governor was organized along these lines. The candidates were John Jay, who was a Hamiltonian, and incumbent George Clinton, who was allied with Jefferson and the Republicans. John Jay (December 12 1745 – May 17 1829 was an American Politician, Statesman, revolutionary, Diplomat, a Supreme Court This page is for the US Vice President For others of that name see George Clinton. 
In 1793, the first Democratic-Republican Societies were formed. Democratic-Republican Societies were local political organizations formed in the United States in 1793-94 to promote Republicanism and Democracy and to They supported the French Revolution, which had just seen the execution of King Louis XVI, and generally supported the Jeffersonian cause. The French Revolution (1789–1799 was a period of political and social upheaval in the History of France, during which the French governmental structure previously an Louis XVI ( 23 August 1754 – 21 January 1793) Louis-Auguste de France, ruled as King of France and Navarre The word "democrat" was proposed by Citizen Genet for the societies, and the Federalists ridiculed Jefferson's friends as "democrats. Edmond-Charles Genêt ( January 8, 1763 &ndash July 14, 1834) also known as Citizen Genêt, was a French ambassador " After Washington denounced the societies as unrepublican, they mostly faded away.
In 1793, war broke out between England and France. The Jeffersonians favored France and pointed to the 1778 treaty that was still in effect. Washington and his unanimous cabinet (including Jefferson) decided the treaty did not bind the U. S. to enter the war; instead Washington proclaimed neutrality.
When war threatened with Britain in 1794, Washington sent John Jay to negotiate the Jay treaty with Britain; it was signed in late 1794, and ratified in 1795. John Jay (December 12 1745 – May 17 1829 was an American Politician, Statesman, revolutionary, Diplomat, a Supreme Court The Jay Treaty, also known as the Treaty of London of 1794, between the United States and Great Britain averted war solved many issues left over from It averted a possible war and settled many (but not all) the outstanding issues between the U. S. and Britain. ,  the Jeffersonians vehemently denounced it, saying it threatened to undermine republicanism by giving the aristocratic British and their Federalist allies too much influence.  The fierce debates over the Jay Treaty in 1794-96 according to William Nisbet Chanbers, nationalized politics and turned a faction in Congress into a nationwide party. To fight the treaty the Jeffersonians "established coordination in activity between leaders at the capital, and leaders, actives and popular followings in the states, counties and towns. " 
In 1796 Jefferson challenged John Adams for the presidency and lost. John Adams (October 30 1735 July 4 1826 was one of the most influential Founding Fathers of the United States. The Electoral College made the decision, and it was chosen by the state legislatures, which still lacked parties. An electoral college is a set of many electors who are empowered to elect a candidate to a particular Office.
By 1796, both parties had a national network of newspapers, which attacked each other vehemently. The Federalist and Republican newspapers of the 1790s traded vicious barbs. The history of American newspapers goes back to the 17th century with the publication of the first colonial newspapers Hamilton's vices, both personal and political, were favorite targets, as shown by this doggerel from a Democratic-Republican paper: 
Historians have used statistical techniques to estimate the party breakdown in Congress. Many Congressmen were hard to classify in the first few years, but after 1796 there was less uncertainty. The first parties were anti-federalist and federalist.
Federalist and Democratic-Republican Strength in Congress by Election Year
Source: Kenneth C. Martis, The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress, 1789-1989 (1989); the numbers are estimates by historians.
The Jeffersonians invented many of campaign techniques that were later adopted by the Federalists and became standard American practice. They were especially effective in building a network of newspapers in major cities to broadcast their statements and editorialize in their favor. The history of American newspapers goes back to the 17th century with the publication of the first colonial newspapers But the Federalists, with a strong base among merchants, controlled more newspapers. In 1796 the Federalist papers outnumbered the Republicans by 4-1. Every year more papers began publishing; in 1800 the Federalists still had a 2-1 numerical advantage. Most papers, on each side, were weeklies with a circulation of 300 to 1000.  Jefferson systematically subsidized the editors. Fisher Ames, a leading Federalist, who used the term "Jacobin" to link Jefferson's followers to the terrorists of the French Revolution, blamed the newspapers for electing Jefferson. Fisher Ames ( April 19, 1758 &ndash July 4, 1808) was a Representative in the United States Congress from the They were, he wrote, "an overmatch for any Government. . . . The Jacobins owe their triumph to the unceasing use of this engine; not so much to skill in use of it as by repetition. "  Historians echo Ames' assessment. As one explains, "It was the good fortune of the Republicans to have within their ranks a number of highly gifted political manipulators and propagandists. Some of them had the ability. . . to not only see and analyze the problem at hand but to present it in a succinct fashion; in short, to fabricate the apt phrase, to coin the compelling slogan and appeal to the electorate on any given issue in language it could understand. " Outstanding phrasemakers included editor William Duane and party leaders Albert Gallatin, Thomas Cooper and of course Jefferson himself. William Duane may refer to William John Duane, Secretary of the Treasury under Jackson William Duane (physicist Abraham Alfonse Albert Gallatin (January 29 1761 &ndash August 12 1849 was a Swiss-American Ethnologist, linguist, politician, Diplomat Thomas Cooper may refer to Thomas Cooper (bishop (1517&ndash1594 English bishop of Winchester Thomas Cooper (US politician (1759&ndash1840  Meanwhile John J. Beckley of Pennsylvania, an ardent partisan, invented new campaign techniques (such as mass distribution of pamphlets and handwritten ballots) that generated the grass-roots support and unprecedented levels of voter turnout for the Jeffersonians. John James Beckley ( August 4, 1757 &ndash April 8, 1807) political campaign manager and the first U
With the world thrown into global warfare after 1793, the small nation on the fringe of the European system could barely remain neutral. The First Coalition ( 1792 – 1797) was the first major concerted effort of multiple European powers to contain Revolutionary France. The Jeffersonians called for strong measures against Britain, even another war. The Federalists tried to avert war by the Jay Treaty (1795) with England. The Jay Treaty, also known as the Treaty of London of 1794, between the United States and Great Britain averted war solved many issues left over from The treaty became highly controversial when the Jeffersonians denounced it as a sell-out to Britain, even as the Federalists said it avoided war, reduced the Indian threat, created good trade relations with the world's foremost economic power, and ended lingering disputes from the Revolutionary War. When Jefferson came to power in 1801 he honored the treaty, but new disputes with England led to the War of 1812. The War of 1812 was fought between the United States of America and the British Empire, particularly Great Britain and her North American colonies 
In 1798 the disputes with France led to a Quasi-War, an undeclared naval war involving the navies and merchant ships of both countries. The Quasi-War was an Undeclared war fought entirely at sea between the United States and France from 1798 to 1800 Democratic-Republicans said France really wanted peace, but the XYZ Affair undercut their position. The XYZ Affair was a 1798 diplomatic episode that worsened relations between France and the United States and led to the undeclared Warning that full-scale war with France was imminent, Hamilton and his "High Federalist" allies forced the issue by getting Congressional approval to raise a large new army (which Hamilton controlled), replete with officers' commissions (which he bestowed on his partisans). The Alien and Sedition Acts (1798) clamped down on dissenters, including pro-Jefferson editors, and Vermont Congressman Matthew Lyon, who won re-election while in jail in 1798. The Alien and Sedition Acts were four bills passed in 1798 by the Federalists in the United States Congress —who were waging an undeclared naval war with France Matthew Lyon ( July 14, 1749 - August 1, 1822) (father of Chittenden Lyon and great-grandfather of William Peters Hepburn In the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions (1798), secretly drafted by Madison and Jefferson, the legislatures of the two states challenged the power of the federal government. The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions (or Resolves) were important political statements in favor of States' rights written secretly by Vice President Thomas 
Madison worked diligently to form party lines inside the Congress and build coalitions with sympathetic political factions in each state. In 1800, a critical election galvanized the electorate, sweeping the Federalists out of power, and electing Jefferson and his Democratic-Republican Party. In the United States Presidential election of 1800, sometimes referred to as the “Revolution of 1800” Vice President Thomas Jefferson defeated President John Adams Adams made a few last minute appointments, notably Federalist John Marshall as Chief Justice, a post he held for three decades and used it to federalize the Constitution, much to Jefferson's dismay. John Marshall (September 24 1755 – July 6 1835 was an American statesman and jurist who shaped American constitutional law and made the Supreme Court a center of power 
As president, Jefferson worked to cleanse the government of Adam's "midnight" Federalist appointments just before Jefferson took office. He withheld the commissions of 25 of 42 midnight appointment judges and removed Army officers. The sense that the nation needed two rival parties to balance each other had not been fully accepted by either party; Hamilton had viewed Jefferson's election as the failure of the Federalist experiment. The rhetoric of the day was cataclysmic—election of the opposition meant the enemy would ruin the nation. Jefferson's foreign policy was not exactly pro-Napoleon, but it applied pressure on Britain to stop impressment of American sailors and other hostile acts. By engineering an embargo of trade against Britain, Jefferson and Madison plunged the nation into economic depression, ruined much of the business of Federalist New England, and finally precipitated the War of 1812 with a much larger and more powerful foe. The Embargo Act " was a series of laws passed by the Congress of the United States between the years 1806-1808 during the second term of President Thomas The War of 1812 was fought between the United States of America and the British Empire, particularly Great Britain and her North American colonies 
The Federalists vigorously criticized the government, and gained strength in the industrial Northeast. However, they committed a major blunder in 1814. That year the semi-secret "Hartford Convention" passed resolutions that verged on secession; their publication ruined the Federalist party. The Hartford Convention was an event in 1814-1815 in the United States during the War of 1812 in which New England 's opposition to the war reached It had been limping along for years, with strength in New England and scattered eastern states but practically no strength in the West. While Federalists helped invent or develop numerous campaign techniques (such as conventions), their elitist bias alienated the seqouia middle class, thus allowing the Jeffersonians to claim they represented the true spirit of "republicanism. "
Because of the importance of foreign policy (decided by the national government), of the sale of national lands, and the patronage controlled by the President, the factions in each state realigned themselves in parallel with the Federalists and Republicans. Some newspaper editors became powerful politicians, such as Thomas Ritchie, whose "Richmond Junto" controlled Virginia state politics for decades. Thomas Ritchie ( November 5, 1778 - July 3, 1854) of Virginia was a leading American journalist
New England was always the stronghold of the Federalist party. One historian explains how well organized it was in Connecticut:
Given the power of the Federalists, the Republicans had to work harder to win. In 1806, the state leadership sent town leaders instructions for the forthcoming elections. Every town manager was told by state leaders "to appoint a district manager in each district or section of his town, obtaining from each an assurance that he will faithfully do his duty. " Then the town manager was instructed to compile lists and total up the number of taxpayers, the number of eligible voters, how many were "decided republicans," "decided federalists," or "doubtful," and finally to count the number of supporters who were not currently eligible to vote but who might qualify (by age or taxes) at the next election. The returns eventually went to the state manager, who issues directions to laggard town to get all the eligibles to the town meetings, help the young men qualify to vote, to nominate a full ticket for local elections, and to print and distribute the party ticket. (The secret ballot did not appear for a century. The secret ballot is a voting method in which a Voter 's choices are confidential )  This highly coordinated "get-out-the-vote" drive would be familiar to modern political campaigners, but was the first of its kind in world history.
Religious tensions polarized Connecticut, as the established Congregational Church, in alliance with the Federalists, tried to maintain its grip on power. Dissenting groups moved toward the Jeffersonians. The failure of the Hartford Convention in 1814 wounded the Federalists, who were finally upended by the Democratic-Republicans in 1817. The Hartford Convention was an event in 1814-1815 in the United States during the War of 1812 in which New England 's opposition to the war reached
By 1800, the United States had the first two-party system in the world. The First Party System was built around foreign policy issues that vanished with the defeat of Napoleon and the compromise settlement of the War of 1812. The War of 1812 was fought between the United States of America and the British Empire, particularly Great Britain and her North American colonies Furthermore, the fears that Federalists were plotting to reintroduce aristocracy dissipated. Thus an "Era of Good Feelings" under James Monroe replaced the high-tension politics of the First Party System about 1816. The Era of Good Feelings (1815–24 describes a period in United States political history in which partisan bitterness abated James Monroe (April 28 1758 – July 4 1831 was the fifth President of the United States (1817–1825 Personal politics and factional disputes could occasionally still get nasty, but Americans no longer thought of themselves in terms of political parties.
Historians have debated the exact ending of the system.  Most concluded it petered out by 1820. The little state of Delaware, largely isolated from the larger political forces controlling the nation, saw the First Party System continue well into the 1820s, with the Federalists occasionally winning some offices. For the rest of the nation, the contributions of the founding fathers of political parties had been completed—and thus it seems symbolic that Adams and Jefferson died on the same day (4 July 1826), even on their deathbeds acknowledging the other's remarkable contributions. Events 836 - Pactum Sicardi, peace between the Principality of Benevento and the Duchy of Naples For the game see 1826 (board game. Year 1826 ( MDCCCXXVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display
Alexander Hamilton felt that only by mobilizing its supporters on a daily basis in every state on many issues could support for the government be sustained through thick and thin. Newspapers were needed to communicate inside the party; patronage helped the party's leaders and made new friends. Hamilton, and especially Washington, distrusted the idea of an opposition party, as shown in George Washington's Farewell Address of 1796. George Washington's Farewell Address was written to the people of the United States at the end of his second term as President of the United States They thought opposition parties would only weaken the nation. By contrast Jefferson was the main force behind the creation and continuity of an opposition party. He deeply felt the Federalists represented aristocratic forces hostile to true republicanism and the true will of the people, as he explained in a letter to Henry Lee in 1824:
|“||Men by their constitutions are naturally divided into two parties: 1. Those who fear and distrust the people, and wish to draw all powers from them into the hands of the higher classes. 2. Those who identify themselves with the people, have confidence in them, cherish and consider them as the most honest and safe, although not the most wise depositary of the public interests. In every country these two parties exist, and in every one where they are free to think, speak, and write, they will declare themselves. Call them, therefore, liberals and serviles, Jacobins and Ultras, whigs and tories, republicans and federalists, aristocrats and democrats, or by whatever name you please, they are the same parties still and pursue the same object. The last appellation of aristocrats and democrats is the true one expressing the essence of all. "||”|
Hofstadter (1970) shows it took many years for the idea to take hold that having two parties is better than having one, or none. That transition was made possible by the successful passing of power in 1801 from one party to the other. Although Jefferson systematically identified Federalist army officers and officeholders, he was blocked from removing all of them by protests from republicans. The Quids complained he did not go far enough. The tertium quids (sometimes shortened to quids) refers to different factions of the United States Democratic-Republican Party during the period
|Political eras of the United States of America|