First Nations is a term of ethnicity that refers to the indigenous peoples in what is now Canada who are neither Inuit nor Métis people. The term Indigenous Peoples or autochthonous peoples can be used to describe any Ethnic group who inhabit a geographic region with which they have the earliest historical Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page Inuit (plural the singular Inuk, means "man" or "person" is a general term for a group of culturally similar Indigenous peoples inhabiting A Métis is a person born to parents who belong to different groups defined by visible physical differences regarded as racial or the descendant of such persons First Nations are concentrated in Ontario and British Columbia but communities live across most of the other provinces.
The term "First Nations" can be confusing. Collectively, First Nations, Inuit, and Métis peoples constitute Canada's aboriginal peoples, first peoples, or indigenous peoples. Inuit (plural the singular Inuk, means "man" or "person" is a general term for a group of culturally similar Indigenous peoples inhabiting A Métis is a person born to parents who belong to different groups defined by visible physical differences regarded as racial or the descendant of such persons Aboriginal people in Canada, also known as Canadian aboriginal citizens, are people who belong to recognized indigenous groups in the Canadian Constitution Act The term Indigenous Peoples or autochthonous peoples can be used to describe any Ethnic group who inhabit a geographic region with which they have the earliest historical  Although "First Nations" seems to suggest that these people are the sole original occupiers of the land that is now Canada, the Inuit are also ancient inhabitants not included in the term.
"First Nations" is a legally undefined term that came into common usage in the 1980s to replace the term "Indian band". The 1980s was the decade spanning from January 1 1980 to December 31 1989. A band society is the simplest form of human Society. A band generally consists of a small kin group no larger than an Extended family or Clan. Elder Sol Sanderson says that he coined the term in the early 1980s.  A band is a legally recognized "body of Indians for whose collective use and benefit lands have been set apart or money is held by the Canadian Crown, or declared to be a band for the purposes of the Indian Act". TalkCommonewalth realm.-->The monarchy of The Indian Act ("An Act respecting Indians" RS 1985 c  There are currently over 600 recognized First Nations governments or bands in Canada, roughly half of which are in the provinces of Ontario and British Columbia. The following is a list of First Nations Governments in Canada: Alberta See also First Nations in Alberta Ontario (ɒnˈtɛrioʊ is a province located in the central part of Canada, the largest by population and second largest after Quebec British Columbia (ˌbrɪtɨʃ kəˈlʌmbiə ( BC) ( (la Colombie-Britannique C
As individuals, First Nations people are officially recognized by the Government of Canada by the archaic terms "registered Indians" or "status Indians" only if they are listed on the Indian Register and are thus entitled to benefits under the often controversial Indian Act, or as "Non-Status Indian" if they are not so listed and thus not entitled to benefits, according to the Canadian state. The Canadian Government, formally Her Majesty's Government in Canada, is the Federal government of Canada. The Indian Register is the official record of Status Indians or Registered Indians in Canada. The Indian Act ("An Act respecting Indians" RS 1985 c Administration of the Indian Act and Indian Register is carried out by the federal government's Department of Indian and Northern Affairs. The Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development ( FIP: Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, French: Affaires indiennes et du Nord Canada
While still a legal term, the use of the word "Indian" is erratic and declining in Canada. Some see the term as offensive while others prefer it to terminology such as "aboriginal person/persons/people". Another reason for the decline in the use of this term is purely practical - according to the 2006 Census, there are now more Canadians who identify as being of East Indian ethnicity than there are members of First Nations. Population of Canada: 31612895 (2006 Census Provinces and territories Metropolitan areas Cities A non-resident Indian (NRI is an Indian citizen who has migrated to another country a person of Indian origin who is born outside India or a person of The use of the term "Native Americans" is not common in Canada, as it is seen to refer to the aboriginal peoples of the United States specifically. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the  The parallel term "Native Canadian" is not commonly used, but "natives" and "autochtones" (from Canadian French) are sometimes used. Canadian French is an Umbrella term for the varieties of the French language used in Canada. Under the Royal Proclamation of 1763, also known as the "Indian Magna Carta", the Crown refers to indigenous peoples in British territory as "tribes" or "nations". The Proclamation of 1763 was issued October 7, 1763 by King George III following Great Britain 's acquisition of French territory Magna Carta ( Latin for Great Charter, literally " Great Paper " also called Magna Carta Libertatum ( Great Charter of Freedoms British North America consisted of the colonies and territories of the British Empire in continental North America after the end of the American Revolutionary The term "First Nations" is capitalized, unlike many of the alternative terms. Bands and nations may have slightly different meanings. A nation is a Human Cultural and Social Community. In as much as most members never meet each other yet feel a common bond it may be considered
There is some controversy over the use of the term "First Nations" to either self-describe indigenous peoples within Canada, or for non-indigenous peoples to refer to indigenous peoples in this fashion. Under international law covenants, "First Nations" per se have no standing, whereas "indigenous peoples" or "nations" do. International law is the term commonly used for referring to the system of implicit and explicit agreements that bind together nation-states in adherence to recognized values and standards The Canadian government, many indigenous people within Canada, and many non-indigenous people use the term "First Nations" out of respect for the right of indigenous people to describe themselves. In general, indigenous peoples within Canada who identify themselves as "First Nations" do not believe in the status of indigenous peoples as nation-states, while those who do not use the term, or insist on the term "indigenous peoples", are sovereigntists. For the online game see Jennifer Government NationStates. The nation-state is a certain form of State that derives its legitimacy There are also indigenous people in Canada who use the term "First Nation" for any tribal and/or nomadic ethnic group deprived of self-determination as a political recognition of colonization. Self-determination is defined as free choice of one’s own acts without external compulsion and especially as the freedom of the people of a given Territory to determine their Those groups work internationally on minority rights and self-determination. The term minority rights embodies two separate concepts first normal individual Rights as applied to members of racial Ethnic, class religious linguistic or
A national representative body is the Assembly of First Nations. The Assembly of First Nations (AFN is a body of First Nations leaders in Canada. Its chief, Phil Fontaine, and many others, have argued that a citizenship-based membership for each First Nation is needed, instead of only memberships based on bloodlines, race theories, and records of ancestry. Larry Phillip (Phil Fontaine, OM, (born September 20, 1944) is an Aboriginal Canadian If one has to always be a quarter or eighth "Indian", then over a long period of time and mixing with others, there might be very few official "Indians" or natives. Citizenship could be based on other factors, like loyalty to one's community, knowledge and education about the history and politics of that traditional territory, language spoken, and close family and friendship bonds with community members.
Despite an ancient history of their own, First Nations cultures are sometimes written about as if their history begins with the encroachment of Europeans onto the continent. Inhabited for millennia by First Nations ( aboriginal) the history of Canada has evolved from a group of European colonies into an officially  Nevertheless, First Nations' written history, in fact begins at the hands of European authors, as in accounts by trappers, traders, explorers, and missionaries (cf. the Codex canadiensis). Codex canadiensis is the official name of an illustrated book on the subject of the native peoples and wildlife in Canada (which then included the upper parts of the Mississippi
Aboriginal people in Canada have interacted with Europeans as far back as 1000 AD, but prolonged contact came once permanent European settlements were established. These accounts, though biased, generally speak of friendliness on the part of the First Nations,  some of whom profited in trade with Europeans. Such trade generally strengthened more organized political entities like the Iroquois Confederation. The Iroquois Confederacy (also known as the "League of Peace and Power" the "Five Nations" the "Six Nations" or the "People of the Longhouse 
As far back as the late 18th century, First Nations have been targeted for assimilation into what is referred to as the European/Canadian culture.  These attempts reached a climax with the establishment of the Canadian residential school system, the prohibition of Indigenous cultural practices, and the Indian Acts of the late 19th and early 20th century. The Canadian residential school system consisted of a number of schools for Aboriginal children operated during the 19th and 20th century by churches of various denominations The Indian Act ("An Act respecting Indians" RS 1985 c 
The situation for Indigenous people in the prairies grew very grave, very quickly. The Ojibwa or Chippewa (also Ojibwe, Ojibway, Chippeway) is the largest group of Native Americans - First Nations Georgian Bay (French baie Georgienne) is a large bay of Lake Huron, located in Ontario, Canada. Paul Kane (September 3 1810 &ndash February 20 1871 was an Irish - Canadian painter famous for his paintings of First Nations peoples in the Canadian The Canadian Prairies is a region in western Canada, which may correspond to several different definitions natural or political Between 1875 and 1885, the North American Bison were hunted almost to extinction; the construction of the Canadian Pacific Railway brought large numbers of white settlers west; governments, police forces, and courts of law were established; and various epidemics continued to devastate Indigenous communities. The American bison ( Bison bison) is a Bovine Mammal, also commonly known as the American buffalo. The Canadian Pacific Railway ( All of these factors had a profound effect on Indigenous people, particularly those from the plains who relied on the return of the bison every year. The Plains Indians are the Indigenous peoples who live on the plains and rolling hills of the Great Plains of North America. Most of those nations that agreed to treaties had negotiated for a guarantee of food, and help to begin farming.  Just as the bison finally disappeared (the last Canadian hunt was in 1879), Lieutenant-Governor Edgar Dewdney cut rations to reduce government costs. In Canada, the Lieutenant-Governor (lɛfˈtɛnənt often without a Hyphen) ( French: lieutenant-gouverneur, or: lieutenant-gouverneure Edgar Dewdney PC ( 5 November 1835 &ndash August 8, 1916) was a Canadian politician born in Devonshire Between 1880 and 1885, approximately 3,000 Indigenous people starved to death in the Northwest Territories. The Northwest Territories (ˌnɔrθˌwɛstˈtɛrɨtɔriz ( NWT or NT; French, les Territoires du Nord-Ouest) is a territory 
Some Cree chiefs resisted these treaties, offended by the very idea. Not to be confused with the Creek. Cree is an Exonym applied to various people indigenous to North America namely the Nehiyaw Nehithaw Nehilaw Big Bear refused to sign Treaty 6 until starvation among his people forced his hand in 1882. Big Bear or Mistahimaskwa ( c 1825 &ndash 17 January 1888) was born in the Canadian Northwest, and became Chief Treaty 6 is an agreement between the Canadian monarch and the Plain and Wood Cree Indians and other tribes of Indians at Fort Carlton, Fort Pitt  His attempts to unite Indigenous nations made some progress, and in 1884, two thousand Cree from several reserves met near Battleford in an attempt to organize themselves into a large cohesive resistance. See also History of Northwest Territories capital cities Battleford ( 2006 Population 3685 is a town Discouraged by the lack of government response but encouraged by the efforts of the Metis at armed rebellion, Wandering Spirit and other young militant Cree attacked the small town at Frog Lake, killing Thomas Quinn, the hated Indian Agent and eight others. The North-West Rebellion (or North-West Resistance or the Saskatchewan Rebellion) of 1885 was a brief and unsuccessful uprising by the Métis Wandering Spirit (aka Kapapamahchakwew, Papamahchakwayo, Esprit Errant; b The Frog Lake Massacre was a Cree uprising during the North-West Rebellion. Indian Agent is the title of a position in Canada mandated by the Indian Act of that country  Big Bear actively opposed this violence, but was put on trial for treason and sentenced to three years in prison. Big Bear or Mistahimaskwa ( c 1825 &ndash 17 January 1888) was born in the Canadian Northwest, and became Chief
As Canadian ideas of progress evolved at the turn of the century, the federal Indian policy pushed harder to remove Indigenous people from their lands and to encourage assimilation. Progressivism is a term that refers to a broad school of international social and political philosophies.  Amendments to the Indian Act in 1905 and 1911 made it easier to expropriate reserve lands from First Nations. The Indian Act ("An Act respecting Indians" RS 1985 c For the vast tract created by the Royal Proclamation of 1763 in Canada and the United States see Indian Reserve (1763 In Canada Nearly half of the Blackfoot reserve in Alberta was sold, and when the Kainai (Blood) Nation refused to accept the sale of their lands in 1916 and 1917, the Department of Indian Affairs held back funding necessary for farming until they relented. The Blackfoot Confederacy or Niitsítapi (meaning "original people" c Alberta (ælˈbɝtə is one of Canada's prairie provinces. It became a province on September 1 1905 The Kainai Nation (or Káínawa or Blood Tribe is a First Nation in southern Alberta, Canada with a population of 7437 members in 2005 and had a population The Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development ( FIP: Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, French: Affaires indiennes et du Nord Canada  In British Columbia, the McKenna-McBride Royal Commission was created in 1912 to settle disputes over reserve lands in the province. British Columbia (ˌbrɪtɨʃ kəˈlʌmbiə ( BC) ( (la Colombie-Britannique C The Royal Commission on Indian Affairs for the Province of British Columbia (commonly known as the McKenna-McBride Royal Commission) was a Royal Commission established The term Royal Commission may also be used in the United Kingdom to describe the group of Lords Commissioners who may act in the stead of the The claims of Indigenous people were ignored, and the commission allocated new, less valuable lands (reserves) for many First Nations. 
Those nations who managed to maintain their ownership of good lands often farmed successfully. Indigenous people living near the Cowichan and Fraser Rivers, and those from Saskatchewan managed to produce good harvests. The Cowichan River (ˈkəʊɪtʃən is a moderately sized river in British Columbia, Canada. For other uses of this name see Fraser River (disambiguation.  Since 1881, those living in the Prairie Provinces required permits from Indian Agents to sell any of their produce, and a pass system was later introduced in the old Northwest Territories requiring indigenous people to seek written permission from an Indian agent before leaving their reserves for any length of time. The Canadian Prairies is a region in western Canada, which may correspond to several different definitions natural or political Indian Agent is the title of a position in Canada mandated by the Indian Act of that country The Northwest Territories (ˌnɔrθˌwɛstˈtɛrɨtɔriz ( NWT or NT; French, les Territoires du Nord-Ouest) is a territory  Those laws, as well as bans on sun dances and potlatches, were regularly defied, as indigenous people attempted to retain their freedom and their culture. The Sun Dance is a Ceremony practiced by a number of Native Americans A potlatch is a festival ceremony practiced by Indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast in North America along Pacific Northwest coast of the United
The 1930 Constitution Act or Natural Resources Transfer Agreement allowed for provincial control of crown land and allowed Provincial laws respecting game to apply to Indians, but ensures that "Indians shall have the right . . . of hunting, trapping and fishing game and fish for food at all seasons of the year on all unoccupied Crown lands and on any other lands to which the said Indians may have a right of access. "
Following the end of the Second World War, laws concerning First Nations in Canada began to change, albeit slowly. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including The federal prohibition of potlatch and sun dance ceremonies ended in 1951, and provinces began to accept the right of Indigenous people to vote. A potlatch is a festival ceremony practiced by Indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast in North America along Pacific Northwest coast of the United The Sun Dance is a Ceremony practiced by a number of Native Americans In June 1956, section 9 of the Citizenship Act was amended to grant formal citizenship to Status Indians and Inuit, retroactively as of January 1947. The Canadian Citizenship Act is an Act of the Parliament of Canada, which came into effect on January 1, 1947, recognizing the definition All First Nations people were granted the right to vote in federal elections in 1960. By comparison, Native Americans in the United States had been allowed to vote since the 1920s. Native Americans in the United States are the indigenous peoples from the regions of North America now encompassed by the continental United States 
In his 1969 White Paper, then-Minister of Indian Affairs, the Hon. Bold text "'The 1969 White Paper was a Canadian policy document ( White paper) in which the then Minister of Indian Affairs, Jean Chrétien The Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development (Ministre des Affaires indiennes et du Nord canadien is the Minister of the Crown in the Canadian Cabinet Jean Chrétien, proposed the abolition of the Indian Act of Canada, the rejection of Aboriginal land claims, and the assimilation of First Nations people into the Canadian population with the status of "other ethnic minorities" rather than a distinct group. Joseph Jacques Jean Chrétien, (generally known as Jean Chrétien) (born January 11, 1934) is a Canadian politician who was the twentieth Prime The Indian Act ("An Act respecting Indians" RS 1985 c Aboriginal land claims are claims of Native or Aboriginal peoples (also referred to as Indigenous peoples about their right of ownership of the land they inhabited
A response by Harold Cardinal and the Indian Chiefs of Alberta (entitled "Citizens Plus" but commonly known as the "Red Paper") explained the widespread opposition to Chrétien's proposal from Status Indians in Canada. Dr Harold Cardinal ( January 27, 1945 &ndash June 3, 2005) was a Cree writer political leader teacher negotiator and lawyer Prime Minister Trudeau and the Liberals began to back away from the 1969 White Paper, particularly after the Calder case decision in 1973. The Liberal Party of Canada ( Parti libéral du Canada) colloquially known as the Grits (originally " Clear Grits " is a major Canadian political Calder v British Columbia (Attorney General SCR 313 4 WWR 1 was a decision by the Supreme Court of Canada. 
In 1970, severe mercury poisoning called Ontario Minamata disease was discovered at Asubpeeschoseewagong First Nation and Wabaseemoong Independent Nation, both near Dryden, Ontario, where there was extensive mercury pollution caused by Dryden Chemicals Company's waste water effluent that was being discharged into the Wabigoon-English River system. Mercury poisoning (also known as mercurialism, hydrargyria, Hunter-Russell syndrome, or acrodynia when affecting children is a Disease Ontario Minamata disease is a neurological syndrome caused by severe Mercury poisoning. Asubpeeschoseewagong First Nation (also known as Grassy Narrows First Nation or the Asabiinyashkosiwagong Nitam-Anishinaabeg in the Anishinaabe language Dryden ( 2006 population 8195 is the second largest City in the Kenora District of Northwestern Ontario, Canada located The Wabigoon River is a River in northwestern Ontario which flows from Wabigoon Lake at Dryden Ontario to join the English River. The English River flows through Lac Seul to join the Winnipeg River.  Because the local fish were no longer safe to eat, the Ontario provincial government closed the commercial fisheries run by the First Nation people and ordered them to stop eating local fish, which previously had made up the majority of their diet.  In addition to the acute mercury poisoning in northwestern Ontario, Aamjiwnaang First Nation, near Sarnia, Ontario, experienced a wide range of chemical effects, including severe mercury poisoning, and have severely affected birth rates, birth gender ratio and general health of the population. The Aamjiwnaang First Nation (also referred to in government sources as Sarnia Indian Reserve 45 or Chippewas of Sarnia First Nation) is a First Nations Sarnia is a City in Southwestern Ontario, Canada (city population 71419 census area population
In 1981, Elijah Harper, a Cree from Red Sucker Lake, Manitoba, became the first "Treaty Indian" in Canada to be elected as a provincial politician. Year 1981 ( MCMLXXXI) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Elijah Harper (born March 3, 1949) is an Aboriginal Cree Canadian politician and band chief Not to be confused with the Creek. Cree is an Exonym applied to various people indigenous to North America namely the Nehiyaw Nehithaw Nehilaw Manitoba (English ˌmænɨˈtoʊbə French /manitoba/ is a province of Canada, spanning 647797 square kilometres (250116  sq mi of North America A Member of the Legislative Assembly, or MLA, is a representative elected by the voters of an Electoral district to the Legislature or Legislative In 1990, Harper achieved national fame by holding an eagle feather as he took his stand in the Manitoba legislature and refused to accept the Meech Lake Accord, a constitutional amendment package negotiated to gain Quebec's acceptance of the Constitution Act, 1982. The Meech Lake Accord was a set of failed amendments to the Constitution of Canada negotiated in 1987 by Prime Minister Brian Mulroney and the provincial The accord was negotiated in 1987 without the input of Canada's aboriginal peoples. The term Indigenous Peoples or autochthonous peoples can be used to describe any Ethnic group who inhabit a geographic region with which they have the earliest historical That was made more irksome given the recent conclusion of the third, final and unsuccessful constitutional conference on aboriginal peoples. To proceed with its intention, the Manitoba assembly was required to unanimously consent to a motion allowing it to hold a vote on the accord, because of a procedural rule. With only twelve days before the ratification deadline for the Accord, Harper began a filibuster which prevented the assembly from ratifying the accord. A filibuster, or "talking out a bill", is a form of obstruction in a Legislature or other decision-making body Because Meech Lake failed in Manitoba, the proposed constitutional amendment failed.  Harper also opposed the Charlottetown Accord in 1992, even though Assembly of First Nations Chief Ovide Mercredi supported it. The Charlottetown Accord was a package of constitutional amendments proposed by the Canadian federal and provincial governments in 1992. Year 1992 ( MCMXCII) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar) The Assembly of First Nations (AFN is a body of First Nations leaders in Canada. Ovide William Mercredi (born January 30, 1946, in Grand Rapids Manitoba) is an Aboriginal Canadian Politician.
According to Indian Act, indigenous women who married white men lost their treaty status, and their children would not get status at all. The Indian Act ("An Act respecting Indians" RS 1985 c The Indian Register is the official record of Status Indians or Registered Indians in Canada. In the reverse situation (indigenous men married to white women), men could keep their status, and their children would also get treaty status. In the 1970s, the Indian Rights for Indian Women and National Native Women's Association groups campaigned against this policy on the grounds that it discriminated against women and failed to fulfill treaty promises.  They successfully convinced the federal government to change the section of the act with the adoption of Bill C-31 on June 28, 1985. The Indian Act ("An Act respecting Indians" RS 1985 c Women who had lost their status and children who had been excluded were then able to register and gain official Indian status. Despite these changes, First Nations women who married white men could only pass their status on one generation; their children would gain status, but (without a marriage to a full status Indian) their grandchildren would not. A First Nations male who married a white woman retained status as did his children, but his wife did not gain status, nor his grandchildren.
Bill C-31 also gave elected bands the power to regulate who was allowed to reside on their reserves and to control development on their reserves. It abolished the concept of "enfranchisement" by which First Nations people could gain certain rights by renouncing their Indian status. The Act to Encourage the Gradual Civilization of Indian Tribes in this Province and to Amend the Laws Relating to Indians (commonly known as the Gradual Civilization Act) was 
In 1991, Prime Minister Brian Mulroney created the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples. Six Nations of the Grand River is the name applied to two contiguous Indian reserves southeast of Brantford Ontario, Canada &ndash Six Nations reserve Martin Brian Mulroney PC CC GOQ (predominantly known as Brian Mulroney) (born March 20, 1939) was the eighteenth The Royal Commission on Aboriginal People (RCAP was a Canadian Royal Commission established in 1991 to address many issues of aboriginal status that had Their report was issued in 1996; its most revolutionary proposal was the creation of a government for (and by) the First Nations that would be fully responsible within its own jurisdiction, and with which the federal government would speak on a "Nation-to-Nation" basis. This proposal offered a far different way of doing politics than the traditional policy of assigning all First Nations matters under the jurisdiction of the Indian and Northern Affairs, managed by one minister of the federal cabinet. The report also recommended providing the governments of the First Nations with up to $2 billion every year until 2010, in order to reduce the economic gap between the First Nations and the rest of the Canadian citizenry. The money would represent an increase of at least 50% to the budget of Indian and Northern Affairs. Finally, the report insisted on the importance of First Nations leaders to actively think of ways to cope with the challenging issues their people were facing, so the First Nations could take their destiny into their own hands.
The federal government, then headed by Jean Chrétien, responded to the report a year later by officially presenting its apologies for the forced acculturation the federal government had imposed on the First Nations, and by offering an "initial" provision of $350 million. Joseph Jacques Jean Chrétien, (generally known as Jean Chrétien) (born January 11, 1934) is a Canadian politician who was the twentieth Prime
In the spirit of the Eramus-Dussault commission, several tripartite (federal, provincial, and First Nations) accords have been signed since the report was issued. Several political crises between different provincial governments and different bands of the First Nations also occurred in the late 20th century, notably:
In 2001, the Quebec government, the federal government, and the Cree Nation signed "La Paix des Braves" (The Peace of the Braves, a reference to the 1701 peace treaty between the French and the Iroquois League). The Oka Crisis was a land dispute between the Mohawk nation and the town of Oka Quebec which began on July 11, 1990, and lasted The Ipperwash Crisis was an Indigenous land dispute that occurred in Ipperwash Provincial Park, Ontario in 1995. The Burnt Church Crisis was a conflict in Canada between the Mi'kmaq people of the Burnt Church First Nation and non-Aboriginal New Brunswick The Gustafsen Lake Standoff was an indigenous land dispute involving the Secwepemc Nation in British Columbia, Canada which began on June The Kelowna Accord is a series of agreements between the Government of Canada First Ministers of the Provinces Territorial Leaders and the leaders of five national aboriginal organizations Quebec (kwɨˈbɛk Not to be confused with the Creek. Cree is an Exonym applied to various people indigenous to North America namely the Nehiyaw Nehithaw Nehilaw The Agreement Respecting a New Relationship Between the Cree Nation and the Government of Quebec (dubbed as La Paix des Braves, French for "The Peace of the Braves" The Iroquois Confederacy (also known as the "League of Peace and Power" the "Five Nations" the "Six Nations" or the "People of the Longhouse The agreement allowed Hydro-Québec to exploit the province's hydroelectric resources in exchange for an allocation of $3. Hydro-Québec is a Crown corporation that provides electricity to Quebec, Canada and the north-eastern parts of the United States 5 billion to be given to the government of the Cree Nation. Later, the Inuit of northern Quebec joined in the agreement. Inuit (plural the singular Inuk, means "man" or "person" is a general term for a group of culturally similar Indigenous peoples inhabiting
In 2005, the leaders of the First Nations, various provincial governments, and the federal government produced a working paper called the Kelowna Accord, which would have yielded $5 billion for 5 years, but the new federal government of Stephen Harper (2006) did not fully follow through on the working paper. The Kelowna Accord is a series of agreements between the Government of Canada First Ministers of the Provinces Territorial Leaders and the leaders of five national aboriginal organizations WikipediaManual of Style (biographies#Honorific prefixes --> Stephen Joseph Harper PC
At present, many First Nations, along with the Métis and the Inuit, claim to receive inadequate funding for education, and allege their rights have been overlooked in many instances. Recently James K. Bartleman, Lieutenant Governor of Ontario, listed the encouragement of indigenous young people as one of his key priorities. James Karl Bartleman KStJ, OOnt (born 24 December, 1939, in Orillia Ontario) is a Canadian diplomat author and was The Lieutenant Governor of Ontario is the vice-regal representative of the Queen of Canada in the province of Ontario. During his term that began in 2002, he has launched several initiatives to promote literacy and bridge building. Bartleman himself is the first aboriginal person to hold the Lieutenant Governor's position in Ontario.
As of 2006, over 75 First Nations communities exist in boil-water advisory conditions. A boil water advisory is a Public health advisory given by government or health authorities to communities when a community's Drinking water is or could be contaminated  In late 2005, the drinking water crisis of the Kashechewan First Nation received national media attention when E. coli was discovered in their water supply system, following two years of living under a boil-water advisory. Water Crisis is a term that refers to the status of the world’s Water resources relative to human demand The Kashechewan First Nation is a Cree First Nation located near James Bay in Northern Ontario, Canada. Canada has a well-developed media sector, but its cultural output — particularly in English films television shows and magazines — is often A water supply network is a system of engineered Hydrologic and Hydraulic components including the watershed or geographic area that collects The drinking water was supplied by a relatively new treatment plant built in March 1998. The cause of the tainted water was a plugged chlorine injector that was not discovered by local operators, who were not qualified to be running the treatment plant. When officials arrived and fixed the problem, chlorine levels were around 1. 7 mg/l, which was blamed for chronic skin disorders such as impetigo and scabies. Impetigo (sometimes impetaigo) is a superficial Bacterial Skin Infection most common among children 2 to 6 years old Scabies is a transmissible ectoparasite Skin Infection characterized by superficial Burrows intense pruritus (itching and Secondary An investigation led by Health Canada revealed that the skin disorders were likely due to living in squalor. Health Canada ( French: Santé Canada) is the department of the government of Canada with responsibility for national Public health The evacuation of Kashechewan is largely viewed by Canadians as a cry for help for other underlying social and economic issues which Aboriginal people in Canada face.
On June 29, 2007, Canadian aboriginal groups held countrywide protests aimed at ending First Nations poverty, dubbed the Aboriginal Day of Action. Events 512 - A Solar eclipse is recorded by a monastic chronicler in Ireland. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. The Aboriginal Day of Action (also known as the Aboriginal Day of Protest) was a day of organized Protest and demonstration by Canadian First Nations The demonstrations were largely peaceful, although some groups disrupted transportation with blockades or bonfires; a stretch of the Highway 401 was shut down, as was the Canadian National Railway's line between Toronto and Montreal. Toronto (təˈrɒntoʊ colloquially pronounced or) is the largest city in Canada and is the provincial capital of Ontario Montreal, or Montréal in French ( pronounced in French, in English) is the largest city in the Canadian province of Quebec 
In the 20th century the First Nations population of Canada increased tenfold. Population of Canada: 31612895 (2006 Census Provinces and territories Metropolitan areas Cities  Between 1900 and 1950 the population grew only by 29% but after the 1960’s the infant mortality level on reserves dropped dramatically and the population grew by 161%. Infant mortality is defined as the number of deaths of Infants (one year of age or younger per 1000 live births Since the 1980’s the number of First Nations babies more than doubled and currently almost half of the First Nations population is under the age of 25. As a result the First Nations population of Canada is expected to increase dramatically in the coming decades. 
The 2006 census counted a total aboriginal population of 1,172,790 (3. 75%) which includes 698,025 North American Indians (2. 23%). 
There are many distinct First Nations cultures in Canada, originating from all regions of the country. The Tsuu T'ina Nation (also Sarcee, Sarsi, Tsu T’ina, Tsuut’ina) is a First Nation in Canada. The following is a list of First Nations peoples organized by Indigenous geographic area The following is a list of First Nations peoples organized by Indigenous geographic area Indian reserves, established in Canadian law by treaties such as Treaty 7, are the very limited contemporary lands of First Nations recognised by the non-indigenous governments. For the vast tract created by the Royal Proclamation of 1763 in Canada and the United States see Indian Reserve (1763 In Canada The Canadian legal system has its foundation in the British Common law system inherited from being a part of the Commonwealth. Treaty 7 was an agreement between Queen Victoria and several mainly Blackfoot First Nations tribes in what is today the southern portion of Alberta Some reserves are within cities, such as the Opawikoscikan Reserve in Prince Albert, Saskatchewan and such as the Huron-Wendat village in Québec City. Prince Albert is the third-largest city in Saskatchewan, Canada. Quebec City ( French: Ville de Québec, or simply Québec) (kwɨˈbɛk or /keˈbɛk/ is the Capital of the Canadian province There are more reserves in Canada than there are First Nations, as some First Nations were ceded multiple reserves by treaty.
First Nations can be grouped into cultural areas based on their ancestors’ primary lifeway, or occupation, at the time of European contact. Ethnographers commonly classify Indigenous peoples in the United States and Canada into ten geographical regions with shared cultural traits These culture areas correspond closely with physical and biological regions of Canada. Physical geography Canada covers 9984670 km² (3855103 sq National regions Provinces and territories are normally grouped into the following Regions (generally from west to east Northern Canada
The Indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast were centred around ocean and river fishing; in the interior of British Columbia, hunting and gathering and river fishing. The Indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast are the Pre-Columbian inhabitants of the Pacific Northwest Coast, their descendants and many Ethnic groups British Columbia (ˌbrɪtɨʃ kəˈlʌmbiə ( BC) ( (la Colombie-Britannique C A hunter-gatherer society is one whose primary subsistence method involves the direct procurement of edible plants and animals from the wild Foraging and Hunting In both of these areas the salmon was of chief importance. For the people of the plains, bison hunting was the primary activity. The Plains Indians are the Indigenous peoples who live on the plains and rolling hills of the Great Plains of North America. This is an article about an animal For other uses see Bison (disambiguation. In the subartic forest, other species such as the moose were more important. Taiga (ˈtaɪgə from Turkic or Mongolian) is a Biome characterized by Coniferous forests The moose (North America or elk (Europe Alces alces, is the largest extant Species in the Deer family. For peoples near the Great Lakes and St. Laurence river, shifting agriculture was practised, including the raising of maize, beans, and squash. For methods see Slash and burn Shifting cultivation is an Agricultural system in which plots of land are cultivated temporarily then abandoned Maize (ˈmeɪz ( Zea mays L. ssp mays) known as corn in some countries is a cereal grain domesticated in Mesoamerica Bean is a common name for large plant Seeds of several genera of the family Fabaceae (formerly Leguminosae used for human food or animal Squashes generally refer to four species of the genus Cucurbita native to the Mexico and Central America, also called marrows depending
Today, First Nations people work in a variety of occupations and many also live outside their ancestor's homes. Nevertheless, the traditional cultures of their ancestors, shaped by nature, still exert a strong influence on their culture, from spirituality to political attitudes.
At European contact, First Nations peoples spoke a wide variety of languages grouped into several language families. Indigenous languages of the Americas (or Amerindian Languages are spoken by indigenous peoples from the southern tip of South America to Alaska and List of language familiesA language family is a group of Languages related by descent from a common ancestor called the Proto-language of that family Peoples with similar languages did not always share the same material culture. For example, Cree language speakers lived both in the forests and on the prairies. Cree (also known as Cree-Montagnais Cree-Montagnais-Naskapi is the name for a group of closely-related Algonquian languages spoken by approximately 117000 people across Similarly, peoples with related languages were not always allies.
While a number of First Nation languages are still found in Canada, many of them are presently endangered, with decreasing numbers of speakers.
At contact, First Nations organization ranged in size from band societies of a few people to multi-nation confederacies like the Iroquois. A band society is the simplest form of human Society. A band generally consists of a small kin group no larger than an Extended family or Clan. A confederation is a group of empowered states or communities usually created by treaty but often later adopting a common constitution The Iroquois Confederacy (also known as the "League of Peace and Power" the "Five Nations" the "Six Nations" or the "People of the Longhouse First Nations leaders from across the country form the Assembly of First Nations, which began as the National Indian Brotherhood in 1968. The Assembly of First Nations (AFN is a body of First Nations leaders in Canada.
Today's political organizations are largely the by-product of interaction with European-style methods of government. As well, First Nations political organizations are spread throughout Canada and vary in political standing, viewpoints, and reasons for forming. Most First Nations political organizations arise from the need to be united and to have their opinions heard. First Nations negotiate with the Canadian Government through Indian and Northern Affairs Canada in all affairs concerning land, entitlement, and rights. The politics of Canada function within a framework of Constitutional monarchy and a federal system of parliamentary government with strong democratic The Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development ( FIP: Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, French: Affaires indiennes et du Nord Canada
However, not all first nation groups belong to these groups. Some groups operate independently.
First Nations peoples face a number of problems to greater degrees than Canadians overall. They have higher unemployment, rates of crime and incarceration, substance abuse, health problems and lower levels of education. Crime in Canada has experienced wide swings in prevalence throughout its history Substance abuse is the overindulgence in and dependence of a Drug or other chemical leading to effects that are detrimental to the individual's physical and mental health Suicide rates are more than twice the sex-specific rate and three times the age-specific rates of non-aboriginal Canadians.
Life expectancy at birth is significantly lower for First Nations babies than for babies in the Canadian population as a whole. As of 2001, Indian and Northern Affairs Canada estimates First Nations life expectancy to be 8. 1 years shorter for males and 5. 5 years shorter for females.