The First Anglo-Sikh War was fought between the Sikh kingdom of the Punjab and the British East India Company between 1845 and 1846. Sikh (English or; ਸਿੱਖ sikkh, IPA) is the title and name given to an adherent of Sikhism. Punjab ( ਪੰਜਾਬ پنجاب, पंजाब پنجاب also Panjab (پنجاب meaning "Land of the Five Rivers") (c The Honourable East India Company ( HEIC) referred to most commonly as the East India Company, also historically and colloquially as John Company, or Year 1845 ( MDCCCXLV) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common For the game see 1846 (board game. Year 1846 ( MDCCCXLVI) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display It resulted in partial subjugation of the Sikh kingdom.
The Sikh kingdom of Punjab was expanded and consolidated by Maharaj Ranjit Singh during the early years of the nineteenth century, about the same time as the British-controlled territories were advanced by conquest or annexation to the borders of the Punjab. Maharaja Ranjit Singh (ਮਹਾਰਾਜਾ ਰਣਜੀਤ ਸਿੰਘ also called "Sher-e-Punjab" ("The Lion of the Punjab" (1780-1839 was a Ranjit Singh maintained a policy of wary friendship with the British, while at the same time building up his military forces to deter aggression both by the British and by the Afghans under Dost Mohammed Khan. Dost Mohammad Khan ( Pashto / Persian: دوست محمد خان) ( December 23, 1793 - June 9, 1863) son of Sardār He hired American and European mercenary soldiers to train his artillery, and also incorporated contingents of Hindus and subjugated Muslims into his army. A mercenary is a person who takes part in an armed conflict who is not a national or a party to the conflict and is "motivated to take part in the hostilities essentially by A Hindu ( Devanagari: हिन्दू is an adherent of the philosophies and scriptures of Hinduism, a set of religious, Philosophical A Muslim (مسلم pronounced Muslim, not Muzlim) is an adherent of the Religion
Ranjit Singh died in 1839. Maharaja Ranjit Singh (ਮਹਾਰਾਜਾ ਰਣਜੀਤ ਸਿੰਘ also called "Sher-e-Punjab" ("The Lion of the Punjab" (1780-1839 was a Year 1839 ( MDCCCXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common Almost immediately, his kingdom fell into disorder. Ranjit's unpopular legitimate son, Kharak Singh, was removed from power within a few months, and later died in prison under mysterious circumstances. Kharak Singh, ( Punjabi ਖੜਕ ਸਿੰਘ 1801-1840 was a Sikh ruler of the sovereign country of Punjab and the Sikh Empire. It was believed that he was murdered. He was replaced by his able but estranged son Kanwar Nau Nihal Singh, who also died within a few months in suspicious circumstances - crushed by a falling archway at the Lahore Fort while returning from his father's, Kharak Singh's, cremation. Nau Nihal Singh ( 9 March 1821 - 6 November 1840) was a Sikh ruler of the sovereign country of Punjab and the  There were at the time two major factions within the Punjab contending for power and influence, the Sikh Sindhanwalias and the Hindu Dogras. The Dogras succeeded in raising an illegitimate son of Ranjit Singh, Sher Singh, to the throne in January 1841. Sher Singh, (Born December 1807 - Died September 16th 1843 was a Sikh ruler of the sovereign country of Punjab and the Sikh Empire. The most prominent Sindhanwalias took refuge on British territory, but had many adherents among the Army of the Punjab.
The army was expanding rapidly in the aftermath of Ranjit Singh's death, as landlords and their retainers took up arms. It now claimed itself to be the Khalsa, or embodiment of the Sikh nation. For the village in Azerbaijan see Xəlsə. Khalsa ( Punjabi: pa ਖਾਲਸਾ literally "Pure" refers to the collective Its regimental panchayats (committees) formed an alternate power source within the kingdom, declaring that Guru Gobind Singh's ideal of the Sikh commonwealth had been revived, with the Sarbatt Khalsa or the Sikh as a whole assuming all executive, military and civil authority in the State. The Panchayat is a South Asian Political system. ‘Panchayat’ literally means assembly ( yat) of five ( panch) wise and respected elders chosen Guru Gobind Singh (ਗੁਰੂ ਗੋਬਿੰਦ ਸਿੰਘ gʊɾu gobɪn̪d̪ sɪ́ŋg ( December 22, 1666 &ndash 7 October, 1708) was . Whilst the British decried this as a ". . . dangerous military democracy . . . ". British representatives and visitors in the Punjab described the regiments as preserving "puritanical" order internally, but also as being in a perpetual state of mutiny or rebellion against the central Darbar (Court). In one notorious instance of unrest, Sikh soldiers ran riot, looking for anyone who looked as if they could speak Persian (the language used by the clerks who administered the Khalsa's finances) and putting them to the sword.
Maharajah Sher Singh was unable to meet the pay demands of the Khalsa, although he reportedly lavished funds on a degenerate court. In September 1843 he was murdered by his cousin, an officer of the Khalsa, Ajit Singh Sindhanwalia. The Dogras took their revenge on those responsible, and Jind Kaur, Ranjit Singh's youngest widow, became Regent for her infant son Duleep Singh. Maharani Jind Kaur (1817 - London, August 1 1863) also popularly known as Rani Jindan or '"Jind Kaur"' the Messalina of This article is about Duleep Singh For other uses see Dalip Singh (disambiguation Maharaja Duleep Singh, GCSI ( Lahore, 6 September After the Vizier Hira Singh was killed attempting to flee the capital with loot from the Royal Treasury, Toshkana, by troops under Sham Singh Attariwala , Jind Kaur's brother Jawahir Singh became Vizier in December 1844. A Vizier ( - wazīr) (sometimes also spelled Vazir Vizir Vasir Wazir Vesir, or Vezir - grammatical vowel changes are common in many western Asian He apparently spent his term of office in a state of terror, trying to bribe the Khalsa with promises of treasure which could not be met. At an army parade in September 1845, he was butchered to death in the presence of Jind Kaur and Duleep Singh. Maharani Jind Kaur (1817 - London, August 1 1863) also popularly known as Rani Jindan or '"Jind Kaur"' the Messalina of 
The Khalsa nevertheless did not take over the kingdom at this point. Although Jind Kaur publicly vowed revenge against her brother's killers , she remained Regent. Maharani Jind Kaur (1817 - London, August 1 1863) also popularly known as Rani Jindan or '"Jind Kaur"' the Messalina of Lal Singh (reportedly the lover of Jind Kaur) became Vizier, and Tej Singh became commander of the army. Sikh historians have stressed that both these men were prominent in the Dogra faction. Originally high-caste Hindus from outside the Punjab, both had converted to Sikhism in 1818 just like the majority of the Sikhs in Punjab at that time. A Hindu ( Devanagari: हिन्दू is an adherent of the philosophies and scriptures of Hinduism, a set of religious, Philosophical
Meanwhile, immediately after the death of Ranjit Singh, the British East India Company had begun increasing its military strength.
The actions and attitudes of the British, under Lord Ellenborough and later under Sir Henry Hardinge are disputed. Edward Law 1st Earl of Ellenborough ( September 8, 1790 - December 22, 1871) was a British politician Field Marshal Henry Hardinge 1st Viscount Hardinge of Lahore GCB, PC ( 30 March, 1785 &ndash 24 September, 1856 By most British accounts, the main concern was that the Khalsa, now without strong leadership to restrain them, was a serious threat to British territories along the border. Their attitudes were affected by reports from their new Political Agent in the frontier districts, Major George Broadfoot, who stressed the disorder in the Punjab and recounted every tale of corrupt behaviour at the court. Although it cannot be denied that for some there was a strong desire to expand British influence and control into the Punjab, as it was the only remaining formidable force that could threaten the British hold in India and the last remaining independent kingdom not under British influence. The kingdom was also renowned for being the wealthiest, the Koh-i-noor being one of its many treasures. It was equally well known that the Khalsa had been asking Ranjit Singh for an opportunity to engage the British Army ever since their expansion had reached the borders of the Punjab. Maharaja Ranjit Singh (ਮਹਾਰਾਜਾ ਰਣਜੀਤ ਸਿੰਘ also called "Sher-e-Punjab" ("The Lion of the Punjab" (1780-1839 was a
Sikh and Indian historians have countered that the military preparations made by these Governor-Generals were more offensive in nature; for example, preparing bridging trains and siege gun batteries, which would be unlikely to be required in a purely defensive operation. . Despite this, it is unlikely that the British East India Company would have deliberately attempted to annex the Punjab had the war not occurred, as they simply did not have the manpower or resources to keep a hold on the territories (as proven by the outbreak of the Second Anglo-Sikh War). The Second Anglo-Sikh War took place in 1848 and 1849 between the restive Sikh Kingdom and the British Empire. Nevertheless, the unconcealed and seemingly aggressive British military build-up at the borders had the effect of increasing tension within the Punjab and the Khalsa. It is also equally well known that the British had been interfering in the intrigues at the Court or Lahore.
After mutual demands and accusations between the Sikh Darbar and the East India Company, diplomatic relations were broken. An East India Company army began marching towards Ferozepur, where a division was already stationed. WikipediaWikiProject Indian cities for details --> Firozpur (or Ferozepur, Ferozepore, फिरोज़पुर) is a city in Firozpur This army was commanded by Sir Hugh Gough, the commander in chief of the Bengal Army, and was accompanied by Sir Henry Hardinge, the British Governor General of Bengal, who placed himself beneath Gough in the military chain of command. Field Marshal Hugh Gough 1st Viscount Gough, KP, GCSI, KCB, PC ( November 3, 1779 - March 2, Field Marshal Henry Hardinge 1st Viscount Hardinge of Lahore GCB, PC ( 30 March, 1785 &ndash 24 September, 1856 The "British" army consisted of formations of the Bengal Army, with usually one British unit to every three or four Bengal infantry or cavalry units. Most of the British artillery consisted of light guns from the elite Bengal Horse Artillery.
In response to the British move, the Sikh army began crossing the Sutlej River on December 11, 1845. The Sutlej River (alternatively spelled as Satluj River (ਸਤਲੁਜ शतद्रु or सुतुद्री, ستلج and सतलुज is the longest Events 359 - Honoratus, the first known Prefect of the City of Constantinople, takes office Year 1845 ( MDCCCXLV) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Although the leaders and principal units of the army were Sikhs, there were also Punjabi, Pakhtun and Kashmiri infantry units. The artillery consisted mainly of units of heavy guns, which had been organised and trained by European mercenaries. A mercenary is a person who takes part in an armed conflict who is not a national or a party to the conflict and is "motivated to take part in the hostilities essentially by
The Sikhs claimed they were only moving into Sikh possessions (specifically the village of Moran) on the east side of the river, but the move was regarded by the British as clearly hostile and they declared war. One Sikh army under Tej Singh advanced towards Ferozepur but made no effort to surround or attack the exposed British division there. Another force under Lal Singh clashed with Gough's and Hardinge's advancing forces at the Battle of Mudki on December 18. The Battle of Mudki was fought on December 18, 1845, between the forces of the British East India Company and part of the Khalsa, the army Events 218 BC - Second Punic War: Battle of the Trebia - Hannibal 's Carthaginian forces defeat those of the The British won an untidy encounter battle.
On the next day, the British came in sight of the large Sikh entrenchment at Ferozeshah. The Battle of Ferozeshah was fought on December 21 and December 22 of 1845 between the British and the Sikhs at the village of Ferozeshah Gough wished to attack at once, but Hardinge used his position as Governor General to overrule him and order him to wait for the division from Ferozepur. When they appeared late on December 21, Gough attacked in the few hours of daylight left. Events 69 - The end of the Year of the four emperors: Following Galba, Otho and Vitellius, Vespasian The well served Sikh artillery caused heavy casualties among the British, and their infantry fought desperately. On the other hand, the elite of the Sikh army, the irregular cavalry or Gorchurras, were comparatively ineffective against Gough's infantry and cavalry as they had been kept from the battlefield by Lal Singh.
By nightfall, some of Gough's army had fought their way into the Sikh positions, but other units had been driven back in disorder. Hardinge expected a defeat on the following day and ordered the state papers at Mudki to be burned in this event. However, on the following morning, the British and Bengal Army units rallied and drove the Sikhs from the rest of their fortifications. Lal Singh had made no effort to rally or reorganise his army. At this point, Tej Singh's army appeared. Once again, Gough's exhausted army faced defeat and disaster, but Tej Singh inexplicably withdrew.
Operations temporarily halted, mainly because Gough's army was exhausted and required rest and reinforcements. The Sikhs were temporarily dismayed by their defeats and by their commanders' actions, but rallied when fresh units and leaders joined them, and Maharani Jind Kaur exhorted 500 selected officers to make renewed efforts.
When hostilities resumed, a Sikh detachment crossed the Sutlej near Aliwal, threatening Gough's lines of supply and communications. Aliwal is a village in India, located in the Punjab, on the Sutlej, where during the First Anglo-Sikh War Sir Harry Smith gained a brilliant A division under Sir Harry Smith was sent to deal with them. Harry Smith may refer to Harry Everett Smith (1923–1991 American magus archivist ethnomusicologist student of anthropology record collector experimental Sikh cavalry attacked Smith continually on his march and captured his baggage, but at the Battle of Aliwal on January 28, 1846, Smith won a model victory, eliminating the Sikh bridgehead. The Battle of Aliwal was fought on January 28, 1846 between the British and the Sikhs Events 1077 - Walk to Canossa: The Excommunication of Henry IV Holy Roman Emperor is lifted For the game see 1846 (board game. Year 1846 ( MDCCCXLVI) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display
Gough's main army had now been reinforced, and rejoined by Smith's division, they attacked the main Sikh bridgehead at Sobraon on February 10. The Battle of Sobraon was fought on February 10, 1846 between the forces of the British East India Company and the Khalsa, the army of the Events 1355 - The St Scholastica's Day riot breaks out in Oxford, England, leaving 63 scholars and perhaps 30 locals dead Tej Singh is said to have deserted the Sikh army early in the battle. Although the Sikh army resisted as stubbornly as at Ferozeshah, Gough's troops eventually broke into their position. The bridges behind the Sikhs broke under British artillery fire, or were ordered to be destroyed behind him by Tej Singh (ostensibly to prevent British pursuit). The Sikh army was trapped. None of them surrendered, and the British troops showed little mercy. This victory effectively broke the Sikh army.
In the Treaty of Lahore in 1846 the Sikhs were made to give up Kashmir and had to accept a British resident in Lahore. The Treaty of Lahore was signed on March 9, 1846 after the First Sikh War. This article is about the geographical region of greater Kashmir ( lahor is the capital of the Pakistani province of Punjab and is the second largest city in Pakistan after Karachi. This effectively gave the East India Company control of the region's government. The treaty also gave the Koh-i-Noor diamond to Queen Victoria. This article is about the Diamond. For the film see Kohinoor. Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901 was from 20 June 1837 the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
Sikh historians have always maintained that, in order to retain their hold on power and maintain the figurehead rule of Duleep Singh, Lal Singh and Tej Singh embarked on the war with the deliberate intent of breaking their own army. In particular, Lal Singh was corresponding with a British political officer and betraying state and military secrets throughout the war. Lal Singh's and Tej Singh's desertion of their armies and refusal to attack when opportunity offered seem inexplicable otherwise.