Filesystem-level encryption, often called file or folder encryption, is a form of disk encryption where individual files or directories are encrypted by the file system itself. In Computing, a file system (often also written as filesystem) is a method for storing and organizing Computer files and the data they contain to make This is in contrast to full disk encryption where the entire partition or disk, in which the file system resides, is encrypted. Full disk encryption (or whole disk encryption) is a kind of Disk encryption software or hardware which encrypts every Bit of data
The advantages of filesystem-level encryption include:
Unlike cryptographic file systems or full disk encryption, general-purpose file systems that include filesystem-level encryption do not typically encrypt file system metadata, such as the directory structure, file names, sizes or modification timestamps. Metadata ( meta data, or sometimes metainformation) is "data about data" of any sort in any media This can be problematic if the metadata itself needs to be kept confidential. In other words, if files are stored with identifying file names, anyone who has access to the physical disk can know which documents that are stored on the disk, although not the contents of the documents.
Cryptographic file systems are specialized (not general-purpose) file systems that are specifically designed with encryption and security in mind. They usually encrypt all the data they contain – including metadata. Instead of implementing an on-disk format and their own block allocation, these file systems are often layered on top of existing file systems e. g. residing in a directory on a host file system. Many such file systems also offer advanced features, such as deniable encryption, cryptographically secure read-only file system permissions and different views of the directory structure depending on the key or user. In Cryptography and Steganography, deniable encryption is encryption that allows its user to deny the fact that he or she encrypted a message s/he actually did encrypt Most modern File systems have methods of administering permissions or access rights to specific users and groups of users