Figure skating is an athletic sport in which individuals, pairs, or groups perform spins, jumps, footwork and other intricate and challenging moves on ice. Isabelle Delobel (born June 17, 1978 in Clermont-Ferrand) is a French figure skater. Olivier Schoenfelder (born November 30, 1977 in Belfort, France) is a French figure skater. Sport is an Activity that is governed by a set of rules or Customs and often engaged in competitively Spins are an element in Figure skating where the skater rotates centered on a single point on the ice while holding one or more body positions Figure skating jumps are a major element of competitive Figure skating. Moves in the field is a name given to elements of Figure skating that emphasize basic skating skills and edge control Figure skaters compete at various levels from beginner up to the Olympic level (senior), and at local, national, and international competitions. The International Skating Union (ISU) regulates international figure skating judging and competitions. The International Skating Union (ISU is the international governing body for competitive Ice skating disciplines including Figure skating, Synchronized Figure skating is an official event in the Winter Olympic Games. The Winter Olympic Games are a winter Multi-sport event held every four years In languages other than English, figure skating is usually referred to by a name that translates as "artistic skating".
Major international competitions are sanctioned by the ISU. These include the Winter Olympic Games, the World Championships, the World Junior Figure Skating Championships, the ISU Grand Prix of Figure Skating, the European Figure Skating Championships, and the Four Continents Figure Skating Championships. The Winter Olympic Games are a winter Multi-sport event held every four years The World Figure Skating Championships ( "Worlds") is an annual Figure skating competition sanctioned by the International Skating Union in which The World Junior Figure Skating Championships ( "World Juniors" or "Junior Worlds") is an annual Figure skating competition sanctioned The ISU Grand Prix of Figure Skating (formerly the ISU Champions Series) is a series of international invitational competitions organized by the International Skating Union The European Figure Skating Championships ( "Europeans") is an annual Figure skating competition in which figure skaters compete for The Four Continents Figure Skating Championships (4CC is an annual Figure skating competition.
The sport is also associated with show business. Major competitions generally include exhibitions at the end in which the top-placing skaters perform for the crowd by showing off their various skills. Many skaters, both during and after their competitive careers, also skate in ice skating exhibitions or shows which run during the competitive season and the off-season.
Olympic sports in figure skating comprise the following disciplines:
Other disciplines of figure skating include:
Jumps involve the skater leaping into the air and rotating rapidly to land after completing one or more rotations. There are many types of jumps, identified by the way the skater takes off and lands, as well as by the number of rotations that are completed.
Most skaters rotate all their jumps in the counterclockwise direction. Some prefer to rotate clockwise, and a very small number of skaters can perform jumps in both directions. For clarity, all jumps will be described for the counterclockwise skater. Jumps are one of the most important parts of figure skating.
There are six major jumps in figure skating. All six are landed on one foot on the right back outside edge (with counterclockwise rotation, for single and multi-revolution jumps), but have different takeoffs, by which they may be distinguished. The two categories of jumps are toe jumps and edge jumps.
Toe jumps are launched by tapping the toe pick of one skate into the ice, and include (in order of difficulty from easiest to hardest):
Edge jumps use no toe assist, and include:
The number of rotations performed in the air for each jump determines whether the jump is a single, double, triple, or quad. Most elite male skaters perform triples and quads as their main jumps, while most elite female skaters perform all the triples except the Axel, which is usually double. Only six female skaters have ever been credited as successfully landing the triple Axel in competition, and only one has landed a quadruple jump (salchow) in competition.
In addition to jumps performed singly, jumps may also be performed in combination or in sequence. For a set of jumps to be considered a combination, each jump must take off from the landing edge of the previous jump, with no steps, turns, or change of edge in between jumps. This limits all jumps except the first to toe loops and loops (which take off from the right back outside edge on which the basic six jumps are landed). In order to use other jumps on the back end of a combination, connecting jumps such as a half loop (which is actually a full rotation, but lands on a left back inside edge) can be used, enabling the skater to put a salchow or flip at the end of the combination. In contrast, jump sequences are sets of jumps, which may involve steps, or changes of edge between the jumps.
There are also a number of other jumps that are usually performed only as single jumps and in elite skating are used as transitional movements or highlights in step sequences. These include the half loop, half flip, walley jump, split jump, waltz jump, inside Axel, and one-foot Axel. The Loop is a Figure skating jump that takes off from a back outside edge and lands on the same edge The flip jump (usually just flip) is a Figure skating jump which takes off a backward inside edge with a toe pick assist and lands on the backward outside A Walley jump is a full rotation jump in Figure skating where the skater jumps off the backward inside edge makes one full rotation in the air and then lands on the backward Split jumps are a category of Figure skating jumps in which the skater achieves a split position in the air The Axel is a Figure skating jump with a forward take-off It is named after the Norwegian skater Axel Paulsen, who first performed the jump in 1882 The Axel is a Figure skating jump with a forward take-off It is named after the Norwegian skater Axel Paulsen, who first performed the jump in 1882 The Axel is a Figure skating jump with a forward take-off It is named after the Norwegian skater Axel Paulsen, who first performed the jump in 1882
There are many types of spins, identified by the position of the arms, legs, and angle of the back. is a Japanese Figure skater. She is the 2006 Olympic Champion and the 2004 World Champion. A camel spin, also known in Europe as a parallel spin, is one of the three basic Figure skating spins, along with the Sit spin and Upright spin Spins are an element in Figure skating where the skater rotates centered on a single point on the ice while holding one or more body positions The three basic spin positions are upright, camel, and sit. The skater rotates on the round part of the blade, called the ball of the foot, just behind the toe pick. Spins may be performed singly or in a sequence combining different types of spins.
Spins may be performed on either foot. Figure skaters are rarely able to spin in both directions; most favor one or the other. For skaters who rotate in a counterclockwise direction, a spin on the left foot is called a forward spin, while a spin on the right foot is called a back spin.
In pair skating and ice dancing, there are additionally pair spins and dance spins in which the two skaters rotate together around the same axis. In pair skating, there are also side by side spins, in which the skaters spin next to each other.
Flying spins are spins that are initiated with a jump. These include the flying camel, flying sit spin, death drop, and butterfly spin. Usually, they go from a forward spin, to a back spin.
Spins are a required element in most figure skating competitions.
Lifts are a required element in pair skating and ice dancing. Figure skating lifts are a required element in Pair skating and Ice dancing. Pair skating is a Figure skating discipline International Skating Union (ISU regulations describe pair teams as consisting of "one lady and one man Ice dancing is a form of Figure skating which draws from the world of Ballroom dancing. Pairs lifts differ from dance lifts most notably in that dancers are not allowed to lift their partners above their shoulders.
Dance lifts are differentiated by the skating involved. There are seven kinds of lifts approved for ISU competitions. They are separated into short lifts and long lifts. There are many positions the lifting and the lifted partner can take to improve the difficulty of the lift. Each position must be held for at least three seconds to count and is permitted only once a program.
Unlike dance lifts, pair lifts are grouped by the holds involved. In ISU senior level competition, the man must rotate more than one times, but fewer than three a half. There are five different groups of pairs lifts, differentiated by the holds involved. Legal holds are Armpit holds, Waist holds, Hand to hip holds, and Hand to hand. There are two kinds of hand to hand lifts: press lifts and lasso lifts. The lasso lifts are considering the most difficult pair lifts.
Twist lifts are a form of pair lifts, where the lifted partner is thrown into the air, twists, and is caught by the lifted partner. The lady may do a split before the twist, called a split twist. This is not mandatory, but it increases the level of the element. The lady must be caught by her waist in the air. She lands on the backward outside edge. The man also ends the lift on one foot.
In both pairs and dance, lifts that go on longer than allowed receive deductions.
Synchronized skating teams are also allowed to perform lifts in the free skating portion of the senior division only. Lifts can be pair lifts (such as in a dance lift) or a group lift with two or more skaters lifting another skater. In a pair lift, no more than one arm may be fully extended above the head at any time. Acrobatic lifts are not allowed. To gain additional points, teams will sometimes rotate and/or move lifts across the ice.
Step sequences are a required element in competition programs. They involve a combination of turns, steps, hops and edge changes, performed in a straight line down the ice, in a circle, or in an S shape (serpentine step sequence).
The various turns, which skaters can incorporate into step sequences, include:
Spiral sequences are also required in ladies and pair skating, and involve lifting the free leg above the hip to a position equivalent of the arabesque in ballet, or the scale in gymnastics. A twizzle is a multirotational one-foot turn in Figure skating. A spiral is an element in Figure skating where the skater glides on one foot while raising the free leg above hip level Spirals can be performed while skating forwards or backwards, and are distinguished by the edge of the blade used and the foot they are skated on. Some spiral sequences also include Biellman spirals, side-spirals, and other positions.
Other freeskating movements which can be incorporated into step sequences or used as connecting elements include lunges and spread eagles. The spread eagle is one of the Moves in the field in the sport of Figure skating, in which a skater glides on both feet the toes turned out to the sides heels facing An Ina Bauer is similar to a spread eagle performed with one knee bent and typically an arched back. An Ina Bauer is a Moves in the field element in Figure skating in which a skater skates on two parallel blades. Hydroblading refers to a deep edge performed with the body as low as possible to the ice in a near-horizontal position. Hydroblading is a Figure skating move in the field in which a skater glides on a deep edge with the body stretched in a very low position almost horizontal to the
The International Skating Union (ISU) is the governing body for international competitions in figure skating, including the World Championships and the figure skating events at the Winter Olympic Games. A figure skating competition is a judged Sports Competition in Figure skating. The International Skating Union (ISU is the international governing body for competitive Ice skating disciplines including Figure skating, Synchronized The Winter Olympic Games are a winter Multi-sport event held every four years
In singles and pairs figure skating competition, competitors must perform two routines, the "short program", in which the skater must complete a list of required elements consisting of jumps, spins and steps; and the "free skate" or "long program", in which the skaters have slightly more choice of elements. Ice dancing competitions usually consist of three phases: one or more "compulsory dances"; an "original dance" to a ballroom rhythm that is designated annually; and a "free dance" to music of the skaters' own choice. Ballroom dance refers collectively to a set of Partner dances which originated in Germany and are now enjoyed both socially and competitively around the
Skating was formerly judged for "technical merit" (in the free skate), "required elements" (in the short program), and "presentation" (in both programs). The marks for each program ran from 0. 0 to 6. 0, the latter being the highest. These marks were used to determine a preference ranking, or "ordinal", separately for each judge; the judges' preferences were then combined to determine placements for each skater in each program. The placements for the two programs were then combined, with the free skate placement weighted more heavily than the short program. The highest placing individual (based on the sum of the weighted placements) was declared the winner. 
In 2004, in response to the judging controversy during the 2002 Winter Olympics, the ISU adopted the International Judging System (IJS) which became mandatory at all international competitions in 2006, including the 2006 Winter Olympics. The ISU Judging System (also called Code of Points (CoP or the New Judging System (NJS) is the scoring system currently used to judge the Figure skating At the 2002 Olympic Winter Games held in Salt Lake City, the figure skating competition was the source of much controversy and one of the immediate causes for the The 2002 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XIX Olympic Winter Games were a Winter Multi-sport event which was celebrated in 2002 The 2006 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XX Olympic Winter Games, were a Winter Multi-sport event which was celebrated in The new system is often informally referred to as the Code of Points, however, the ISU has never used the term to describe their system in any of their official communications.
Under the new system, points are awarded individually for each skating element, and the sum of these points is the total element score (TES). Competitive programs are constrained to have a set number of elements. Each element is judged first by a technical specialist who identifies the specific element and determines its base value. The technical specialist uses instant replay video to verify things that distinguish different elements; e. g. , the exact foot position at take-off and landing of a jump. The decision of the technical specialist determines the base value of the element. A panel of twelve judges then each award a mark for the quality and execution of the element. This mark is called the grade of execution (GOE) that is an integer from -3 to +3. The GOE mark is then translated into another value by using the table of values in ISU rule 322. The GOE value from the twelve judges is then processed with a computerized random selection of nine judges, then discarding the high and low value, and finally averaging the remaining seven. This average value is then added (or subtracted) from the base value to get the total value for the element. 
The program components score (PCS) awards points to holistic aspects of a program or other nuances that are not rewarded in the total element score. The components are:
The only exception is the compulsory dance, which has no choreography or transition marks because the steps are preset. A detailed description of each component is given in ISU rule 322. 2. Judges award each component a raw mark from 0 to 10 in increments of 0. 25, with a mark of 5 being defined as "average". For each separate component, the raw marks are then selected, trimmed, and averaged in a manner akin to determining a grade of execution. The trimmed mean scores are then translated into a factored mark by multiplying by a factor that depends on the discipline, competition segment, and level. Then the five (or four) factored marks are added to give the final PCS score.
The total element score and the program components score are added to give the total score for a competition segment (TSS). A skater's final placement is determined by the total of their scores in all segments of a competition. No ordinal rankings are used to determine the final results.
There are also skating competitions organized for professional skaters by independent promoters. These competitions use judging rules set by whoever organizes the competition. There is no "professional league". Well known professional competitions in the past have included the World Professional Championships (held in Landover, Maryland), the Challenge Of Champions, the Canadian Professional Championships and the World Professional Championships (held in Jaca, Spain).
The Ice Skating Institute (ISI), an international ice rink trade organization, runs its own competitive and test program aimed at recreational skaters. The Ice Skating Institute (formerly the Ice Skating Institute of America is a Trade association for Ice rinks and also an international governing body for Recreational Originally headquartered in Minnesota, the organization now operates out of Dallas, Texas. ISI competitions are open to any member that have registered their tests. There are very few "qualifying" competitions, although some districts hold Gold Competitions for that season's first-place winners. ISI competitions are especially popular in Asian countries that do not have established ISU member federations. The Gay Games have also included skating competitions for same-gender pairs and dance couples under ISI sponsorship. The Gay Games is the world's largest sporting and cultural event organized by and specifically for LGBT athletes artists musicians and others Other figure skating competitions for adults also attract participants from diverse cultures and sexual orientations.
Figure skates differ from hockey skates most visibly in having a set of large, jagged teeth called toe picks (also called "toe rakes") on the front of the blade. Figure skates are a type of Ice skate used by figure skaters. Ice hockey, often referred to simply as hockey, is a team Sport played on Ice. The toe picks are used primarily in jumping and should not be used for stroking or spins. Blades are mounted to the sole and heel of the boot with screws. Typically, high-level figure skaters are professionally fitted for their boots and blades at a reputable skate shop in their area.
Ice dancers' blades are about an inch shorter in the rear than those used by skaters in other disciplines, to accommodate the intricate footwork and close partnering in dance.
Hard plastic skate guards are used when the skater must walk in his or her skates when not on the ice. The guard protects the blade from dirt or material on the ground that may dull the blade. Soft blade covers called soakers are used to absorb condensation and protect the blades from rust when the skates are not being worn.
For practice skating, figure skaters of both sexes usually wear leggings, tight fitting, flexible pants. Leggings are any of several sorts of fitted Clothing to cover the legs In competition, women may wear skirts or pants, though skirts are far more popular. Women generally wear opaque flesh-colored leggings or tights under dresses and skirts, which may extend to cover their skates. Men wear pants. Competition costumes for skaters of both sexes can be theatrical and heavily beaded or trimmed, and can cost thousands of dollars if designed by a top-level costumemaker. Although the use of flesh-colored fabric means the costumes are often less revealing than they may appear, there have been repeated attempts to ban clothing that gives the impression of "excessive nudity" or that is otherwise inappropriate for athletic competition.  Many skaters also wear theatrical makeup and hairstyles during competitions.
Some rinks use harness systems to help skaters learn jumps in a controlled manner. The ice rink installs a heavy-duty cable that is securely attached to two walls of the rink. An Ice rink is a frozen body of Water where people can Ice skate or play winter sports A set of pulleys ride on the cable. The skater wears a vest or belt that has a cable or rope attached to it. That cable/rope is threaded through the movable pulley on the cable above. The coach holds the other end of the cable and lifts the skater by pulling the cable/rope. The skater can then practice the jump, with the coach assisting with the completion. Skaters might also use butt pads or crash pads that are inserted into the pants or stockings to cushion falls, especially when learning new jumps.
While people have been ice skating for centuries, figure skating in its current form originated in the mid-19th century. The history of figure skating stretches back to prehistoric times when archaeological evidence of the activity has been found Ice skating is Traveling on Ice with skates, narrow (and sometimes parabolic) blade-like devices moulded into special Boots A study A Treatise on Skating (1772) by Englishman Robert Jones, is the first known account of figure skating. Competitions were then held in the "English style" of skating, which was stiff and formal and bears little resemblance to modern figure skating. American skater Jackson Haines, considered the "father of modern figure skating", introduced a new style of skating in the mid-1860s. Jackson Haines (1840&ndash1875 was an American Ballet dancer and figure skater who is regarded as the father of modern figure skating This style, which incorporated free and expressive techniques, became known as the "international style. " Although popular in Europe, Haines' style of skating was not widely adopted in the United States until long after his death. 
The International Skating Union was founded in 1892. The International Skating Union (ISU is the international governing body for competitive Ice skating disciplines including Figure skating, Synchronized The first European Championship was held in 1891, and the first World Championship was held in 1896 and won by Gilbert Fuchs. The European Figure Skating Championships ( "Europeans") is an annual Figure skating competition in which figure skaters compete for The World Figure Skating Championships ( "Worlds") is an annual Figure skating competition sanctioned by the International Skating Union in which Gilbert Fuchs (b1871 in Graz, Austria - d1952 in Germany) was a German figure skater and world champion in figure skating Only men competed in these events. In 1902, a woman, Madge Syers, entered the World competition for the first time, finishing second. Florence Madeleine Syers ( née Cave) (1881 - September 9 1917) best known as Madge Syers, was a British The ISU quickly banned women from competing against men, but established a separate competition for "ladies" in 1906. Pair skating was introduced at the 1908 World Championships, where the title was won by Anna Hübler & Heinrich Burger. Pair skating is a Figure skating discipline International Skating Union (ISU regulations describe pair teams as consisting of "one lady and one man Anna Hübler ( January 2 1885 - July 5 1976) was a German pairs Figure skater. Heinrich Burger ( May 31 1881 - April 27 1942) was a German figure skater. The first Olympic figure skating competitions also took place in 1908. 
On March 20, 1914 an international figure skating championship was held in New Haven, Connecticut which was the ancestor of both the United States and Canadian National Championships. The US Figure Skating Championships is an annual Figure skating competition organized by U The Canadian Figure Skating Championships is an annual Figure skating competition held by Skate Canada, the nation's figure skating governing body However, international competitions in figure skating were interrupted by World War I. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All
In the 1920s and 1930s, figure skating was dominated by Sonja Henie, who turned competitive success into a lucrative professional career as a movie star and touring skater. Sonja Henie ( April 8, 1912 - October 12, 1969) was a Norwegian figure skater and actress Henie also set the fashion for female skaters to wear short skirts and white boots.  The top male skaters of this period included Gillis Grafström and Karl Schäfer. Gillis Grafström ( June 7, 1893 in Stockholm, Sweden – April 14, 1938 in Potsdam, Germany) was Karl Schäfer ( May 17, 1909 in Vienna &ndash April 23, 1976 in Vienna was an Austrian figure skater and
Skating competitions were again interrupted for several years by World War II. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including After the war, with many European rinks in ruins, skaters from the United States and Canada began to dominate international competitions and to introduce technical innovations to the sport. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page Dick Button, 1948 and 1952 Olympic Champion, was the first skater to perform the double axel and triple loop jumps, as well as the flying camel spin. Richard Totten "Dick" Button (born July 18, 1929 in Englewood, New Jersey) is an American
The first World Championships in ice dancing were not held until 1952. Ice dancing is a form of Figure skating which draws from the world of Ballroom dancing.  In its first years, ice dance was dominated by British skaters. The first World title holders were Jean Westwood & Lawrence Demmy.
On February 15, 1961, the entire U. Events 590 - Khosrau II is crowned as king of Persia 1637 - Ferdinand III becomes Holy Roman Emperor Year 1961 ( MCMLXI) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. S. figure skating team and their coaches were killed in the crash of Sabena Flight 548 in Brussels, Belgium en route to the World Championships in Prague. Sabena Flight 548, registration OO-SJB was a Boeing 707 aircraft en route from New York International Airport (later renamed John F Brussels (Bruxelles pronounced; Brussel pronounced) officially the Brussels Capital-Region, is Prague (ˈprɑːg Praha (ˈpraɦa see also other names) is the Capital and Largest city of the Czech Republic. This tragedy sent the U. S. skating program into a period of rebuilding.
At the same time, the Soviet Union rose to become a dominant power in the sport, especially in the disciplines of pair skating and ice dancing. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 At every Winter Olympics from 1964 until the present day, a Soviet or Russian pair has won gold, often considered the longest winning streak in modern sports history. (In 2002, Russians Yelena Berezhnaya and Anton Sikharulidze shared gold with Canadians Jamie Salé and David Pelletier, keeping the streak alive. Elena Viktorovna Berezhnaya (Елена Викторовна Бережная (born October 11, 1977 in Nevinnomyssk, USSR) is a Russian Anton Tarielyevich Sikharulidze was born October 25, 1976 in St Jamie Rae Salé (born April 21, 1977, in Calgary Alberta) is a Canadian Pair skater. David Jacques Pelletier (born November 22, 1974 in Sayabec Quebec) is a Canadian pairs Figure skater. Tatiana Totmianina and Maxim Marinin brought home Olympic gold for Russia in 2006. Tatiana Totmianina (Татьяна Тотьмянина (born November 2 1981 in Perm, Russia) is a retired pairs figure skater Maxim Victorovich Marinin (Максим Викторович Маринин born March 23, 1977) in Volgograd, Russia) is a retired Pair )
Compulsory figures formerly accounted for up to 60% of the score in singles figure skating, which meant that skaters who could build up a big lead in figures could win competitions even if they were mediocre free skaters. Compulsory figures or school figures were formerly an aspect of the sport of Figure skating, from which its name (in English derives As television coverage of skating events became more important, so did free skating. Television ( TV) is a widely used Telecommunication medium for sending ( Broadcasting) and receiving moving Images, either monochromatic Beginning in 1968, the ISU began to progressively reduce the weight of figures, and in 1973, the short program was introduced. With these changes, the emphasis in competitive figure skating shifted to increasing athleticism in the free skating. By the time figures were finally eliminated entirely from competition in 1990, Midori Ito had landed the first triple axel by a woman, and Kurt Browning the first quadruple jump by a man. Midori Ito (born August 13, 1969) is a former Japanese Figure skater. Kurt Browning CM (born June 18, 1966) is a Canadian figure skater and Choreographer.
Television also played a role in removing the restrictive amateur status rules that once governed the sport. Amateurism (from Fr amateur "lover of" from OFr from L In order to retain skaters who might otherwise have given up their eligibility to participate in lucrative professional events, in 1995 the ISU introduced prize money at its major competitions, funded by revenues from selling the TV rights to those events.
Figure skating is a very popular part of the Winter Olympic Games, in which the elegance of both the competitors and their movements attract many spectators. Not surprisingly, the best skaters show many of the same physical and psychological attributes as gymnasts. Gymnastics is a Sport involving performance of exercises requiring physical strength agility and coordination Like ice hockey, figure skating is most popular in regions where natural ice is present. Ice hockey, often referred to simply as hockey, is a team Sport played on Ice. Dominant countries of the last 50 years have been Russia and the former Soviet Union, the United States, Canada, Germany and Japan. While many of the top U. S. and Russian skaters retired after the 2006 Winter Olympics, the sport is currently experiencing a surge in popularity in Asia, particularly in South Korea, China and Japan, as well as in the Nordic countries such as Norway and Finland. The 2006 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XX Olympic Winter Games, were a Winter Multi-sport event which was celebrated in South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea and often referred to as Korea ( Korean: 대한민국 tɛː China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. The Nordic countries make up a region in Northern Europe called the Nordic region, consisting of Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway ( Norwegian: Norge ( Bokmål) or Noreg ( Nynorsk) officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Constitutional Finland, officially the Republic of Finland ( is a Nordic country situated in the Fennoscandian region of northern Europe.