The fastball (also called hummer and other names) is the most common type of pitch in baseball. In Baseball, a pitch is the act of throwing a baseball toward home plate to start a play Baseball is a Bat-and-ball Sport played between two teams of nine players each Some "power pitchers," like Nolan Ryan, Roger Clemens and Satchel Paige have thrown it at speeds of 95-104 mph (152. In Baseball, the pitcher is the player who throwsthe baseball from the Pitcher's mound toward the Catcher to begin each play with the goal of Lynn Nolan Ryan Jr (born January 31, 1947 in Refugio, Texas) is a retired American Right-handed Pitcher in William Roger Clemens (born August 4, 1962 in Dayton, Ohio) is an American Right-handed Pitcher in Major Leroy Robert "Satchel" Paige ( July 7, 1906 He appeared in the Major League All-Star Game in both 1952 and 1953. 9-167. 3 km/h) (officially) and up to 107. 9 mph (173. 6 km/h) (unofficially), relying on this speed to prevent the ball from being hit. Others throw more slowly but put movement on the ball or throw it on the outside of the plate where the batter cannot easily reach it. A baseball field or baseball diamond is the field upon which the game of Baseball is played In Baseball, batting is the act of facing the opposing Pitcher and trying to produce offense for one's team The appearance of a faster pitch to the batter can sometimes be achieved by minimizing the batter's vision of the ball before its release. The result is known as an "exploding fastball": a pitch that seems to arrive at the plate quickly despite its low velocity. Fastballs are usually thrown with backspin, so that the Magnus effect creates an upward force on the ball, causing it to fall less rapidly than might be expected. The Magnus effect is the phenomenon whereby a spinning object flying in a Fluid creates a Whirlpool of fluid around itself and experiences a force perpendicular A pitch on which this effect is most marked is often called a "rising fastball", as the ball appears to rise to the batter. Colloquially, use of the fastball is called throwing heat or putting steam on it, among many other variants. A colloquialism is an expression not used in formal speech, writing or Paralinguistics.
Gripping the ball with the fingers across the wide part of the seam ("four-seam fastball") so that both the index finger and middle finger are touching two seams perpendicularly produces a straight pitch, gripping it across the narrow part ("two-seam fastball") so that both the index finger and middle finger are along a seam produces a sinking fastball, holding a four-seam fastball off-center ("cut fastball") imparts lateral movement to the fastball, and splitting the fingers along the seams ("split-finger fastball") produces a sinking action with a lateral break. A four-seam fastball, also called a rising fastball or a cross-seam fastball, is a pitch in Baseball. The second Digit of a human Hand is also referred to as the index finger, pointer finger, forefinger, trigger finger, digitus The middle finger (or the long finger) is the third digit of the human Hand and usually the longest Finger, located between the Index finger A two-seam fastball is a pitch in Baseball and a variant of the straight Fastball. A split-finger fastball or splitter is a pitch in Baseball and a variant of the straight Fastball.
A four-seam fastball is a variant of the fastball. A four-seam fastball, also called a rising fastball or a cross-seam fastball, is a pitch in Baseball.
The four-seam fastball is a pitch that is used often by the pitcher to get ahead in the count or when he needs to throw a strike. In Baseball, the pitcher is the player who throwsthe baseball from the Pitcher's mound toward the Catcher to begin each play with the goal of Strike Zone is a Star Trek The Next Generation novel by Peter David. The type of fastball is intended to have minimal lateral movement, if any. It is most often the fastest pitch that a pitcher throws, with recorded top speeds in the 100+ mph range. There are two general ways to throw a four-seam fastball.
The first and most traditional way is to find the horseshoe seam area, or the area where the seams are the farthest apart. Keeping those seams parallel to the body, the pitcher places his index and middle fingers perpendicular to them with the pads on the farthest seam from him. The thumb then rests underneath the ball about in the middle of the two fingers. With this grip, the thumb will generally have no seam to rest on.
A two-seam fastball, sometimes called a two-seamer, tailing fastball, or sinker is another variant of the straight fastball. A two-seam fastball is a pitch in Baseball and a variant of the straight Fastball. In Baseball, a sinker is a type of Fastball pitch which has significant downward movement
The two-seam fastball is designed to have more movement than a four-seam fastball so that the batter cannot hit hard, but can be more difficult to master and control. Because of the deviation from the straight trajectory, it is sometimes called a moving fastball.
The pitcher grabs a baseball and finds the area on it where the seams are the closest together. Then, the baseball is rotated so that those seams are perpendicular to his body, with the index and middle fingers on each of those seams respectively. A sinker is a similar pitch thrown with almost the same grip, but with thumb directly underneath the ball. Sinkers are also thrown slightly slower than two-seamers. 
Each finger should be touching the seam from the pads or tips to almost the ball of each finger. The thumb should rest underneath the ball in the middle of those two fingers, finding the apex of the horseshoe part of the seam. The thumb needs to rest on that seam from the side to the middle of its pad.
This ball will tend to move for the pitcher a little bit depending on velocity, arm slot angle and pressure points of the fingers. Greg Maddux of the San Diego Padres, Derek Lowe of the Los Angeles Dodgers, and Pedro Martínez of the New York Mets are known for their particularly effective two-seam fastballs. Gregory Alan Maddux (born April 14, 1966 in San Angelo Texas) is a Pitcher for the Los Angeles Dodgers. The San Diego Padres are a Major League Baseball team based in San Diego California since their founding in 1969 Derek Christopher Lowe (born June 1, 1973 in Dearborn Michigan) is a Major League Baseball Pitcher for the Los Angeles Dodgers The Los Angeles Dodgers are a Major League Baseball team based in Los Angeles California, USA Pedro Jaime Martínez (born October 25 1971 in Manoguayabo, Dominican Republic) is a Major League Baseball Starting pitcher for the "Mets" redirects here For the medical term see Metastasis.
Depending on the grip and pressure applied with the fingers, sometimes the two-seam fastball features more sink than lateral movement. Sinkerballers tend to induce a lot of ground ball outs. This is because hitters tend to swing over the ball due to the late downward movement, and thus, often end up beating the ball into the ground. Jake Westbrook and Fausto Carmona of the Cleveland Indians, Greg Maddux of the San Diego Padres, Brad Penny and Derek Lowe of the Los Angeles Dodgers, Julian Tavarez of the Milwaukee Brewers, Chien-Ming Wang of the New York Yankees, Jason Marquis of the Chicago Cubs, Aaron Cook of the Colorado Rockies, Brandon Webb of the Arizona Diamondbacks, Jon Garland of the Los Angeles Angels, Roy Halladay of the Toronto Blue Jays, and Bronson Arroyo of the Cincinnati Reds are well known for their sinkers, consistently ranking high in the league in ground ball-to-fly ball ratio. Jacob Cauthen Westbrook (born September 29, 1977 in Athens, Georgia) is a Right-handed Starting pitcher for the Fausto C Carmona (born December 7, 1983 in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic) is a Right-handed Pitcher for the The Cleveland Indians are a professional baseball team based in Cleveland, Ohio, United States. Gregory Alan Maddux (born April 14, 1966 in San Angelo Texas) is a Pitcher for the Los Angeles Dodgers. The San Diego Padres are a Major League Baseball team based in San Diego California since their founding in 1969 Bradley Wayne Penny (born May 24, 1978 in Blackwell Oklahoma) is a Starting pitcher in Major League Baseball for the Los Derek Christopher Lowe (born June 1, 1973 in Dearborn Michigan) is a Major League Baseball Pitcher for the Los Angeles Dodgers The Los Angeles Dodgers are a Major League Baseball team based in Los Angeles California, USA Julián Tavárez Carmen (born May 22, 1973 in Santiago, Dominican Republic) is a Major League Baseball Pitcher currently The Milwaukee Brewers are a Major League Baseball team based in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, which plays in the Central Division of the National League Chien-Ming Wang ( Pinyin: Wáng Jiànmín born March 31, 1980 in Tainan, Taiwan) is a Taiwanese Starting pitcher for The New York Yankees are a professional baseball team based in the borough of The Bronx, in New York City, New York. Jason Scott Marquis (mɑrˈkiː (born August 21, 1978) is an American Major League Baseball Pitcher for the The Chicago Cubs are a Professional Baseball franchise based in Chicago, Illinois. Aaron Lane Cook (born February 8, 1979 in Fort Campbell, Kentucky) is a right-handed Major League Baseball Pitcher The Colorado Rockies are a Major League Baseball team based in Denver, Colorado. Brandon Tyler Webb (born May 9, 1979 in Ashland Kentucky) is a National Major League Baseball Starting pitcher for The Arizona Diamondbacks (also referred to as the D-backs) are a professional baseball team based in Phoenix Arizona. Jon Steven Garland (born September 27 1979 in Valencia California) is a right-handed Starting pitcher in Major League Baseball for the Los Angeles The Los Angeles Angels of Anaheim are a professional baseball team based in Anaheim, California. Harry Leroy Halladay III (born May 14 1977 nicknamed Doc, is a Major League Baseball Starting pitcher. The Toronto Blue Jays are a professional baseball team based in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Bronson Anthony Arroyo (born February 24, 1977 in Key West Florida) is a Major League Baseball Right-handed Pitcher The Cincinnati Reds are a Major League Baseball team based in Cincinnati Ohio, USA
The rising fastball is an effect perceived by batters, but is known to be a baseball myth. Baseball is a Bat-and-ball Sport played between two teams of nine players each Some batters claim to have seen a "rising" fastball, which starts as a normal fastball, but as it approaches the plate it rises several inches and gains a burst of speed. Tom Seaver and Dwight Gooden were often described as the paramount pitchers with this kind of ball action. George Thomas Seaver (born November 17, 1944) is a former right-handed Major League Baseball Pitcher who broke into the major leagues in and Dwight Eugene Gooden (born November 16, 1964 in Tampa Florida) also known as Doc Gooden or Dr
Such a pitch is known to be physically impossible, due to restrictions of gravity, conservation of momentum, and air density. Gravitation is a natural Phenomenon by which objects with Mass attract one another In Classical mechanics, momentum ( pl momenta SI unit kg · m/s, or equivalently N · s) is the product The density of air, ρ (Greek rho (air density is the mass per unit volume of Earth's atmosphere, and is a useful value in Aeronautics. It has been explained as an optical illusion. This article is about visual perception See Optical Illusion (Album for information about the Time Requiem album What is likely happening is that the pitcher first throws a fastball at one speed, and then, using an identical arm motion, throws another fastball at a higher speed. The higher speed fastball arrives faster and sinks less due to its high speed. The added back-spin from the higher speed further decreases the amount of sink. When the pitch is thrown, the batter expects a fastball at the same speed, yet it arrives more quickly and at a higher level. The batter perceives it as a fastball which has risen and increased in speed. A switch from a two-seam to a four-seam fastball can enhance this effect. A two-seam fastball is a pitch in Baseball and a variant of the straight Fastball. A four-seam fastball, also called a rising fastball or a cross-seam fastball, is a pitch in Baseball.
This perception may also created by a tall, hard-throwing pitcher who throws the ball from a higher release point on an elevated mound (the pitcher's rubber is ten inches above the field level). Factoring in the element of depth perception when the hitter watches the pitcher from sixty feet six inches away from the pitcher's mound, and the hitter perceives the pitcher's size and positioning on the mound to be less elevated than it actually is. Hence, to the hitter an overhand pitch will appear to be thrown at a hitter's shoulder level (or even belt level), as opposed to several inches above the hitter's head, from where the pitch is actually released from the pitcher's hand. This perception enhances the apparent "rising" motion of the fastball when the pitch passes the hitter at a higher level than where the hitter perceived the pitch to have left the pitcher's hand.
It is possible for a rising fastball to be thrown by a submarine pitcher because of the technique with which they throw the ball. In Baseball, a submarine is a pitch delivered with an underhand motion Because they throw almost underhand with their knuckles near the dirt, the batter perceives the sensation of the ball going upward because of its low starting point and flight trajectory. This is not the traditional rising fastball batters believe they see. Left-hander Sid Fernandez was known for throwing a rising fastball from a slightly "submarine" motion. Charles Sidney Fernandez (born October 12, 1962) was a Left-handed Pitcher in Major League Baseball from to.
A cut fastball, or "cutter," is similar to a slider, but the pitcher tends to use a four-seam grip. In Baseball, a cutter, or cut fastball, is a type of Fastball which breaks slightly as it reaches Home plate. In Baseball, a slider is a pitch halfway between a Curveball and a Fastball. The pitcher shifts the grip on a four-seamer (often by slightly rotating the thumb inwards and the two top fingers to the outside) to create more spin. This usually causes the pitch to shift inwards or outwards by a few inches, less than a typical slider, and often late. A cutter is effective for pitchers with a strong four-seamer, since the grip and delivery looks virtually identical. The unexpected motion will fool batters into hitting the ball off-center, or missing it altogether.
Mariano Rivera, a relief pitcher for the New York Yankees, is a pitcher known for throwing a cutter. Mariano Rivera (born November 29, 1969 in Panama City, Panama) is a Professional baseball player In Baseball, a closing pitcher, more frequently referred to as a closer (abbreviated CL) is a Relief pitcher who specializes in closing out The New York Yankees are a professional baseball team based in the borough of The Bronx, in New York City, New York. Rivera can deliver late motion while throwing the ball around 95 mph. Al Leiter rode his cutter to 162 career wins and a no-hitter. Alois Terry "Al" Leiter (ˈlaɪtɚ born October 23, 1965 in Toms River, New Jersey) is a retired Major League Baseball Esteban Loaiza, currently with the Los Angeles Dodgers, used a cutter to help him win 21 games in 2003. Esteban Antonio Loaiza Veyna (born December 31, 1971 in Tijuana, Baja California, México) is a Major League Baseball The Los Angeles Dodgers are a Major League Baseball team based in Los Angeles California, USA Roy Halladay of the Toronto Blue Jays also throws a cut fastball, but claims that overusing it has given him forearm trouble  which may have prematurely ended Halladay's 2006 season due to forearm stiffness, since the grip causes more stress than a standard four-seamer. Harry Leroy Halladay III (born May 14 1977 nicknamed Doc, is a Major League Baseball Starting pitcher. The Toronto Blue Jays are a professional baseball team based in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Yankee Andy Pettitte is another pitcher who throws the cutter. The New York Yankees are a professional baseball team based in the borough of The Bronx, in New York City, New York. Andrew Eugene Pettitte (born June 15 1972 in Baton Rouge, Louisiana) is an American Left-handed Starting pitcher who plays for the On a June 3, 2007 game against the Boston Red Sox, announcer Joe Morgan estimated that of Pettite's 87 pitches, 83 of them were cutters. Events 350 - Roman usurper Nepotianus, of the Constantinian dynasty, proclaims himself Roman Emperor, entering Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. The Boston Red Sox are a Professional baseball team based in Boston Massachusetts, and are the reigning (2007 World Series Champions. Joe Leonard Morgan (born September 19, 1943 in Bonham Texas) is a former Major League Baseball Second baseman who was inducted into
The split-finger fastball or "splitter," is thrown with the same arm motion as a normal fastball, but the adjusted grip causes it to behave quite differently. A split-finger fastball or splitter is a pitch in Baseball and a variant of the straight Fastball. The ball does not have the characteristically tight spin of a fastball. The ball appears to tumble in a knuckleball-like fashion; but it is much faster than a knuckleball. The ball is gripped tightly with the index and middle finger "split" along the outside of the horseshoe seam. It is important that these two fingers are not touching any seams - it should be on a smooth part of the ball. Since these two fingers are off to the side of the ball, there is some slippage at release. This is desirable because it is this slippage that robs the ball of spin and causes it to run out of energy and dart randomly as it approaches the batter. A splitter will usually drop as it approaches the plate, and break to either the right or left. The split-finger fastball is often most effective when it is located as a "ball"; the pitch starts in the strike zone and then falls out of it, causing batters to "chase" the pitch. Strike Zone is a Star Trek The Next Generation novel by Peter David. The forkball is a similar pitch, though it is slower and gripped with a more exaggerated split of the fingers. The forkball is a type of pitch in Baseball. Related to the split-fingered fastball, the forkball is held between the first two fingers and thrown A pitcher generally needs long fingers to effectively throw this pitch.
It is not a recommended pitch for pitchers under 16-yrs-old. Not only is it difficult to control, but it is stressful on the arm. The reason it is so stressful is that there is tension created in the upper arm as a result of the drastic split of the fingers. This has a tendency to lock the wrist up and prevents there from being any shock absorption at release.
The split-finger is used currently by pitchers such as Chien-Ming Wang of the New York Yankees, Dan Haren of the Arizona Diamondbacks, Kelvim Escobar of the Los Angeles Angels of Anaheim, José Contreras and Jake Robbins of the Chicago White Sox, Jonathan Papelbon and Curt Schilling of the Boston Red Sox, Jeremy Accardo of the Toronto Blue Jays, J. J. Putz of the Seattle Mariners, John Smoltz of the Atlanta Braves. Chien-Ming Wang ( Pinyin: Wáng Jiànmín born March 31, 1980 in Tainan, Taiwan) is a Taiwanese Starting pitcher for The New York Yankees are a professional baseball team based in the borough of The Bronx, in New York City, New York. Daniel John 'The Baron' Haren (born September 17, 1980 in Monterey Park, California) is a Major League Baseball Starting pitcher The Arizona Diamondbacks (also referred to as the D-backs) are a professional baseball team based in Phoenix Arizona. Kelvim Jose Escobar Bolivar (born April 11, 1976 in La Guaira, Venezuela) is a Starting pitcher in Major League Baseball The Los Angeles Angels of Anaheim are a professional baseball team based in Anaheim, California. For the Chilean football player see José Contreras (footballer. Phillip Jacob Robbins (born May 23, 1976 in Charlotte North Carolina) is a former Major League Baseball Pitcher who ended his career The Chicago White Sox are a professional Baseball team based in Chicago, Illinois. Jonathan Robert Papelbon (born November 23 1980 in Baton Rouge Louisiana) is a Major League Baseball closer for the Boston Red Sox. Curtis Montague Schilling (born November 14 1966 in) is an American Major League Baseball Pitcher. The Boston Red Sox are a Professional baseball team based in Boston Massachusetts, and are the reigning (2007 World Series Champions. Jeremy Lee Accardo (born on December 18, 1981 in Phoenix Arizona) is a Pitcher in Major League Baseball for the Toronto The Toronto Blue Jays are a professional baseball team based in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Joseph Jason "JJ" Putz (born February 22, 1977 in Trenton Michigan) is a Major League Baseball closer for the Seattle The Seattle Mariners are an American professional baseball team based in Seattle, Washington, United States. John Andrew Smoltz (born May 15, 1967 in) is a Major League Baseball Pitcher for the Atlanta Braves. Former players noted for use of the split-finger fastball include Jack Morris of the Detroit Tigers, Mike Scott of the Houston Astros, Kazuhiro Sasaki of the Seattle Mariners, Bryan Harvey of the Los Angeles Angels of Anaheim, Hall of Famer Bruce Sutter, and 300 game winner Roger Clemens. John Scott "Jack" Morris (born May 16, 1955, in St Paul Minnesota) is a former Major League Baseball right-handed Starting pitcher The Detroit Tigers are a professional baseball team based in Detroit, Michigan, USA Michael Warren Scott (born April 26, 1955 in Santa Monica California) is a former right-handed Pitcher in Major League Baseball for The Houston Astros are a Professional baseball team based in Houston Texas. Kazuhiro "Daimajin" Sasaki (佐々木主浩 Sasaki Kazuhiro, born February 22, 1968 in Natori, Japan) is a retired The Seattle Mariners are an American professional baseball team based in Seattle, Washington, United States. Bryan Stanley Harvey (born June 2, 1963 in Soddy-Daisy Tennessee) is a former Major League Baseball Relief pitcher who played from The Los Angeles Angels of Anaheim are a professional baseball team based in Anaheim, California. Howard Bruce Sutter (ˈsuːtɚ born January 8 1953 in Lancaster Pennsylvania) is a former right-handed Relief pitcher in Major League Baseball who was In Major League Baseball, the 300 win club is a term applied to the group of Pitchers who have won 300 or more games in their careers William Roger Clemens (born August 4, 1962 in Dayton, Ohio) is an American Right-handed Pitcher in Major
The Incurve was a term used until about 1930 used to describe a simple fastball. As a curveball was often called an "outcurve," one might assume that an incurve is the opposite of a curveball, in other words, the modern screwball. The curveball is a breaking pitch in Baseball thrown with a grip and hand movement that imparts down and/or sideways spin to the ball. A screwball is a Baseball pitch that is thrown so as to break in the opposite direction of a Slider. However, this does not appear to be so, as cited by John McGraw.