Fashion refers to styles of dress (but can also include cuisine, literature, art, architecture, and general comportment) that are popular in a culture at any given time. Such styles may change quickly, and "fashion" in the more colloquial sense refers to the latest version of these styles. Inherent in the term is the idea that the mode will change more quickly than the culture as a whole. Culture (from the Latin cultura stemming from colere, meaning "to cultivate" generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic
The terms "fashionable" and "unfashionable" are employed to describe whether someone or something fits in with the current or even not so current, popular mode of expression. The term "fashion" is frequently used in a positive sense, as a synonym for glamour, beauty and style. NOTICE TO WOULD-BE-ROMEOS*************** In this sense, fashions are a sort of communal art, through which a culture examines its notions of beauty and goodness. Art refers to a diverse range of Human activities creations and expressions that are appealing to the Senses or Emotions of a human individual In Religion, Ethics, and Philosophy, the phrase good and evil refers to the location of objects desires and Behaviors on a two-way The term "fashion" is also sometimes used in a negative sense, as a synonym for fads and trends, and materialism. The Philosophy of materialism holds that the only thing that can be truly proven to exist is Matter, and is considered a form of Physicalism. A number of cities are recognized as global fashion centers and are recognized for their fashion weeks, where designers exhibit their new clothing collections to audiences. These cities are New York City, Milan, Paris, and London. The City of New York Milan (Milano Milan (listen) is one of the largest cities in Italy, located in the plains of Lombardy. Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. Other cities, mainly Los Angeles, Berlin, Tokyo, Rome, Miami, Hong Kong, São Paulo, Sydney, Madrid, Vienna, and Dubai also hold fashion weeks and are better recognized every year. Los Angeles (lɑˈsændʒələs los ˈaŋxeles in Spanish) is the largest City in the state of California and the American West Berlin is the capital city and one of sixteen states of Germany. officially, is one of the 47 prefectures of Japan and located on the eastern side of the main island Honshū. Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 Hong Kong ( officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, is a territory located on China 's south coast on the Pearl River Delta, and borders São Paulo ( is the largest city in Brazil, with its metropolitan area ranking among the largest urban areas in the world Sydney (ˈsɪdniː is the most populous city in Australia, with a Metropolitan area population of approximately 4 Madrid (pronounced in English in Spanish and colloquially in Spain) is the Capital and largest city of Spain. Vienna ( in Wien; see also other names) is the Capital of Austria, and is also one of the nine States of Austria. Dubai (in دبيّ,) is one of the seven emirates and most populous city of the United Arab Emirates (UAE
Fashions are social phenomena common to many fields of human activity and thinking. Definition In the absence of agreement about its meaning the term "social" is used in many different senses referring among other things to attitudes The rise and fall of fashions has been especially documented and examined in the following fields:
Of these fields, costume especially has become so linked in the public eye with the term "fashion" that the more general term "costume" has mostly been relegated to only mean fancy dress or masquerade wear, while the term "fashion" means clothing generally, and the study of it. A costume party ( American English) or a fancy dress party ( British English) mainly in contemporary Western culture, is a type of Party A masquerade ball (or bal masqué) is an event which the participants attend in Costume wearing a Mask. This linguistic switch is due to the so-called fashion plates which were produced during the Industrial Revolution, showing novel ways to use new textiles. The Industrial Revolution was a period in the late 18th and early 19th centuries when major changes in agriculture manufacturing and transportation had a profound effect on the For a broad cross-cultural look at clothing and its place in society, refer to the entries for clothing and costume. cross-cultural may refer to Cross-cultural studies, a comparative tendency in various fields of cultural analysis any of various forms of interactivity The remainder of this article deals with clothing fashions in the Western world. 
The habit of people continually changing the style of clothing worn, which is now worldwide, at least among urban populations, is generally held by historians to be a distinctively Western one. The history of Western fashion is the story of the changing Fashions in Clothing for men and women in Western Europe and other countries under At other periods in Ancient Rome and other cultures changes in costume occurred, often at times of economic or social change, but then a long period without large changes followed. Ancient Rome was a Civilization that grew out of a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 10th century BC In 8th century Cordoba, Spain, Ziryab, a famous musician - a star in modern terms - is said to have introduced sophisticated clothing styles based on seasonal and daily timings from his native Baghdad and his own inspiration. ||-||-||} Córdoba ( Cordova in English is a City in Andalusia, southern Spain, and the capital of the province of Córdoba. Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Abu l-Hasan ‘Ali Ibn Nafi‘ ( Persian and Arabic: أبو الحسن علي ابن نافع) (c Baghdad (بغداد) is the Capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate, with which it is also coterminous
The beginnings of the habit in Europe of continual and increasingly rapid change in styles can be fairly clearly dated to the middle of the 14th century, to which historians including James Laver and Fernand Braudel date the start of Western fashion in clothing. A caricature is either a Portrait that exaggerates or distorts the essence of a person or thing to create an easily identifiable visual likeness or in literature a description Fernand Braudel ( August 24 1902 &ndash November 27 1985) was the foremost French historian of the postwar era  The most dramatic manifestation was a sudden drastic shortening and tightening of the male over-garment, from calf-length to barely covering the buttocks, sometimes accompanied with stuffing on the chest to look bigger. The calf or gastroc-soleus is a pair of Muscles mdashthe gastrocnemius and soleus &mdashat the back of the lower Human leg. The buttocks (singular buttock) are rounded portions of the anatomy located on the posterior of the Pelvic region of the Apes including Humans This created the distinctive Western male outline of a tailored top worn over leggings or trousers which is still with us today.
The pace of change accelerated considerably in the following century, and women's fashion, especially in the dressing and adorning of the hair, became equally complex and changing. Art historians are therefore able to use fashion in dating images with increasing confidence and precision, often within five years in the case of 15th century images. Art history is the Academic study of objects of Art in their Historical development and stylistic contexts i Initially changes in fashion led to a fragmentation of what had previously been very similar styles of dressing across the upper classes of Europe, and the development of distinctive national styles, which remained very different until a counter-movement in the 17th to 18th centuries imposed similar styles once again, finally those from Ancien Régime in France. Ancien Régime ( pronounced: /ɑ̃sjɛ̃ ʁeʒim/ refers primarily to the aristocratic social and political system established in This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics.  Though fashion was always led by the rich, the increasing affluence of early modern Europe led to the bourgeoisie and even peasants following trends at a distance sometimes uncomfortably close for the elites - a factor Braudel regards as one of the main motors of changing fashion. The early modern period is a term used by historians to refer to the period in Western '''Europe''' and its first colonies which spans the three centuries between A peasant is an agricultural worker who subsists by working a small plot of ground 
The fashions of the West are generally unparalleled either in antiquity or in the other great civilizations of the world. Early Western travellers, whether to Persia, Turkey, Japan or China frequently remark on the absence of changes in fashion there, and observers from these other cultures comment on the unseemly pace of Western fashion, which many felt suggested an instability and lack of order in Western culture. The Persian Empire was a series of Iranian empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the original Persian homeland and beyond in Western Asia Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National The Japanese Shogun's secretary boasted (not completely accurately) to a Spanish visitor in 1609 that Japanese clothing had not changed in over a thousand years. is a military rank and historical title in Japan. The Japanese word for "general" it is made up of two Kanji words sho, meaning "commander" Traditional clothing Jūnihitoe Kimono Hakama Yukata  However in Ming China, for example, there is considerable evidence for rapidly changing fashions in Chinese clothing,
Ten 16th century portraits of German or Italian gentlemen may show ten entirely different hats, and at this period national differences were at their most pronounced, as Albrecht Dürer recorded in his actual or composite contrast of Nuremberg and Venetian fashions at the close of the 15th century (illustration, right). Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Albrecht Dürer (ˈalbʀɛçt ˈdyʀɐ ( May 21, 1471 &ndash April 6, 1528) was a German painter, Printmaker Venice ( Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venesia or Venexia) is a city in Northern Italy, the capital of the The "Spanish style" of the end of the century began the move back to synchronicity among upper-class Europeans, and after a struggle in the mid 17th century, French styles decisively took over leadership, a process completed in the 18th century. 
Though colors and patterns of textiles changed from year to year, the cut of a gentleman's coat and the length of his waistcoat, or the pattern to which a lady's dress was cut changed more slowly. Men's fashions largely derived from military models, and changes in a European male silhouette are galvanized in theatres of European war, where gentleman officers had opportunities to make notes of foreign styles: an example is the "Steinkirk" cravat or necktie. A military is an Organization authorized by its Nation to use force usually including use of Weapons in defending its Country (or by attacking The cravat is a neckband the forerunner of the modern tailored Necktie and Bow tie. The necktie (or tie) is a long piece of cloth worn around the neck resting under the shirt collar and knotted at the throat
The pace of change picked up in the 1780s with the increased publication of French engravings that showed the latest Paris styles; though there had been distribution of dressed dolls from France as patterns since the 16th century, and Abraham Bosse had produced engravings of fashion from the 1620s. Abraham Bosse (c 1602-1604 &ndash February 14 1676) was a French artist mainly as a Printmaker in Etching, but also in By 1800, all Western Europeans were dressing alike (or thought they were): local variation became first a sign of provincial culture, and then a badge of the conservative peasant. Western Europe at its most general meaning means 'all the countries in the West of Europe ' 
Although tailors and dressmakers were no doubt responsible for many innovations before, and the textile industry certainly led many trends, the history of fashion design is normally taken to date from 1858, when the English-born Charles Frederick Worth opened the first true haute couture house in Paris. A textile is a flexible material comprised of a network of natural or artificial Fibres often referred to as thread or Yarn. The first fashion designer who was not merely a dressmaker was (Charles Frederick Worth (1826–1895 Charles Frederick Worth ( October 13, 1825 &ndash March 10, 1895) widely considered the Father of Haute Couture, was an English Haute couture ( French for "high sewing" or "high dressmaking" oːt kuˈtyʁ refers to the creation of exclusive custom-fitted fashions Since then the professional designer has become a progressively more dominant figure, despite the origins of many fashions in street fashion.
Modern Westerners have a wide choice available in the selection of their clothes. Western culture (sometimes equated with Western Civilization) are terms which are used to refer to Cultures of European origin What a person chooses to wear can reflect that person's personality or likes. When people who have cultural status start to wear new or different clothes a fashion trend may start. In Sociology or Anthropology, social status is the honor or prestige attached to one's position in Society (one's Social position) People who like or respect them may start to wear clothes of a similar style.
Fashions may vary considerably within a society according to age, social class, generation, occupation sexual orientation, and geography as well as over time. A society is a Population of Humans characterized by patterns of relationships between individuals that share a distinctive Culture and Institutions Ageing or aging (American English is the accumulation of changes in an organism Social class refers to the hierarchical distinctions (or stratification) between individuals or groups in Societies or Cultures. Generation (from the Greek γενεά) also known as procreation, is the act of producing Offspring. The term profession is applied to those persons who have specialized and technical skill or knowledge which they apply for a fee to certain tasks that ordinary and unqualified people cannot Sexual orientation is believed to refer to "an enduring pattern of emotional romantic and/or sexual attractions to men women or both sexes Geography (from Greek γεωγραφία - geografia) is the study of the Earth and its lands features inhabitants and phenomena If, for example, an older person dresses according to the fashion of young people, he or she may look ridiculous in the eyes of both young and older people. The terms "fashionista" or "fashion victim" refer to someone who slavishly follows the current fashions
One can regard the system of sporting various fashions as a fashion language incorporating various fashion statements using a grammar of fashion. A fashion victim is a term - claimed to have been coined by Oscar de la Renta - that is used to identify a person who is unable to identify commonly recognized boundaries of A language is a dynamic set of visual auditory or tactile Symbols of Communication and the elements used to manipulate them Grammar is the field of Linguistics that covers the Rules governing the use of any given natural language. (Compare some of the work of Roland Barthes. Roland Barthes ( November 12, 1915 &ndash March 25, 1980) (ʀɔlɑ̃ baʀt was a French Literary critic, literary )
Fashion, by description, changes constantly. The changes may proceed more rapidly than in most other fields of human activity (language, thought, etc). Thought and thinking are mental forms and Processes respectively ("thought" is both For some, modern fast-paced changes in fashion embody many of the negative aspects of capitalism: it results in waste and encourages people qua consumers to buy things unnecessarily. Capitalism is the Economic system in which the Means of production are owned by private Persons and operated for Profit and where Consumers refers to individuals or households that use goods and services generated within the economy. Other people enjoy the diversity that changing fashion can apparently provide, seeing the constant change as a way to satisfy their desire to experience "new" and "interesting" things. Note too that fashion can change to enforce uniformity, as in the case where so-called Mao suits became the national uniform of mainland China. The modern Chinese tunic suit is a style of male Attire known in China as the Chungshan suit or Zhongshan suit ( (after Sun Zhongshan Mainland China, Continental China, the Chinese mainland or simply the mainland, is a geopolitical term synonymous with the area that is under the jurisdiction
At the same time there remains an equal or larger range designated (at least currently) 'out of fashion'. (These or similar fashions may cyclically come back 'into fashion' in due course, and remain 'in fashion' again for a while. )
Practically every aspect of appearance that can be changed has been changed at some time, for example skirt lengths ranging from ankle to mini to so short that it barely covers anything, etc. In the past, new discoveries and lesser-known parts of the world could provide an impetus to change fashions based on the exotic: Europe in the eighteenth or nineteenth centuries, for example, might favor things Turkish at one time, things Chinese at another, and things Japanese at a third. Exoticism (from 'exotic' is a trend in Art and Design, influenced by some ethnic groups or civilizations since the late 19th-century A modern version of exotic clothing includes club wear. Clubwear is a general term for the type of provocative revealing or fetish clothing that is worn to Nightclubs featuring a sensual atmosphere with a very relaxed Dress Globalization has reduced the options of exotic novelty in more recent times, and has seen the introduction of non-Western wear into the Western world. Globalization (or globalisation) in its literal sense is the process of transformation of local or regional phenomena into global ones
Fashion houses and their associated fashion designers, as well as high-status consumers (including celebrities), appear to have some role in determining the rates and directions of fashion change. Fashion design is the Applied art dedicated to Clothing and lifestyle Accessories created within the cultural and social influences of a specific time A celebrity is a widely-recognized or famous person who commands a high degree of public and media attention
An important part of fashion is fashion journalism. Fashion journalism is an umbrella term used to describe all aspects of published Fashion media Editorial critique and commentary can be found in magazines, newspapers, on television, fashion websites, social networks and in fashion blogs. Fashion blogs are Blogs that cover Fashions in Clothing and Fashion accessories.
At the beginning of the 20th century, fashion magazines began to include photographs and became even more influential than in the past. In cities throughout the world these magazines were greatly sought-after and had a profound effect on public taste. Talented illustrators drew exquisite fashion plates for the publications which covered the most recent developments in fashion and beauty. For the vector -based drawing program by Adobe Systems, see Adobe Illustrator. Perhaps the most famous of these magazines was La Gazette du Bon Ton which was founded in 1912 by Lucien Vogel and regularly published until 1925 (with the exception of the war years). La Gazette du Bon Ton was a leading French fashion Magazine that was published from November 1912 to 1925
Vogue, founded in the US in 1902, has been the longest-lasting and most successful of the hundreds of fashion magazines that have come and gone. Vogue is a Fashion and lifestyle Magazine published in eighteen countries by Condé Nast Publications. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Increasing affluence after World War II and, most importantly, the advent of cheap colour printing in the 1960s led to a huge boost in its sales, and heavy coverage of fashion in mainstream women's magazines - followed by men's magazines from the 1990s. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including Haute couture designers followed the trend by starting the ready-to-wear and perfume lines, heavily advertised in the magazines, that now dwarf their original couture businesses. "Prêt-à-Porter" redirects here For the movie Prêt-à-Porter (English title Ready to Wear) see Prêt-à-Porter (film. Perfume is a mixture of fragrant Essential oils and Aroma compounds Fixatives and Solvents used to give the human body animals objects and living Television coverage began in the 1950s with small fashion features. In the 1960s and 1970s, fashion segments on various entertainment shows became more frequent, and by the 1980s, dedicated fashion shows like FashionTelevision started to appear. FashionTelevision, also known as FT, is a Canadian -produced special interest show focusing on Fashion. Despite television and increasing internet coverage, including fashion blogs, press coverage remains the most important form of publicity in the eyes of the industry.
Within the fashion industry, intellectual property is not enforced as it is within the film industry and music industry. Intellectual property ( IP) is a legal field that refers to creations of the mind such as musical literary and artistic works inventions and symbols names The film industry consists of the technological and commercial institutions of filmmaking i The music industry is the business of Music. Although it encompasses the activity of many music-related businesses and organizations it is currently dominated by the "big  While brand names and logos are protected, designs are not.  Smaller, boutique, designers have lost revenue after their designs have been taken and marketed by bigger businesses with more resources.  Some observers have noted, however, that the relative freedom that fashion designers have to "take inspiration" from others' designs contributes to the fashion industry's ability to establish clothing trends. Enticing consumers to buy clothing by establishing new trends is, some have argued, a key component of the industry's success. Intellectual property rules that interfere with the process of trend-making would, on this view, be counter-productive.  In 2005, the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) held a conference calling for stricter intellectual property enforcement within the fashion industry to better protect small and medium businesses and promote competitiveness within the textile and clothing industries. The World Intellectual Property Organization ( WIPO) is one of the 16 specialized agencies of the United Nations.