|Part of the Politics series on|
Varieties and derivatives of fascism
Fascism in history
Fascism is a term used to describe authoritarian nationalist political ideologies or mass movements that are concerned with notions of cultural decline or decadence and seek to achieve a millenarian national rebirth by placing the nation or race above all other sources of loyalty and promoting cults of unity, energy and purity. Estado Novo ( Portuguese for " New State " pron (ɨʃ'tadu 'novu also known as the Second Republic) is the name of the Portuguese This article discusses regimes and movements that are alleged to have been either fascist or sympathetic to fascism This is a list of political parties organizations and movements that have been claimed to follow some form of fascist ideology From 1936 to 1941, Greece was ruled by an authoritarian regime under the leadership of General The Beer Hall Putsch (also known as the Munich Putsch) was a failed Coup d'état that occurred between the evening of Thursday November 8 Fascio (plural fasci) is an Italian word that effectively means "league" in English and which was used in the late 19th century to refer to Political This articles covers the history of Italy as a monarchy and in the World Wars. The Italian Social Republic ( Italian: Repubblica Sociale Italiana or RSI) was a Puppet state of Nazi Germany led by the "Duce of the The March on Rome ( Marcia su Roma) was a Coup d'état by which Mussolini 's National Fascist Party ( Partito Nazionale Fascista Nazi Germany and the Third Reich are the common English names for Germany under the regime of Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist German Workers The Spanish Civil War was a major conflict in Spain that started after an attempted Coup d'état committed by parts of the army against the government of Actual Idealism was a form of Idealism developed by Giovanni Gentile that grew into a 'grounded' idealism contrasting the Transcendental Idealism of The Acerbo Law was a Italian electoral law proposed by Baron Giacomo Acerbo and forced through the Italian Parliament in 1923 Anti-fascism is the opposition to fascist ideologies organizations governments and people Black Brigades (Brigate Nere were one of the Fascist Paramilitary groups operating in the Italian Social Republic (in northern Italy) For other uses and meanings see Blackshirts (disambiguation. The Blackshirts ( Italian: camicie nere, Class collaboration is a principle of social organization that forms part of Fascist philosophy Historically corporatism (corporativismo refers to a political or Economic system in which power is held by civic assemblies that represent Economic The economics of fascism refers to the economic policies implemented by fascist governments There are numerous debates concerning fascism and ideology. The position of fascism on the political spectrum is a point of contention As there were many different manifestations of Fascism, especially during the interwar years there were also many different symbols of Fascist movements. The Rhetoric of Hitler's "Battle" was an influential essay written by Kenneth Burke in 1939 which offered a rhetorical analysis of Adolf Hitler Giovanni Gentile (dʒoˈvɑnni dʒenˈtile May 30, 1875 April 15, 1944) was an Italian neo- Hegelian Idealist The Grand Council of Fascism (Gran Consiglio del Fascismo was the main body of Mussolini 's Fascist government in Italy. The Hitler salute (Hitlergruß also known in Germany during World War II as the Deutscher Gruß (literally German Greeting) or in English as the National syndicalism is a variant of Syndicalism typically associated with the Labor movement in Italy which would later become a basis of Benito Mussolini This page specifically pertains to fascism after World War II The Roman salute is a gesture in which the arm is held out forward straight with palm down Social fascism was a theory supported by the Communist International (Comintern during the late 1920s and early 1930s which stated that Social democracy was a variant Third Position is the name applied to a nationalist political strand that seeks to emphasise its opposition to both Communism and Capitalism. Authoritarianism describes a Form of government characterized by an emphasis on the Authority of the State in a republic or union The term nationalism can refer to an Ideology, a sentiment, a form of Culture, or a Social movement that focuses on the Nation A nation is a Human Cultural and Social Community. In as much as most members never meet each other yet feel a common bond it may be considered The term race or racial group usually refers to the concept of categorizing Humans into Populations or groups on the basis of various sets 
Fascists promote a type of national unity that is usually based on (but not limited to) ethnic, cultural, national, racial, and/or religious attributes. Culture (from the Latin cultura stemming from colere, meaning "to cultivate" generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic A nation is a Human Cultural and Social Community. In as much as most members never meet each other yet feel a common bond it may be considered The term race or racial group usually refers to the concept of categorizing Humans into Populations or groups on the basis of various sets A religion is a set of Tenets and practices often centered upon specific Supernatural and moral claims about Reality, the Cosmos Various scholars attribute different characteristics to fascism, but the following elements are usually seen as its integral parts: patriotism, nationalism, statism, militarism, totalitarianism, anti-communism, economic planning (including corporatism and autarky), populism, collectivism, autocracy and anti-liberalism (i. Patriotism is commonly defined as love of and/or devotion to one's country The term nationalism can refer to an Ideology, a sentiment, a form of Culture, or a Social movement that focuses on the Nation Statism (or Etatism) is a very loose and often Derogatory term that is used to describe Specific instances of state intervention in personal social Militarism is the belief or desire of a government or people that a country should maintain a strong military capability and be prepared to use it aggressively to defend or Totalitarianism (or totalitarian rule) is a concept used to describe Political systems where a State regulates nearly every aspect of public and private Anti-communism refers to opposition to Communism. Historically the word "communism" has been used to refer to several types of communal social organization and A planned economy or directed economy is an Economic system in which the Government or Workers' councils manages the Economy. Historically corporatism (corporativismo refers to a political or Economic system in which power is held by civic assemblies that represent Economic An autarky is an economy that is self-sufficient and does not take part in International trade, or severely limits trade with the outside world Populism is a discourse which supports "the people" versus "the Elites " Populism may involve either a political philosophy urging social and political Collectivism is a term used to describe any moral political or social outlook that stresses human Interdependence and the importance of a Collective, rather than An autocracy is a Form of government in which the Political power is held by a single self-appointed ruler e. , opposition to political and economic liberalism). Liberalism is a broad array of related ideas and theories of Government that consider individual Liberty to be the most important political goal Economic liberalism is the Economic component of Classical liberalism. 
Fascist movements and states in the 20th century were typically led by a person declared the "Leader" ( i. e. Duce in Italy, Fuhrer in Germany, Nemzetvezető in Hungary, Conducător in Romania). Duce is an Italian word meaning Leader or the second derived from Latin word dux of the same meaning of which Duke is a derivation Conducător (literally in Romanian, "Leader" was the title used officially in three instances by Romanian politicians Many fascist leaders were initially appointed as as head of government by the head of state, Mussolini was Prime Minister under King Victor Emmanuel III; Hitler was chancellor under the government of President Paul von Hindenburg until Hindenburg's death in 1934; Ion Antonescu was Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Romania; and Ante Pavelic was Prime Minister of Croatia under the Italian figurehead King of Croatia, Tomislav II until his abdication in 1943. This article focuses on the cases where the Head of Government is a separate office from the Head of State Head of state is the generic term for the individual or collective office that serves as the chief public representative of a Monarchic or Republican Nation-state Victor Emmanuel III (Vittorio Emanuele III 11 November, 1869 – 28 December, 1947) was a member of the House of Savoy and Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg ( known universally as Paul von Hindenburg ( ( October 2, 1847 &ndash August 2 "Antonescu" redirects here For other persons with that surname see Antonescu (surname. For the vice president of the National assembly of the State of Slovenes Croats and Serbs see Ante Pavelić (1869 Ante Pavelić ( July Early life Aimone d'Aosta was born in Turin. He was the second son of Prince Emanuele Filiberto 2nd Duke of Aosta (son of Amadeus I of Spain However, as heads of government, the fascist leaders typically wielded significant political powers, and the heads of state like the Kings of Croatia, Italy, and Romania were figureheads. Exceptions to this pattern include Francisco Franco who had supported monarchists in the Spanish Civil War but then in 1939, he took over as head of state of Spain. Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo Franco y Bahamonde (born December 4, 1892 in Ferrol, died November 20, 1975 in Madrid The Spanish Civil War was a major conflict in Spain that started after an attempted Coup d'état committed by parts of the army against the government of
Some authors reject broad usage of the term or exclude certain parties and regimes.  Following the defeat of the Axis powers in World War II, there have been few self-proclaimed fascist groups and individuals. The Axis powers also known as the Axis alliance Axis nations Axis countries or sometimes just the Axis were those Countries World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including In contemporary political discourse, the term fascist is often used by adherents of some ideologies as a pejorative description of their opponents. The word fascist is sometimes used to denigrate people institutions or groups that would not describe themselves as ideologically fascist, and that may not fall
The term fascismo was coined by the Italian Fascist dictator Benito Mussolini and the Neo-Hegelian philosopher Giovanni Gentile. The term Italian Fascism denotes the totalitarian Fascismo political movement that ruled Italy from 1922 until 1943 under leader Benito Mussolini Absolute idealism is an ontologically Monistic philosophy attributed to G Giovanni Gentile (dʒoˈvɑnni dʒenˈtile May 30, 1875 April 15, 1944) was an Italian neo- Hegelian Idealist It is derived from the Italian word fascio, which means "bundle" or "union", and from the Latin word fasces. Italian ( or lingua italiana) is a Romance language spoken by about 63 million people as a First language, primarily in Italy. Fascio (plural fasci) is an Italian word that effectively means "league" in English and which was used in the late 19th century to refer to Political Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. Fasces (ˈfæsiːz a Plurale tantum, from the Latin word fascis, meaning "bundle" symbolize summary power and Jurisdiction The fasces, which consisted of a bundle of rods tied around an axe, were an ancient Roman symbol of the authority of the civic magistrates; they were carried by his Lictors and could be used for corporal and capital punishment at his command. Ancient Rome was a Civilization that grew out of a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 10th century BC A magistrate is a judicial officer In Common law systems a magistrate usually has limited authority to administer and enforce the Law. The lictor, derived from the Latin ligare (to bind was a member of a special class of Roman civil servant with special tasks of attending and guarding Furthermore, the symbolism of the fasces suggested strength through unity: a single rod is easily broken, while the bundle is difficult to break. It is also strongly associated with the fascist militia "fasci italiani di combattimento" ("League of Combat"). Originally, the term "fascism" (fascismo) was used by the political movement that ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest
Historians, political scientists, and other scholars have engaged in long and furious debates concerning the exact nature of fascism and its core tenets. What constitutes a definition of Fascism and fascist Governments is a highly disputed subject that has proved complicated and contentious There are numerous debates concerning fascism and ideology. The position of fascism on the political spectrum is a point of contention Since the 1990s, there has been a growing move toward some rough consensus reflected in the work of Stanley Payne, Roger Eatwell, Roger Griffin, and Robert O. Paxton. Stanley George Payne (born 1934 in Denton Texas) is a Historian of modern Spain and European Fascism at the University Roger Griffin is a British academic Political theorist at Oxford Brookes University, England. Robert Paxton (b 1932) is an American Historian specializing in Vichy France and Europe during the World War II era According to most scholars of fascism, there are both left and right influences on fascism as a social movement, and fascism, especially once in power, has historically attacked communism, conservatism and parliamentary liberalism, attracting support primarily from the "far right" or "extreme right. " (See: Fascism and ideology). There are numerous debates concerning fascism and ideology. The position of fascism on the political spectrum is a point of contention
Mussolini defined fascism as being a collectivistic ideology in opposition to socialism, classical liberalism, democracy and individualism. Collectivism is a term used to describe any moral political or social outlook that stresses human Interdependence and the importance of a Collective, rather than Socialism refers to a broad set of economic theories of social organization advocating state or collective ownership and administration of the Means of production and distribution Classical liberalism (also known as traditional liberalism, Laissez-faire liberalism, Market liberalism or in much of the world Democracy is a form of government in which the supreme power is held completely by the people under a free electoral system He wrote in The Doctrine of Fascism:
Anti-individualistic, the fascist conception of life stresses the importance of the State and accepts the individual only insofar as his interests coincide with those of the State, which stands for the conscience and the universal will of man as a historic entity. . . . The fascist conception of the State is all-embracing; outside of it no human or spiritual values can exist, much less have value. . . . Fascism is therefore opposed to that form of democracy which equates a nation to the majority, lowering it to the level of the largest number. . . . We are free to believe that this is the century of authority, a century tending to the 'right', a Fascist century. If the nineteenth century was the century of the individual we are free to believe that this is the 'collective' century, and therefore the century of the State. 
Since Mussolini, there have been many conflicting definitions of the term fascism. Former Columbia University Professor Robert O. Paxton has written that:
Fascism may be defined as a form of political behavior marked by obsessive preoccupation with community decline, humiliation, or victim-hood and by compensatory cults of unity, energy, and purity, in which a mass-based party of committed nationalist militants, working in uneasy but effective collaboration with traditional elites, abandons democratic liberties and pursues with redemptive violence and without ethical or legal restraints goals of internal cleansing and external expansion. "
Paxton further defines fascism's essence as:
. . . a sense of overwhelming crisis beyond reach of traditional solutions; 2. belief one’s group is the victim, justifying any action without legal or moral limits; 3. need for authority by a natural leader above the law, relying on the superiority of his instincts; 4. right of the chosen people to dominate others without legal or moral restraint; 5. fear of foreign `contamination. "
Stanley Payne's Fascism: Comparison and Definition (1980) uses a lengthy itemized list of characteristics to identify fascism, including the creation of an authoritarian state; a regulated, state-integrated economic sector; fascist symbolism; anti-liberalism; anti-communism; anti-conservatism. As there were many different manifestations of Fascism, especially during the interwar years there were also many different symbols of Fascist movements. Liberalism is a broad array of related ideas and theories of Government that consider individual Liberty to be the most important political goal Anti-communism refers to opposition to Communism. Historically the word "communism" has been used to refer to several types of communal social organization and Conservatism is a term used to describe political philosophies that favour Tradition, where tradition refers to various religious cultural or nationally defined  He argues that common aim of all fascist movements was elimination of the autonomy or, in some cases, the existence of large-scale capitalism. Capitalism is the Economic system in which the Means of production are owned by private Persons and operated for Profit and where  Semiotician Umberto Eco attempts to identify the characteristics of proto-fascism as the cult of tradition, rejection of modernism, cult of action for action's sake, life is lived for struggle, fear of difference, rejection of disagreement, contempt for the weak, cult of masculinity and machismo, qualitative populism, appeal to a frustrated majority, obsession with a plot, illicitly wealthy enemies, education to become a hero, and speaking Newspeak, in his popular essay Eternal Fascism: Fourteen Ways of Looking at a Blackshirt. Semiotics, semiotic studies, or semiology is the study of sign processes (semiosis or signification and communication signs and Symbols both Umberto Eco (born 5 January 1932 is an Italian Medievalist, semiotician, Philosopher, literary critic and Novelist, best The word tradition comes from the Latin traditionem acc of traditio which means "a giving up delivering up surrendering" and is used in a number of Modernism describes an array of Cultural movements rooted in the changes in Western society in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century In Sociology, social actions refer to any action that takes into account the actions and reactions of other Individuals and is modified based on those events A controversy or dispute is a commencement of a conflict between statements of accepted fact and a new or unaccepted proposal that disagrees with argues against Populism is a discourse which supports "the people" versus "the Elites " Populism may involve either a political philosophy urging social and political  More recently, an emphasis has been placed upon the aspect of populist fascist rhetoric that argues for a "re-birth" of a conflated nation and ethnic people. A nation is a Human Cultural and Social Community. In as much as most members never meet each other yet feel a common bond it may be considered 
Free market economists, principally those of the Austrian School, like Ludwig Von Mises argue that fascism is a form of socialist dictatorship similar to that of the Soviet Union. Ludwig Heinrich Edler von Mises (ˈluːtvɪç fɔn ˈmiːzəs ( September 29, 1881 – October 10, 1973) was an Austrian Socialism refers to a broad set of economic theories of social organization advocating state or collective ownership and administration of the Means of production and distribution The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 
Although the broadest descriptions of fascism may include every authoritarian state that has ever existed, most theorists see important distinctions to be made. Fascism in Italy arose in the 1920s as a mixture of syndicalist notions with an anti-materialist theory of the state; the latter had already been linked to an extreme nationalism. Syndicalism is a type of movement which aims to degrade capitalist societies through action by the Working class on the industrial front The Philosophy of materialism holds that the only thing that can be truly proven to exist is Matter, and is considered a form of Physicalism. The term nationalism can refer to an Ideology, a sentiment, a form of Culture, or a Social movement that focuses on the Nation Fascists accused parliamentary democracy of producing division and decline, and wished to renew the nation from decadence. A parliamentary system, also known as parliamentarianism (and parliamentarism in American English) is a System of government in which They viewed the state as an organic entity in a positive light rather than as an institution designed to protect individual rights, or as one that should be held in check. Fascism universally dismissed the Marxist concept of "class struggle", replacing it instead with the concept of "class collaboration". Class struggle is the active expression of Class conflict looked at from any kind of socialist perspective Class collaboration is a principle of social organization that forms part of Fascist philosophy Fascists embraced nationalism and mysticism, advancing ideals of strength and power. Mysticism (from the Greek grc μυστικός mystikos, an initiate of a Mystery religion) is the pursuit of communion with identity
Fascism is typified by totalitarian attempts to impose state control over all aspects of life: political, social, cultural, and economic, by way of a strong, single-party government for enacting laws and a strong, sometimes brutal militia or police force for enforcing them. Totalitarianism (or totalitarian rule) is a concept used to describe Political systems where a State regulates nearly every aspect of public and private  Fascism exalts the nation, state, or group of people as superior to the individuals composing it. A nation is a Human Cultural and Social Community. In as much as most members never meet each other yet feel a common bond it may be considered A state is a political association with effective Sovereignty over a geographic Area and representing a Population. Fascism uses explicit populist rhetoric; calls for a heroic mass effort to restore past greatness; and demands loyalty to a single leader, leading to a cult of personality and unquestioned obedience to orders (Führerprinzip). Populism is a discourse which supports "the people" versus "the Elites " Populism may involve either a political philosophy urging social and political A cult of personality or personality cult arises when a country's leader uses Mass media to create a heroic public image through unquestioning flattery and praise The, German for "leader principle" prescribes a system with a hierarchy of leaders that resembles a military structure Fascism is also considered to be a form of collectivism. Collectivism is a term used to describe any moral political or social outlook that stresses human Interdependence and the importance of a Collective, rather than 
The word fascist has become a slur throughout the political spectrum following World War II, and it has been uncommon for political groups to call themselves fascist. The word fascist is sometimes used to denigrate people institutions or groups that would not describe themselves as ideologically fascist, and that may not fall A political spectrum (plural Spectra) is a way of modeling different political positions by placing them upon one or more geometric axes World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including In contemporary political discourse, adherents of some political ideologies tend to associate fascism with their enemies, or define it as the opposite of their own views. In the strict sense of the word, Fascism covers movements before WWII, and later movements are described as Neo-fascist. This page specifically pertains to fascism after World War II
Some have argued that the term fascist has become hopelessly vague over the years and that it has become little more than a pejorative epithet. An epithet (from Greek ἐπίθετον - epitheton, neut of ἐπίθετος - epithetos, "attributed added" is a George Orwell wrote in 1944:
. Eric Arthur Blair (25 June 1903 – 21 January 1950 who used the Pseudonym George Orwell, was an English writer . . the word ‘Fascism’ is almost entirely meaningless. In conversation, of course, it is used even more wildly than in print. I have heard it applied to farmers, shopkeepers, Social Credit, corporal punishment, fox-hunting, bull-fighting, the 1922 Committee, the 1941 Committee, Kipling, Gandhi, Chiang Kai-Shek, homosexuality, Priestley's broadcasts, Youth Hostels, astrology, women, dogs and I do not know what else. Social Credit is a socio-economic Philosophy wherein Consumers fully provided with adequate Purchasing power, establish the policy of production Corporal punishment is the deliberate infliction of pain intended to Punish a person or change his/her behavior Fox hunting is an activity involving the tracking chase and sometimes killing of a fox traditionally a Red fox, by trained Foxhounds or other Scent hounds Bullfighting or Tauromachy (from Greek ταυρομαχία - tauromachia, "bull-fight" is a traditional spectacle of Spain In British politics, the 1922 Committee consists of all backbench Conservative Members of Parliament, though when the party is in opposition The 1941 Committee was a group of British politicians writers and other people of influence who got together in 1941. Joseph Rudyard Kipling (30 December 1865 – 18 January 1936 was an English Author and poet Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi ( Gujarati: મોહનદાસ કરમચંદ ગાંધી moɦən̪d̪äs kəɾəmʧən̪d̪ gän̪d̪ʱi (2 October 1869 – 30 January Chiang Kai-shek ( POJ: Chiúⁿ Kài-se̍k Jyutping: zoeng2gaai3sek6 GCB ( October 31, 1887 &ndash Homosexuality refers to sexual behavior with or attraction to people of the same sex or to a Homosexual orientation. John Boynton Priestley, OM ( 13 September, 1894 &ndash 14 August, 1984) was an English Writer and broadcaster Hostels provide budget-oriented accommodation where guests can rent a bed, sometimes a Bunk bed in a Dormitory and share a bathroom Astrology (from Greek grc ἄστρον astron, "constellation star" and grc -λογία -logia) is a group of Systems . . almost any English person would accept ‘bully’ as a synonym for ‘Fascist’. 
Fascio (plural: fasci) is an Italian word used in the late nineteenth century to refer to radical political groups of many different (and sometimes opposing) orientations. Fascio (plural fasci) is an Italian word that effectively means "league" in English and which was used in the late 19th century to refer to Political The term Italian Fascism denotes the totalitarian Fascismo political movement that ruled Italy from 1922 until 1943 under leader Benito Mussolini Italian ( or lingua italiana) is a Romance language spoken by about 63 million people as a First language, primarily in Italy. A political party is a Political organization that seeks to attain and maintain political power within Government, usually by participating in electoral A number of nationalist fasci later evolved into the twentieth century movement known as fascism. The term nationalism can refer to an Ideology, a sentiment, a form of Culture, or a Social movement that focuses on the Nation Benito Mussolini claimed to have founded fascism, and Italian fascism (in Italian, fascismo) was the authoritarian political movement that ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under Mussolini's leadership. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Fascism in Italy combined elements of corporatism, totalitarianism, nationalism, militarism and anti-Communism. Historically corporatism (corporativismo refers to a political or Economic system in which power is held by civic assemblies that represent Economic Totalitarianism (or totalitarian rule) is a concept used to describe Political systems where a State regulates nearly every aspect of public and private Militarism is the belief or desire of a government or people that a country should maintain a strong military capability and be prepared to use it aggressively to defend or Anti-communism refers to opposition to Communism. Historically the word "communism" has been used to refer to several types of communal social organization and Fascism won support as an alternative to the unpopular liberalism of the time. Liberalism is a broad array of related ideas and theories of Government that consider individual Liberty to be the most important political goal It opposed communism, international socialism, and capitalism as international socialism did not accept nationalism while capitalism was blamed for allowing Italy being dominanted economically by other world powers in the past. The Italian Fascists was promoted fascism as the patriotic "third way" to international socialism and capitalism. Corporatism was the economic policy of the Fascists which they claimed would bring together workers and businessmen into corporations where they would be required to negotiate wages.
Although the modern consensus sees Nazism as a type or offshoot of fascism, some scholars, such as Gilbert Allardyce and A.F.K. Organski, argue that Nazism is not fascism — either because the differences are too great, or because they believe fascism cannot be generic. Nazism, which was a short name for National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus refers primarily to the Ideology and practices of the National Socialist German The European fascist ideologies present during the 20th century are numerous and all developed their own differences from each other AFK Organski ( 12 May 1923 – 6 March 1998) was Professor of Political Science at the University of Michigan, United  A synthesis of these two opinions, states that German Nazism was a form of racially-oriented fascism, while Italian fascism was state-oriented.
Nazism differed from Italian fascism in that it had a stronger emphasis on race, in terms of social and economic policies. Though both ideologies denied the significance of the individual, Italian fascism saw the individual as subservient to the state, whereas Nazism saw the individual, as well as the state, as ultimately subservient to the race.  Mussolini's Fascism held that cultural factors existed to serve the state, and that it was not necessarily in the state's interest to interfere in cultural aspects of society. The only purpose of government in Mussolini's fascism was to uphold the state as supreme above all else, a concept which can be described as statolatry. The justification of the state is a term that refers to the source of legitimate authority for the State or Government. Statolatry, which combines Idolatry with the State, first appeared in Giovanni Gentile 's Doctrine of Fascism, published in 1931 under Where fascism talked of state, Nazism spoke of the Volk and of the Volksgemeinschaft. See also Folk (disambiguation, Volk (disambiguation Folk is one of the Germanic roots that mean "(of the people" or "our Volksgemeinschaft is a German expression meaning "people's community"
The Nazi movement, at least in its overt ideology, spoke of class-based society as the enemy, and wanted to unify the racial element above established classes; however, the Italian fascist movement sought to preserve the class system and uphold it as the foundation of established and desirable culture. Nevertheless, the Italian fascists did not reject the concept of social mobility, and a central tenet of the fascist state was meritocracy. See also Economic mobility Social mobility is the degree to which in a given society an individual's family's or group's social status Meritocracy is a system of a government or another organization wherein Appointments are made and responsibilities are given based on demonstrated talent and Ability Yet, fascism also heavily based itself on corporatism, which was supposed to supersede class conflicts. Historically corporatism (corporativismo refers to a political or Economic system in which power is held by civic assemblies that represent Economic Class conflict, also class war or class warfare, is both the friction that accompanies social relationships between members or groups of different Despite these differences, Kevin Passmore (2002 p. 62) observes:
There are sufficient similarities between Fascism and Nazism to make it worthwhile applying the concept of fascism to both. In Italy and Germany a movement came to power that sought to create national unity through the repression of national enemies and the incorporation of all classes and both genders into a permanently mobilized nation. 
According to a biographer of Mussolini, "Initially, fascism was fiercely anti-Catholic" - the Church being a competitor for dominion of the people's hearts.  The attitude of fascism toward religion has run the spectrum from persecution, to denunciation to cooperation.  Relations were close in the likes of the Belgian Rexists (which was eventually denounced by the Church), but in the Nazi and Fascist parties it ranged from tolerance to near total renunciation. Rexism was a fascist political movement in the first half of the twentieth century in Belgium. 
Mussolini, originally an atheist, published anti-Catholic writings and planned for the confiscation of Church property, but eventually moved to accommodation. Atheism Anti-Catholicism is a generic term for Discrimination, hostility or Prejudice directed at the Roman Catholic Church or its followers  Hitler was born a Roman Catholic but renounced his faith at the age of twelve and largely used religious references to attract religious support to the Nazi political agenda. Mussolini largely endorsed the Roman Catholic Church for political legitimacy, as during the Lateran Treaty talks, Fascist officials engaged in bitter arguments with Vatican officials and put pressure on them to accept the terms that the regime deemed acceptable. The Lateran Treaty is one of the Lateran Pacts of 1929 or Lateran Accords, three agreements made in 1929 between the Kingdom of Italy and the Holy  In addition, many Fascists were anti-clerical in both private and public life. Anti-clericalism is a historical movement that opposes Religious (generally Catholic institutional power and influence real or alleged in all aspects of public and political  Hitler in public sought the support of both the Protestant and Roman Catholic religions in Germany, but in a far more muted manner than Mussolini's support of Roman Catholicism. Hitler and the Nazi regime attempted to found their own version of Christianity called Positive Christianity which made major changes in its interpretation of the Bible which said that Jesus Christ was the son of God, but was not a Jew and claimed that Christ despised Jews, and that the Jews were the ones solely responsible for Christ's death. Positive Christianity ( German: Positives Christentum is a term adopted by Nazi leaders to refer to a model of Christianity consistent with Nazism Etymology According to the Online Etymology Dictionary, the word bible is from Latin biblia, traced from the same word through Medieval Latin and Late Latin Jesus of Nazareth (7–2 BC / BCE —26–36 AD / CE)
The Nazi party had decidedly pagan elements and there were quarters of Italian fascism which were quite anti-clerical, but religion did play a real part in the Ustasha in Croatia. Paganism (from Latin paganus, meaning "country dweller rustic" is a word used to refer to various religions and religious beliefs from across the world For the militiamen of the Military Frontier, see Uskoci The Ustaša - Croatian Revolutionary Movement ( Croatian:  One position is that religion and fascism could never have a lasting connection because both are a "holistic wetanshauungen" claiming the whole of the person.  In Mexico the fascist Red Shirts not only renounced religion but were vehemently atheist, killing priests, and on one occasion gunned down Catholics as they left Mass. The Red Shirts (Camisas Rojas were a paramilitary organization existing in the 1930s founded by the virulently Anti-Catholic and Anticlerical Governor of Tabasco 
Although both Hitler and Mussolini were anticlerical, they both understood that it would be rash to begin their Kulturkampfs prematurely, such a clash, possibly inevitable in the future, being put off while they dealt with other enemies. The German term (literally "culture struggle" refers to German policies in relation to Secularity and the influence of the Roman Catholic Church, enacted 
Fascists opposed what they believe to be laissez-faire or quasi-laissez-faire economic policies dominant in the era prior to the Great Depression. Laissez-faire ( pronunciation: French,; English,) is a French phrase literally meaning Let do (“allow to do”  People of many different political stripes blamed laissez-faire capitalism for the Great Depression, and fascists promoted their ideology as a "third way " between capitalism and Marxian socialism. Capitalism is the Economic system in which the Means of production are owned by private Persons and operated for Profit and where Note Marxian economics is not restricted to Marxist economics as it includes the economic thought of those inspired by Marx's works who do not identify with  Their policies manifested as a radical extension of government control over the economy without wholesale expropriation of the means of production. Expropriation refers to Confiscation of Private property with the stated purpose of establishing social equality. Means Of Production is a compilation of Aim 's early 12" and EP releases recorded between 1995 and 1998 Fascist governments nationalized some key industries, managed their currencies and made some massive state investments. Nationalization, also spelled nationalisation, is the act of taking an industry or assets into the Public ownership of a national government A currency is a unit of exchange, facilitating the transfer of Goods and/or services It is one form of Money, where money is They also introduced price controls, wage controls and other types of economic planning measures. Incomes policies in Economics are Wage and Price controls, most commonly instituted as a response to Inflation. Economic interventionism, is a common term used to describe any activity beyond the basic regulation of fraud and enforcement of contracts undertaken by a government in an effort to affect  Fascist governments instituted state-regulated allocation of resources, especially in the financial and raw materials sectors. The field of finance refers to the concepts of Time, Money and Risk and how they are interrelated A raw material is something that is acted upon or used by Organisms, or by human labour or Industry, for use as a Building material to create some product
Other than nationalization of certain industries, private property was allowed, but property rights and private initiative were contingent upon service to the state. Property is any physical or virtual entity that is owned by an individual  For example, "an owner of agricultural land may be compelled to raise wheat instead of sheep and employ more labor than he would find profitable. " According to historian Tibor Ivan Berend, dirigisme was an inherent aspect of fascist economies. Dirigisme (from the French) (in English also "dirigism" although per the OED both spellings are used is an Economic term designating an economy  The Labour Charter of 1927, promulgated by the Grand Council of Fascism, stated in article 7:
Fascism also operated from a Social Darwinist view of human relations. Social Darwinism is a theory that competition among all individuals groups nations or ideas drives Social evolution in human societies Their aim was to promote "superior" individuals and weed out the weak.  In terms of economic practice, this meant promoting the interests of successful businessmen while destroying trade unions and other organizations of the working class. A trade union or labour union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in key areas such as wages hours and working conditions forming Working class is a term used in academic Sociology and in ordinary conversation to describe depending on context and speaker those employed in specific fields or types  Lawrence Britt suggests that protection of corporate power is an essential part of fascism.  Historian Gaetano Salvemini argued in 1936 that fascism makes taxpayers responsible to private enterprise, because "the State pays for the blunders of private enterprise. Gaetano Salvemini ( November 8, 1873 - September 6, 1957) was an Italian anti-fascist politician historian and writer . . Profit is private and individual. Loss is public and social. "
Economic policy in the first few years of Italian fascism was largely liberal, with the Ministry of Finance controlled by the old liberal Alberto De Stefani. Alberto De Stefani (1879-1969 was an Italian politician Coming from a background in Liberalism to Benito Mussolini 's Fascism, De Stefani The government undertook a low-key laissez-faire program - the tax system was restructured (February 1925 law, 23 June 1927 decree-law, etc. Laissez-faire ( pronunciation: French,; English,) is a French phrase literally meaning Let do (“allow to do” A decree is an order made by a Head of state or government and having the force of Law. ), there were attempts to attract foreign investment and establish trade agreements, efforts were made to balance the budget and cut subsidies. The 10% tax on capital invested in banking and industrial sectors was repealed, while the tax on directors and administrators of anonymous companies (SA) was cut down by half. For the art organization see Société Anonyme (art SA generally designates Corporations in various countries mostly those employing  All foreign capital was exonerated of taxes, while the luxury tax was also repealed. For the special case of the term "luxury tax" applied to the salaries of athletes see Luxury tax (sports A luxury tax is a Tax on Luxury  Mussolini also opposed municipalization of enterprises. Municipalization is the transfer of Corporations or other Assets to Municipal ownership 
The 19 April 1923 law abandoned life insurance to private companies, repealing the 1912 law which had created a State Institute for insurances and which had envisioned to give a state monopoly ten years later. Life insurance or life assurance is a contract between the policy owner and the insurer, where the insurer agrees to pay a sum of money upon the occurrence of the  Furthermore, a 19 November 1922 decree suppressed the Commission on War Profits, while the 20 August 1923 law suppressed the inheritance tax inside the family circle. A war profiteer is any person or organization that improperly Profits from Warfare or by selling Weapons and other goods to parties at war Estate tax and Death duty redirect here Inheritance tax, estate tax and death duty are the names given to various taxes which 
There was a general emphasis on what has been called productivism - national economic growth as a means of social regeneration and wider assertion of national importance. Productivism is the belief that measurable economic productivity and growth is the purpose of human organization (e Up until 1925, the country enjoyed modest growth but structural weaknesses increased inflation and the currency slowly fell (1922 L90 to £1, 1925 L145 to £1). In 1925 there was a great increase in speculation and short runs against the lira. Etymology The word Libra developed its Lira shape from Italian, a language famed for its loss of initial consonants in two-part clusters (ie The levels of capital movement became so great the government attempted to intervene. De Stefani was sacked, his program side-tracked, and the Fascist government became more involved in the economy in step with the increased security of their power.
In 1925, the Italian state abandoned its monopoly on telephones' infrastructure, while the state production of matches was handed over to a private "Consortium of matches' productors. " In some sectors, the state did intervene. Thus, following the deflation crisis which started in 1926, banks such as the Banca di Roma, the Banca di Napoli or the Banca di Sicilia were assisted by the state. Capitalia was an Italian banking group headquartered in Rome. 
Fascists were most vocal in their opposition to finance capitalism, interest charging, and profiteering. Finance capitalism is a term in Marxian Political economics defined as the subordination of processes of Production to the accumulation of Money Interest is a fee paid on borrowed capital Assets lent include Money, Shares, Consumer goods through Hire purchase, major assets  Some fascists, particularly Nazis, considered finance capitalism a "parasitic" "Jewish conspiracy". Nazism, which was a short name for National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus refers primarily to the Ideology and practices of the National Socialist German Parasitism is a type of symbiotic relationship between Organisms of different Species. Antisemitism (alternatively spelled anti-semitism or anti-Semitism; also rarely known as judeophobia) is the Prejudice against or hostility  Nevertheless, fascists also opposed Marxism and independent trade unions. Marxism is the political philosophy and practice derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. A trade union or labour union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in key areas such as wages hours and working conditions forming
According to sociologist Stanislav Andreski, fascist economics "foreshadowed most of the fundamental features of the economic system of Western European countries today: the radical extension of government control over the economy without a wholesale expropriation of the capitalists but with a good dose of nationalisation, price control, incomes policy, managed currency, massive state investment, attempts at overall planning (less effectual than the Fascist because of the weakness of authority). Stanisław Andrzejewski (Stanislaw Andreski ( May 8, 1919 &ndash September 26, 2007) was a Polish -British sociologist known Western Europe at its most general meaning means 'all the countries in the West of Europe ' " Politics professor Stephen Haseler credits fascism with providing a model of economic planning for social democracy. Social democracy is a Political ideology of the left and centre-left 
In Nazi economic planning, in place of ordinary profit incentive to guide the economy, investment was guided through regulation to accord to the needs of the State. The profit incentive for business owners was retained, though greatly modified through various profit-fixing schemes: "Fixing of profits, not their suppression, was the official policy of the Nazi party. " However the function of profit in automatically guiding allocation of investment and unconsciously directing the course of the economy was replaced with economic planning by Nazi government agencies. 
The Russian Revolution inspired attempted revolutionary movements in Italy, with a wave of factory occupations. Anti-communism refers to opposition to Communism. Historically the word "communism" has been used to refer to several types of communal social organization and The October Revolution (Октябрьская революция Oktyabrskaya revolyutsiya) also known as the Soviet Revolution The biennio rosso (English "two red years" were two years 1919 and 1920 of political agitation by Italian workers Most historians view fascism as a response to these developments, as a movement that both tried to appeal to the working class and divert them from Marxism. It also appealed to capitalists as a bulwark against Bolshevism. The Bolsheviks, originally also Bolshevists ( Большевик Большевист (singular, derived from bolshe, "more" were a faction Italian fascism took power with the blessing of Italy's king after years of leftist-led unrest led many conservatives to fear that a communist revolution was inevitable (Marxist philosopher Antonio Gramsci popularized the conception that fascism was the Capital's response to the organized workers' movement). See also Marxian economics, Marxism Marxist philosophy or Marxist theory are terms which cover work in Philosophy Antonio Gramsci ('ɡramʃi ( January 23, 1891 &ndash April 27, 1937) was an Italian Philosopher, Writer, The labour movement or labor movement is a broad term for the development of a collective organization of working people, to campaign in their own interest for better Mussolini took power during the 1922 March on Rome. The March on Rome ( Marcia su Roma) was a Coup d'état by which Mussolini 's National Fascist Party ( Partito Nazionale Fascista
Throughout Europe, numerous aristocrats, conservative intellectuals, capitalists and industrialists lent their support to fascist movements in their countries that emulated Italian Fascism. Aristocracy is a form of Government, where rule is established through an internal struggle over who has the most status and influence over society and internal relations In Germany, numerous right-wing nationalist groups arose, particularly out of the post-war Freikorps used to crush both the Spartacist uprising and the Bavarian Soviet Republic. The designation of Freikorps ( German for "Free Corps " was originally applied to voluntary armies formed in German lands from the middle of 18th century
With the worldwide Great Depression of the 1930s, liberalism and the liberal form of capitalism seemed doomed, and Communist and fascist movements swelled. Liberalism is a broad array of related ideas and theories of Government that consider individual Liberty to be the most important political goal These movements were bitterly opposed to each other and fought frequently, the most notable example of the conflict being the Spanish Civil War. The Spanish Civil War was a major conflict in Spain that started after an attempted Coup d'état committed by parts of the army against the government of This war became a proxy war between the fascist countries and their international supporters — who backed Francisco Franco — and the worldwide Communist movement, which was aided by the Soviet Union and which allied uneasily with anarchists — who backed the Popular Front. A proxy war is the war that results when two powers use third parties as substitutes for fighting each other directly Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo Franco y Bahamonde (born December 4, 1892 in Ferrol, died November 20, 1975 in Madrid Anarchism is a Political philosophy encompassing theories and attitudes which support the elimination of all compulsory Government, i The Popular Front (Frente Popular in Spain 's Second Republic was an electoral Coalition and pact signed in January 1936 by various
Initially, the Soviet Union supported a coalition with the western powers against Nazi Germany and popular fronts in various countries against domestic fascism. This policy largely failed due to distrust shown by the western powers (especially Britain) towards the Soviet Union. The Munich Agreement between Germany, France and Britain heightened Soviet fears that the western powers endeavored to force them to bear the brunt of a war against Nazism. The Munich Agreement (Mnichovská dohoda Mníchovská dohoda Münchner Abkommen Accords de Munich was an agreement regarding the Sudetenland, which were areas along borders This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. The lack of eagerness on the part of the British during diplomatic negotiations with the Soviets served to make the situation even worse. The Soviets changed their policy and negotiated a non-aggression pact known as the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact in 1939. See also Non-aggression Pact (band A non-aggression pact is an international Treaty between two or more states agreeing to avoid war Vyacheslav Molotov claims in his memoirs that the Soviets believed this agreement was necessary to buy them time to prepare for an expected war with Germany. Molotov redirects here For other uses see Molotov (disambiguation. Stalin expected the Germans not to attack until 1942, but the pact ended in 1941 when Nazi Germany invaded the Soviet Union in Operation Barbarossa. Nazism, which was a short name for National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus refers primarily to the Ideology and practices of the National Socialist German Operation Barbarossa ( Unternehmen Barbarossa) was the Codename for Nazi Germany 's invasion of the Soviet Union during World War II Fascism and communism reverted to being deadly enemies. The war, in the eyes of both sides, was a war between ideologies.
Even within socialist and communist circles, theoreticians debated the nature of fascism. Communist theoretician Rajani Palme Dutt crafted one view that stressed the crisis of capitalism. Rajani Palme Dutt (1896&ndash1974 was a leading figure in the Communist Party of Great Britain.  Leon Trotsky, an early leader in the Russian Revolution, believed that fascism occurs when "the workers' organizations are annihilated; that the proletariat is reduced to an amorphous state; and that a system of administration is created which penetrates deeply into the masses and which serves to frustrate the independent crystallization of the proletariat. Leon Trotsky ( Russian:, Lev Davidovich Trotsky, also transliterated Leo, Lyev, Trotskii, Trotski, Trotskij "
There has been a revival of interest in recent times, among many academic historians, with regard to the so-called "cult of masculinity" that permeated fascism, the attempts to systematically control female sexuality and reproductive behavior for the ends of the State. A gender role is defined as a set of perceived behavioural norms associated particularly with Males or Females in a given social group or system The Italian Social Republic ( Italian: Repubblica Sociale Italiana or RSI) was a Puppet state of Nazi Germany led by the "Duce of the Italian fascists viewed increasing the birthrate of Italy as a major goal of their regime, with Mussolini launching a program, called the 'Battle For Births', to almost double the country's population. The exclusive role assigned to women within the State was to be mothers and not workers or soldiers; however, Mussolini did not practice what some of his supporters preached. A gender role is defined as a set of perceived behavioural norms associated particularly with Males or Females in a given social group or system From an early stage, he gave women high positions within Fascism, and in Germany, the leader of one of the major feminist organizations pleaded with Hitler to be incorporated into the Nazi Party as early as 1928. Fascists have generally been opposed to the concept of women's rights per se, preferring the traditions of chivalry to guide male-female relations. Chivalric order Chivalry is a term related to the Medieval institution of Knighthood.
According to Anson Rabinbach and Jessica Benjamin, "The crucial element of fascism is its explicit sexual language, what Theweleit calls 'the conscious coding' or the 'over-explicitness of the fascist language of symbol. Klaus Theweleit (born 1942 in Ebenrode, East Prussia — now Nesterow, Russia) is a German sociologist and ' This fascist symbolization creates a particular kind of psychic economy which places sexuality in the service of destruction. According to this intellectual theory, despite its sexually-charged politics, fascism is an anti-eros, 'the core of all fascist propaganda is a battle against everything that constitutes enjoyment and pleasure'… He shows that in this world of war the repudiation of one's own body, of femininity, becomes a psychic compulsion which associates masculinity with hardness, destruction, and self-denial. "
Michael Parenti (born 1933) is an American Political scientist, Historian, and media critic. Rajani Palme Dutt (1896&ndash1974 was a leading figure in the Communist Party of Great Britain.