In sports, a farm team, feeder team or nursery club, generally refers to a team or club whose role is to provide experience and training for young players, with an agreement that any successful players can move on to a higher level at a given point. This system can be implemented in many ways, both formally and informally.
The term is also used as a metaphor for any organization or activity that serves as a training ground for higher-level endeavors. Metaphor (from the Greek: μεταφορά - metaphora, meaning "transfer" is language that directly compares seemingly unrelated subjects For instance, sometimes business schools are referred to as "farm clubs" for the world of business.
In the United States and Canada, Minor League Baseball teams operate under strict franchise contracts with their major league counterparts. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page Part of the History of baseball series Minor league baseball is a hierarchy of Professional baseball leagues in North Although the vast majority of such teams are privately owned and are therefore able to switch affiliation, players remain completely under the control of their affiliated Major League Baseball teams. Minor league teams are usually based in smaller cities and players are typically paid significantly less than their Major League counterparts.
Virtually all major league players start off their careers by working their way up the minor league system, from the lowest (R) to the highest (AAA) classification, with the rare exceptions usually being those players signed from Japan's Nippon Professional Baseball. Nippon Professional Baseball or NPB is the highest level of Baseball in Japan. This process is formally referred by most MLB teams as "player development. " However, minor league affiliates are often informally referred to as "farm teams" and a major league player's misfortune of being sent back to the minors is sometimes described as being "farmed out. "
The farm system as it is recognized today was invented by Branch Rickey who – as field manager, general manager, and club president – helped to build the St. Louis Cardinals dynasty during the 1920s, 30s, and 40s. Wesley Branch Rickey ( December 15 1881 &ndash December 9 1965) was an innovative Major League Baseball executive best known The St Louis Cardinals (also referred to as "the Cards " or "the Redbirds " are a professional Baseball team based in St The 1920s is sometimes referred to as the " Jazz Age " or the " Roaring Twenties " when speaking about the United States and Canada The 1930s were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression. The 1940s decade ran from 1940 to 1949 Events and trends The 1940s was a period between the radical 1930s and the conservative 1950s which also leads the period to be When Rickey joined the team in 1916, players were commonly purchased by major league teams from independent, high-level minor league clubs. Champions World Series: Boston Red Sox over Brooklyn Robins (4-1 Awards and honors
Rickey, a keen judge of talent, became frustrated when the players he had scouted at the A and AA levels were sold by those independent clubs to wealthier rivals such as the Chicago Cubs and the New York Giants. The Chicago Cubs are a Professional Baseball franchise based in Chicago, Illinois. The New York Giants are a professional American football team based in the New York City suburb of East Rutherford New Jersey. With the support of Cardinal owner Sam Breadon, Rickey devised a plan whereby St. Sam Breadon ( July 26, 1876 — May 8, 1949) was an American executive who served as the president and majority owner of the St Louis would purchase and control minor league teams from Class D to Class AA (the highest level at the time), thus allowing them to promote or demote players as they developed, and "grow" their own talent.
The talent pipeline began at tryout camps that St. Louis scouts conducted throughout the U. "Talent scout" redirects here For talent scouting in the music industry see A&R Professional sports scouts are trained talent S. "From quantity comes quality," Rickey once observed, and, during the 1930s, with as many as 40 owned or affiliated farm teams, the Cardinals controlled the destinies of hundreds of players each year. (The reserve clause then bound players to their teams in perpetuity. The reserve clause is a term formerly employed in North American professional Sports Contracts The reserve clause, contained in all standard player )
The Cardinals would win nine National League pennants and six World Series championships between 1926 and 1946, proving the effectiveness of the farm system concept. The National League of Professional Baseball Clubs, or simply the National League ( NL) is the older of two leagues constituting Major League Baseball Champions World Series: St Louis Cardinals over New York Yankees (4-3 Negro League World Series: Chicago Champions Major League Baseball World Series: St Louis Cardinals over Boston Red Sox (4-3 All-Star Game Indeed, the second club to fully embrace such a system, the New York Yankees, used it to sustain their dynasty from the mid-1930s through the middle of the 1960s. The New York Yankees are a professional baseball team based in the borough of The Bronx, in New York City, New York. The 1960s decade refers to the years from the beginning of 1960 to the end of 1969 When Rickey moved to the Brooklyn Dodgers as president, general manager and part-owner in 1943, he proceeded to build a hugely successful farm system there as well. The Los Angeles Dodgers are a Major League Baseball team based in Los Angeles California, USA Champions Major League Baseball World Series: New York Yankees over St Moreover, the teams that ignored the farm system in the 1930s and early 1940s (such as the Philadelphia Phillies and Athletics and the Washington Senators) found themselves falling on hard times. The Philadelphia Phillies are a Major League Baseball team based in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in the United States. The Oakland Athletics are a professional baseball team based in Oakland, California. The Minnesota Twins are a professional baseball team based in Minneapolis, Minnesota.
The existence of the minor league system is due in part to MLB's ability to include a reserve clause in its contracts with minor league players, which gives the major league team exclusive rights to a player even after the contract has expired. In a landmark 1922 Supreme Court decision, Federal Baseball Club v. National League, baseball was granted a special immunity from antitrust laws. Year 1922 ( MCMXXII) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the federal judiciary. Federal Baseball Club v National League,, is a case in which the U Despite the advent of free agency in 1976, which led many to predict the demise of the farm system, it still remains a strong component of a winning baseball strategy. Champions Major League Baseball World Series: Cincinnati Reds over New York Yankees (4-0 Johnny Bench, MVP
The teams of the National Hockey League also have their own farm teams. The National Hockey League ( NHL) is a professional Ice hockey league composed of 30 teams in North America They are primarily in the American Hockey League. American Hockey Association (1926–1942The American Hockey League (AHL is a Professional Ice hockey league in North America that serves as the primary For example, the Binghamton Senators are the farm team for the Ottawa Senators. The Binghamton Senators are an Ice hockey team in the American Hockey League. The Ottawa Senators (Les Sénateurs d'Ottawa are a professional Ice hockey team based in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada However, many teams have additional affiliates in the ECHL. The ECHL (formerly the East Coast Hockey League) is a Professional Ice hockey league based in Princeton New Jersey, with teams scattered
Unlike baseball, not all the players on the rosters of the minor league teams are owned by an NHL team. In fact, the majority only have a contract with their minor league team.
In many clubs, there will be internal feeder teams. These may be age restricted teams, such as an 'Under-18s' team, or an 'A team'. For example, in international association football, national teams also operate youth sides, - see England national under-21 football team, for example. Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a Team sport played between two teams of eleven players and is widely considered England's national Under-21 football team, also known as England Under-21s or England U21(s is considered to be the feeder team for the England national football team
In many sports, these feeder teams will compete in their own leagues, though in some cases they compete with other 'full teams' at a lower level. In Spain, B-teams can compete in the lower leagues; Sevilla Atlético (affiliated to Sevilla CF) currently competes in the Spanish Second Division, for example. Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. The Segunda División (Second Division is the lower tier of the two professional leagues in Spain consisting of 22 teams
It is also getting more common for football clubs to arrange formal deals with other clubs, they originally had no connection with. The feeder/mother club connection could have many functions, and be very beneficial both for the feeder- and the mothers club. For bigger clubs, it is common to arrange agreements with the minor clubs in the area. The smaller teams can provide the bigger team (the mother club) with young talents, and the mother club have an opportunity to send their young players away on loan to these teams.
In addition to local connection, it's also getting usual to have feeder clubs in other regions of the country or in other nations, in order to gain further knowledge. Prominent European clubs are often making intercontinental deals with other clubs for the same reason. AFC Ajax have for instance a connection with the South African team Ajax Cape Town, Manchester United have a connection with the Australian team Wollongong Wolves and the Belge tean Royal Antwerp, and Lithuanian side FBK Kaunas have loaned many of their younger players out to their Scottish feeder team Heart of Midlothian in the hope of securing them a deal at a bigger club in the future. Amsterdamsche Football Club Ajax ( also referred to as AFC Ajax, or simply Ajax, is a professional football club from Amsterdam The Republic of South Africa (also known by other official names) is a country located at the southern tip of the continent of Africa Ajax Cape Town is a South African Football (soccer team based in Parow, Cape Town that participates in the Premier Soccer League. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. The Kingdom of Belgium is a Country in northwest Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts its headquarters as well as those Royal Antwerp FC is a Belgian football club from the city of Antwerp in Antwerp (province. Lithuania, officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika is a Country in Eastern often referred to as Northern Europe or in the Kauno futbolo beisbolo klubas is a Lithuanian football club from the city of Kaunas, that currently plays in the A Lyga. Heart of Midlothian FC (most commonly referred to as Hearts) is a football club from Edinburgh, Scotland who play in the Scottish Having a feeder club in wealthy countries, where football is gaining a gradually better reputation, has also proved to be very beneficial. Countries such as USA, Canada, Japan, China and South Korea are good examples. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea and often referred to as Korea ( Korean: 대한민국 tɛː Alternatively, some clubs within the EU have used feeder teams to sign non-EU players and then naturalize them in an EU country, to overcome visa regulations. The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in
The NBA directly owns an entire farm league: the National Basketball Association Development League. The NBA Development League, or D-League, is the National Basketball Association 's officially sponsored and operated developmental Basketball organization The elite NCAA basketball teams have often been referred to as "feeders" because they tend to produce many NBA players; this is strictly metaphorical, since NCAA rules prohibit universities from contracting their players and since no universities have agreements - formal or informal - with any professional basketball teams. The National Collegiate Athletic Association ( NCAA, often pronounced "N-C-Double-A" is a voluntary association of about 1200 institutions conferences organizations
The National Football League, similar to the NBA method, used NFL Europa as a place where NFL teams can send under-developed players. The National Football League ( NFL) is the largest professional American football league. NFL Europa was an American football league which operated in Europe from 1991 until 2007. Many players in the Canadian Football League and Arena Football League later advance to the NFL, but no farming contracts exist among any teams officially, even though some NFL team owners (Jerry Jones (NFL and AFL Dallas), Bud Adams (NFL Tennessee and AFL Nashville) , Arthur Blank (NFL Atlanta / AFL Georgia)) have an "unofficial" development deal as they own Arena teams in their cities, as a byproduct of a time in the early 2000s when the NFL purchased an interest in the Arena league. The Canadian Football League (CFL ( Ligue canadienne de football (LCF in The Arena Football League (AFL was founded in 1987 as an American football indoor league. The Dallas Cowboys are a professional American football team in the Eastern Division of the National Football Conference (NFC in the National The Dallas Desperados are a professional Arena Football team in the Eastern Division of the Arena Football League. The Tennessee Titans are a professional American football team based in Nashville Tennessee. This page is for the second Nashville Kats franchise which began play in the Arena Football League in 2005 The Atlanta Falcons are an American football team based in Atlanta Georgia. The Georgia Force is in no way related to the San Antonio Force, which was an Arena Football League team that played only in the 1992 season before disbanding
Some sports allow the operation of independent feeder teams. In professional cycling, for example, feeder teams such as Vendée U, which acts as a feeder for Bouygues Télécom, compete at levels below the UCI ProTour. Road bicycle racing is a popular Bicycle racing Sport held on roads (following the Geography of the area using Racing bicycles The Bouygues Télécom ( is a professional Road bicycle racing team that competes on the UCI ProTour. The UCI ProTour is a competition under the International Cycling Union ( UCI) Most pro-cycling teams use this format.
Such agreements may be less formal; in English football, for example, the operation of an external feeder team is prohibited. Football is the National sport of England and plays a significant role in English culture. However, casual relationships may exist between teams to allow a sharing larger clubs' resources with smaller clubs, in return for the smaller teams taking young players on loan. In Football (soccer, a loan involves a particular player being allowed to temporarily play for a club other than the one he is currently contracted to This allows both clubs to maintain separate identities, and to exit from the arrangement if necessary. Such an agreement exists between Preston North End and Holker Old Boys, for example . Preston North End Football Club is an English professional football club located in the Deepdale area of the city of Preston, Lancashire Holker Old Boys are an English football team based in Barrow-in-Furness, Cumbria. Alternatively, clubs may use teams playing abroad, particularly if they want to follow the progress of players who they cannot sign due to work permit regulations. Work permit is a generic term for a legal authorization which allows a person to take employment Please see List of feeder teams in football for a comprehensive list. The following is a list of Association football clubs and their affiliates
Professional wrestling utilizes a farm system that allows wrestlers to learn the craft and gain experience in smaller, often regional, promotions before they are "called up" to perform on a national stage. Professional wrestling, or pro wrestling, is a non-competitive professional Sport, where all matches are scripted by the promotion's booking staff A professional wrestling promotion (also federation or fed) is a company or Business that performs regular shows involving Professional Generally called farm leagues or developmental territories, some of the more notable ones for World Wrestling Entertainment include Heartland Wrestling Association (late 1990s) - which was also a developmental territory for World Championship Wrestling, International Wrestling Association (1999 - 2001), Memphis Championship Wrestling (2000 - 2001), Deep South Wrestling (2005 - 2007), Florida Championship Wrestling (2007 - present), Ohio Valley Wrestling (2000 - 2008). World Wrestling Entertainment Inc ( WWE) is a publicly traded privately controlled integrated media (focusing in Television, Internet, The Heartland Wrestling Association is a Midwestern independent Professional wrestling promotion based in Cincinnati Ohio. The International Wrestling Association (IWA is a Wrestling promotion in Puerto Rico, started in Japan in 1994 by promoter Victor Quiñones. See also Memphis Wrestling Memphis Championship Wrestling ( MCW) was a Professional wrestling promotion run by Terry Golden based in Deep South Wrestling (DSW was a Professional wrestling promotion located in McDonough Georgia. Florida Championship Wrestling (FCW is a Professional wrestling promotion based on the former independent Championship Wrestling from Florida Ohio Valley Wrestling (OVW is an American independent Professional wrestling promotion based in Louisville, Kentucky. In addition, smaller companies such as Ring of Honor or the now-defunct Extreme Championship Wrestling can act as unofficial feeder leagues, seasoning wrestlers until a larger company offers them a contract. Ring of Honor (ROH is an American Professional wrestling promotion. Extreme Championship Wrestling ( ECW) was a Professional wrestling promotion that was founded in Philadelphia Pennsylvania in 1992 by