|Siege of Constantinople|
|Part of the Byzantine-Ottoman wars|
The Siege of Constantinople (painted 1499).
|Byzantine Empire||Ottoman Sultanate|
|Constantine XI †,|
Giovanni Giustiniani †
|Casualties and losses|
|4,000 dead||unknown but heavy |
The Fall of Constantinople refers to the capture of the Byzantine Empire's capital by the Ottoman Empire on Tuesday, May 29, 1453 (Julian Calendar). The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish Events 363 - Roman Emperor Julian defeats the Sassanid army in the Battle of Ctesiphon, under the walls of the The event marked the end of the political independence of the millennium-old Byzantine Empire, which was by then already fragmented into several Greek monarchies. The Greeks ( Greek: Έλληνες) are a Nation and Ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus and neighbouring regions  Most importantly, the fall of Constantinople accelerated the scholarly exodus of Byzantine Greeks which caused the influx of Classical Greek Studies into the European Renaissance. Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis, or gr ἡ Πόλις hē Polis, Latin: la CONSTANTINOPOLIS Byzantine Greeks or Byzantines or Romaioi, is a conventional term used by modern historians to refer to the medieval Greek or Hellenized citizens "Classical literature" redirects here For literature in Classical languages outside the Graeco-Roman sphere see Ancient literature. The Renaissance (from French Renaissance, meaning "rebirth" Italian: Rinascimento, from re- "again" and nascere  In addition, it played a crucial role in Ottoman political stability and its subsequent expansion in the Eastern Mediterranean and the Balkans. The date of the event is one of the frequently proposed events marking the end of the Middle Ages as a historical period.
In the approximately 1,100 years of the existence of the Byzantine Empire, Constantinople had been besieged many times but had been captured only once, during the Fourth Crusade in 1204. The Fourth Crusade (1202&ndash1204 was originally designed to conquer Muslim Jerusalem by means of an invasion through Egypt.  The crusaders had most likely not intended to conquer Byzantium from the beginning, and an unstable Latin state was established in Constantinople. The Latin Empire or Latin Empire of Constantinople (original Latin name Imperium Romaniae, " Empire of Romania " is the The Byzantine Empire fell apart into a number of Greek successor states, notably Nicaea, Epirus and Trebizond. The Empire of Nicaea ( Greek: Βασίλειον τῆς Νίκαιας Turkish: İznik İmparatorluğu) was the largest of the Byzantine The Principality of Epirus can also refer to the pashalik of Ali Pasha The Despotate or Principality of Epirus (Δεσποτάτο της The Empire of Trebizond ( was a Byzantine Greek successor state of the Byzantine Empire founded in 1204 as a result of the capture of Constantinople The Greek states fought as allies against the Latin establishments but also as rivals against each other over the Byzantine throne. The Nicaean Greeks were the first to re-conquer Constantinople from the Latins in 1261. In the following two centuries, the much-weakened Byzantine Empire was facing threats from the Latins, the Serbians, the Bulgarians and most importantly, the Ottoman Turks.    In 1453 the empire consisted of little more than the city of Constantinople itself and a portion of the Peloponnese (centered on the fortress of Mystras). The Peloponnese or Peloponnesus ( Greek: Πελοπόννησος Pelopónnisos; see also List of Greek place names) is a large Peninsula Mystras (also Mistra, Mystra and Mistras Greek: Μυστράς Μυζηθράς Mizithras or Myzithras in the The Empire of Trebizond, a completely independent successor state formed in the aftermath of the Fourth Crusade also survived on the coast of the Black Sea. The Empire of Trebizond ( was a Byzantine Greek successor state of the Byzantine Empire founded in 1204 as a result of the capture of Constantinople Succession of states is a theory in International relations regarding the recognition and acceptance of a newly created State by other states based on The Black Sea is an inland Sea bounded by southeastern Europe, the Caucasus and the Anatolian peninsula ( Turkey
When Sultan Murad II was succeeded by his son Mehmed II in early 1451, it was widely believed that the new Sultan would turn out to be an incapable ruler who could pose no great threat to Christian possessions in the Balkans and the Aegean. The Sea of Marmara ( Turkish: Marmara Denizi, Greek: Θάλασσα του Μαρμαρά or Προποντίς, Bulgarian Murad II ( June 1404 Amasya February 3, 1451, Edirne) ( Ottoman Turkish: مراد ثانى Murād-ı sānī  This belief was reinforced by Mehmed's friendly assurances to envoys that were sent to him at the assumption of his reign.  His promise to respect Byzantine territorial integrity, however, soon proved false. During the spring and summer of 1452, Mehmed II, whose great grandfather Bayezid I had previously built a fortress on the Asian side of the Bosporus called Anadolu Hisarı, now built a second fortress outside the walls of Constantinople on the European side, which would increase Turkish influence on the straits. Bayezid I ( Ottoman: بايزيد الأول Turkish: Beyazıt, nicknamed Yıldırım (Ottoman ییلدیرم "the Thunderbolt" Fortifications are Military Constructions and Buildings designed for defense in Warfare Humans have constructed defensive works for The Bosporus or Bosphorus, also known as the Istanbul Strait, (İstanbul Boğazı (Βόσπορος is a Strait that forms the boundary between the Anadoluhisarı is a Fortress located in Istanbul, Turkey on the Anatolian ( Asian side of the Bosporus, which also gives  An especially relevant aspect of this fortress was its ability to prevent help from Genoese colonies on the Black Sea coast from reaching the city. Genoa ( Genova, ˈdʒɛːnova in Italian; Zena in Genoese and Ligurian; Genua in Latin and archaically in English The Black Sea is an inland Sea bounded by southeastern Europe, the Caucasus and the Anatolian peninsula ( Turkey This castle was called Rumeli Hisarı; Rumeli and Anadolu being the names of European and Asian portions of the Ottoman Empire, respectively. Rumelihisarı is a Fortress located in Istanbul, Turkey, on a hill at the European side of the Bosporus just north of the Rumelia or Rumeli ( Turkish: Rumeli ("Land of the Romans" from Rum: "Greek" "Roman" and El Anatolia (Anadolu Ανατολία Anatolía) or Asia minor, comprising most of modern Turkey, is the geographic region bounded by the Black The new fortress is also known as Boğazkesen which has a dual meaning in Turkish; strait-blocker or throat-cutter, emphasizing its strategic position. Turkish ( tr Türkçe IPA) is a language spoken by over 63 million people worldwide making it the most commonly spoken of the Turkic languages. The Greek name of the fortress, Laimokopia, also bears the same double-meaning. Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly
Byzantine emperor Constantine XI appealed to Western Europe for help, but his request did not meet the expected attention. Constantine XI Palaiologos or Palaeologus ( Greek: Κωνσταντίνος ΙΑ' Δραγάσης Παλαιολόγος Kōnstantinos XI Dragasēs Palaiologos Ever since the mutual excommunication of the Orthodox and Roman Catholic churches in 1054, the Roman Catholic West had been trying to re-integrate the East; union had been attempted before at Lyons in 1274 and, indeed, some Paleologan emperors had been received in the Latin Church since. The East-West Schism, or the Great Schism, divided medieval Christendom into Eastern (Greek and Western (Latin branches which later became known as the The Eastern Orthodox Church is the second largest single Christian Communion in the world The First Council of Lyon, the Thirteenth Ecumenical Council took place in 1245 Emperor John VIII Palaeologus had attempted to negotiate Union with Pope Eugene IV, and the Council held in 1439 resulted in the proclamation, in Florence, of a Bull of Union. John VIII Palaiologos or Palaeologus ( Greek Ιωάννης Η' Παλαιολόγος Iōannēs VIII Palaiologos) ( December 18 1392 Pope Eugene IV (1383 &ndash February 23, 1447) born Gabriele Condulmer, was Pope from March 3, 1431, to his death The Council of Florence (originally Council of Basel) was an Ecumenical Council of Bishops and other ecclesiastics of the Roman Catholic Church Florence ( Italian: Firenze Florentia and Fiorenza) is the Capital City of the Italian region of Tuscany In the following years, a massive propaganda initiative was undertaken by anti-unionist forces in Constantinople and the population as well as the leadership of the Byzantine Church was in fact bitterly divided. Latent ethnic hatred between Greeks and Italians stemming from the events of 1204 and the sack of Constantinople by the Latins, also played a significant role, and finally the Union failed, greatly annoying Pope Nicholas V and the Roman Catholic Church. Ethnic hatred, inter-ethnic hatred, racial hatred, or ethnic tension refers to feelings and acts of Prejudice and hostility towards an The Fourth Crusade (1202&ndash1204 was originally designed to conquer Muslim Jerusalem by means of an invasion through Egypt. See also Antipope Nicholas V. Pope Nicholas V (Italian Niccolò V; November 15, 1397 &ndash March
In the summer of 1452, when Rumeli Hisari was completed and the threat had become imminent, Constantine wrote to the Pope, promising to implement the Union, which was declared valid by a half-hearted imperial court on Tuesday 12 December 1452. The Walls of Constantinople are a series of stone walls that have surrounded and protected the city of Constantinople (today Istanbul in Turkey) since its  Although he was eager to help, Pope Nicholas V did not have the influence the Byzantines thought he had over the Western Kings and Princes, and these had not the wherewithal to contribute to the effort, especially in light of France and England being weakened from the Hundred Years' War, Spain being in the final part of the Reconquista, the internecine fighting in the German Principalities, and Hungary and Poland's defeat at the Battle of Varna of 1444. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland The Hundred Years' War (Guerre de Cent Ans was a prolonged conflict lasting from 1337 to 1453 between two royal houses for the French throne vacant with the extinction of the senior Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. The Reconquista (a Spanish and Portuguese word for "Reconquest" Arabic: الاسترداد, "Recapturing" was a period The Holy Roman Empire ( HRE; German Heiliges Römisches Reich (HRR, Latin Sacrum Romanum Imperium (SRI was a union of territories in Hungary (Magyarország 'mɔɟɔrorsaːg) officially in English the Republic of Hungary ( Magyar Köztársaság, literally Magyar (Hungarian Republic Poland (Polska officially the Republic of Poland The Battle of Varna took place on November 10, 1444 near Varna in eastern Bulgaria. Although some troops did arrive from the mercantile city states in the north of Italy, the Western contribution was not adequate to counterbalance Ottoman strength. Some Western individuals, however, came to help defend the city out of their own account; one of them was an accomplished soldier from Genoa, Giovanni Giustiniani, who arrived with 700 armed men in January 1453. Giovanni Giustiniani Longo (Latin Ioannes Iustinianus Longus, died 1453 was a Genoese captain during the Middle Ages and Protostrator of the  A specialist in defending walled cities, he was immediately given the overall command of the defense of the land walls by the emperor. Around the same time, the captains of the Venetian ships which happened to be present in the Golden Horn offered their services to the Emperor, barring contrary orders from Venice, and Pope Nicholas undertook to send three ships laden with provisions, which set sail near the end of March.  In Venice, meanwhile, deliberations were taking place concerning the kind of assistance the Republic would lend to Constantinople. The Senate decided upon sending a fleet, but there were delays, and when it finally set out late in April, it was already too late for it to be able to partake in the battle.  Undermining Byzantine morale further, 7 Italian ships with around 700 men slipped out of the capital at the same moment when Giovanni arrived, men who had sworn to defend the capital. At the same time, Constantine's attempts to appease the Sultan with gifts ended in the execution of the former's ambassadors - even Byzantine diplomacy could not save the city. 
The army defending Constantinople was small; it totalled about 7,000 men, 2,000 of whom were foreigners.  The city had about 20 km of walls (Theodosian Walls: 5. The Walls of Constantinople are a series of stone walls that have surrounded and protected the city of Constantinople (today Istanbul in Turkey) since its 5 km; sea walls along the Golden Horn: 7 km; sea walls along the Sea of Marmara: 7. The Golden Horn ( Turkish: Haliç or Altın Boynuz, Greek: Χρυσόν Κέρας – Chrysón Kéras is an inlet of the The Sea of Marmara ( Turkish: Marmara Denizi, Greek: Θάλασσα του Μαρμαρά or Προποντίς, Bulgarian 5 km), probably the strongest set of fortified walls in existence at the time. The walls had recently been repaired (under John VIII) and were in fairly good shape, giving the defenders sufficient reason to believe that they could hold out until help from the West arrived. John VIII Palaiologos or Palaeologus ( Greek Ιωάννης Η' Παλαιολόγος Iōannēs VIII Palaiologos) ( December 18 1392  In addition, the defenders were relatively well-equipped. The defenders also had a fleet of 26 ships: 5 from Genoa, 5 from Venice, 3 from Venetian Crete, 1 from Ancona, 1 from Spain, 1 from France, and about 10 Byzantine.  The Ottomans, on the other hand, had a larger force. It was thought to number around 100,000 men, including 20,000 Janissaries; recent estimates span between 80,000 soldiers and 5,000 Janissaries, and 150,000 soldiers, including mounted troops and 6,000-10,000 Janissaries. The Janissaries (derived from Ottoman Turkish ينيچرى ( yeniçeri) meaning "new soldier" comprised Infantry units that formed The Janissaries (derived from Ottoman Turkish ينيچرى ( yeniçeri) meaning "new soldier" comprised Infantry units that formed The Janissaries (derived from Ottoman Turkish ينيچرى ( yeniçeri) meaning "new soldier" comprised Infantry units that formed  Contemporary witnesses of the siege, who tend to exaggerate the military power of the Sultan, provide higher numbers (Nicolò Barbaro: 160,000; the Florentine merchant Jacopo Tedaldi and the Great Logothete George Sphrantzes: 200,000; the Cardinal Isidore of Kiev and the Archbishop of Mytilene Leonardo di Chio: 300,000). George Sphrantzes (also Phrantzes or Phrantza, Greek: Γεώργιος Φραντζής 1401-c Isidore of Kiev, also known as Isidore of Thessalonica ( Russian: Исидор Ukrainian: Ісидор (b Lesbos (Λέσβος also transliterated Lesvos, Midilli is a Greek island located in the northeastern Aegean Sea.  Mehmed also built a fleet to besiege the city from the sea (partially manned by Greek sailors from Gallipoli). Contemporary estimates of the strength of the Ottoman fleet span between about 100 ships (Tedaldi), 145 (Barbaro), 160 (Ubertino Pusculo), 200-250 (Isidore of Kiev, Leonardo di Chio) to 430 (Sphrantzes). A more realistic modern estimate puts the total at 6 large galleys, 10 ordinary galleys, 15 smaller galleys, 75 large rowing boats, and 20 horse-transports. 
According to Nicolle (2000), the idea that Constantinople was inevitably doomed is wrong, and the overall situation was not as one-sided as a simple glance at a map might suggest. 
Prior to the siege of Constantinople it was known that the Ottomans had the ability to cast medium-sized cannon, but the range of some pieces they were able to put to field far surpassed the defenders' expectations. Instrumental to this Ottoman advancement in arms production was a somewhat mysterious figure by the name of Orban, a Hungarian (though some suggest he was German). Orban, also known as Urban, was a Hungarian / Romanian engineer The master founder initially tried to sell his services to the Byzantines, who were unable to secure the funds needed to hire him. He then offered his skills to the sultan. He guaranteed Mehmed that he could cast cannons powerful enough to break down the "walls of Babylon", implying that the greatest fortifications could not be spared.  Consequently every resource was placed at his fingertips. In a move of unprecedented technicality, working in a makeshift foundry, Orban pushed the limits of his art and cast what was probably the largest contemporary gun yet made — 27 feet long and large enough for a full grown man to crawl into. Orban's cannon could fire a 1200 lb (544 kg) ball as far as one mile. It was dubbed "the Great Turkish Bombard". The Great Turkish Bombard, also known as the Basilic, the Dardanelles Gun, the Hungarian Cannon, Muhammed's Great Gun and The Royal Orban's cannon had several drawbacks, however: it took three hours to reload; the cannon balls were in very short supply; and the cannon is said to have collapsed under its own recoil after six weeks (this fact however is disputed, being only reported in the letter of Archbishop Leonardo di Chio and the later and often unreliable Russian chronicle of Nestor Iskander). Nestor Iskander's Tale on the Taking of Tsargrad (Russian Повесть o взятии Царьграда is a late 15th - early 16th century Russian tale on the Fall of Constantinople Orban's accomplishments in dealing with such fine tolerances on such a massive scale place his work as one of the greatest engineering feats of the time yet nothing is certainly known about his demise. Having previously established a large foundry approximately 150 miles away, Mehmed now had to undergo the painstaking process of transporting his massive pieces of artillery. Orban's giant cannon was said to have been accompanied by a crew of 60 oxen and over 400 men. 
Mehmed planned to attack the Theodosian Walls, the intricate series of walls and ditches protecting Constantinople from an attack from the West, the only part of the city not surrounded by water. Edirne (anc Hadrianopolis; Greek Adrianople; Slavic/Bulgarian Одрин, see also its other names) is a city in Thrace, the westernmost The Great Turkish Bombard, also known as the Basilic, the Dardanelles Gun, the Hungarian Cannon, Muhammed's Great Gun and The Royal The Walls of Constantinople are a series of stone walls that have surrounded and protected the city of Constantinople (today Istanbul in Turkey) since its His army encamped outside the city on the Monday after Easter, 2 April 1453. Events 68 - Galba, Governor of Hispania, names himself legatus senatus populique Romani, breaking the line of
The bulk of the Ottoman army were encamped south of the Golden Horn. The regular European troops, stretched out along the entire length of the walls, were commanded by Karadja Pasha. The regular troops from Anatolia under Ishak Pasha were stationed south of the Lycus down to the Sea of Marmara. Anatolia (Anadolu Ανατολία Anatolía) or Asia minor, comprising most of modern Turkey, is the geographic region bounded by the Black Mehmed himself erected his red-and-gold tent near the Mesoteichion, where the guns and the elite regiments, the Janissaries, were positioned. The Janissaries (derived from Ottoman Turkish ينيچرى ( yeniçeri) meaning "new soldier" comprised Infantry units that formed The Bashi-bazouks were spread out behind the front lines. A bashi-bazouk or bashibazouk ( Turkish başıbozuk, "damaged head" meaning "leaderless" "disorderly" was an Other troops under Zaganos Pasha were employed north of the Golden Horn. Zağanos Pasha was one of the prominent Military commanders of Mehmet II (Mehmet the Conqueror and a lala, at once an advisor Mentor, Tutor Communication was maintained by a road that had been constructed over the marshy head of the Horn. 
On April 5, as the Sultan himself arrived with his last troops, the defenders took up their positions. Events 456 - St Patrick returns to Ireland as a missionary bishop  As their numbers were insufficient to occupy the walls in their entirety, it had been decided that only the outer walls would be manned. Constantine and his Greek troops guarded the Mesoteichion, the middle section of the land walls, where they were crossed by the river Lycus. This section was considered the weakest spot in the walls and an attack was feared here most. Giustiniani was stationed to the north of the emperor, at the Charisian Gate (Myriandrion); later during the siege, he was shifted to the Mesoteichion to join Constantine, leaving the Myriandrion to the charge of the Bocchiardi brothers. The Walls of Constantinople are a series of stone walls that have surrounded and protected the city of Constantinople (today Istanbul in Turkey) since its Minotto and his Venetians were stationed in the Blachernae palace, together with Teodoro Caristo, the Langasco brothers, and Archbishop Leonardo of Chios. Blachernae (Βλαχερναί was a suburb in the northwestern section of Constantinople. To the left of the emperor, further south, were the commanders Cataneo, with Genoese troops, and Theophilus Palaeologus, who guarded the Pegae Gate with Greek soldiers. The Walls of Constantinople are a series of stone walls that have surrounded and protected the city of Constantinople (today Istanbul in Turkey) since its The section of the land walls from the Pegae Gate to the Golden Gate (itself guarded by a certain Genoese called Manuel) was defended by the Venetian Filippo Contarini, while Demetrius Cantacuzenus had taken position on the southernmost part of the Theodosian wall. The sea walls were manned more sparsely, with Jacobo Contarini at Stoudion, a makeshift defense force of Greek monks to his left hand, and prince Orhan at the Harbour of Eleutherius. Péré Julia was stationed at the Great Palace with Genoese troops; Cardinal Isidore of Kiev guarded the tip of the peninsula near the boom. The sea walls at the southern shore of the Golden Horn were defended by Venetian and Genoese sailors under Gabriele Trevisano. The Golden Horn ( Turkish: Haliç or Altın Boynuz, Greek: Χρυσόν Κέρας – Chrysón Kéras is an inlet of the Two tactical reserves were kept behind in the city, one in the Petra district just behind the land walls and one near the Church of the Holy Apostles, under the command of Lucas Notaras and Nicephorus Palaeologus, respectively. For other structures of this name including in the Moscow Kremlin, see Church of the Holy Apostles (disambiguation. Loukas Notaras ( Greek Λουκάς Νοταράς) (?-3 or 4 June 1453) was the last Megas Doux of the Byzantine Empire The Genoese Alviso Diedo commanded the ships in the harbour. Although the Byzantines also had cannons, they were much smaller than those of the Ottomans and the recoil tended to damage their own walls. This article is about backward Momentum produced in firearms when fired 
At the beginning of the siege, Mehmed sent out some of his best troops to reduce the remaining Byzantine strongholds outside the city of Constantinople. The fortress of Therapia on the Bosphorus and a smaller castle at the village of Studius near the Sea of Marmora were taken within a few days. The Princes' Islands in the Sea of Marmora were taken by Admiral Baltoghlu's fleet. The Princes' Islands ( Turkish: Prens Adaları Islands or more commonly Kizil Adalar Islands as they are officially named classical Greek:
Mehmed's massive cannon fired on the walls for weeks, but due to its imprecision and extremely slow rate of reloading the Byzantines were able to repair most of the damage after each shot, limiting the cannon's effect. 
Meanwhile, despite some probing attacks, the Ottoman fleet under Suleiman Baltoghlu could not enter the Golden Horn due to the boom the Byzantines had laid across the entrance, and although one of its main tasks was to prevent any ships from outside from entering the Golden Horn, on 20 April a small flotilla of four Christian ships managed to slip in after some heavy fighting, an event which strengthened the morale of the defenders and caused embarrassment to the Sultan. Life Turkish Admiral in the 15th Century He led the Turkish fleet against the Byzantines in 1453 The Golden Horn ( Turkish: Haliç or Altın Boynuz, Greek: Χρυσόν Κέρας – Chrysón Kéras is an inlet of the  Baltoghlu's life was spared after his subordinates testified to his brave yet fruitless efforts to Mehmed. To circumvent the boom, Mehmed ordered the construction of a road of greased logs across Galata on the north side of the Golden Horn, and rolled his ships across on 22 April. Galata or Galatae is a district in Istanbul, the largest city of Turkey.  This seriously threatened the flow of supplies from Genovese ships from the - nominally neutral - colony of Pera and demoralized the Byzantine defenders. Genoa ( Genova, ˈdʒɛːnova in Italian; Zena in Genoese and Ligurian; Genua in Latin and archaically in English Beyoğlu is a district located on the European side of İstanbul, Turkey, separated from the old city (historic peninsula of Constantinople) by the On the night of 28 April, an attempt was made to destroy the Ottoman ships already in the Golden Horn using fire ships, but the Ottomans had been warned in advance and forced the Christians to retreat with heavy losses. A fire ship, used in the days of wooden rowed or Sailing ships was a ship filled with combustibles deliberately set on fire and steered (or where possible allowed to drift From then on, the defenders were forced to disperse part of their forces to the Golden Horn walls, causing defense in other sections of the walls to weaken.
The Turks had made several frontal assaults on the land wall, but were always repelled with heavy losses. From mid-May to 25 May, the Ottomans sought to break through the walls by constructing underground tunnels in an effort to mine them. Mining, undermining, or sapping was a Siege method used since antiquity against a Walled city, Fortress or Castle Many of the sappers were Serbians sent from Novo Brdo by the Serbian Despot. Serbia (Србија Srbija) officially the Republic of Serbia (Република Србија Republika Srbija) is a Landlocked Country Novo Brdo ( Cyrillic: Ново Брдо Albanian: Novobërda, Novobërdë) is a town and municipality in the Priština district Serbia (Србија Srbija) officially the Republic of Serbia (Република Србија Republika Srbija) is a Landlocked Country They were placed under the rule of Zaganos Pasha. Zağanos Pasha was one of the prominent Military commanders of Mehmet II (Mehmet the Conqueror and a lala, at once an advisor Mentor, Tutor However, the Byzantines employed an engineer named Johannes Grant (who was said to be German but was probably Scottish), who had countermines dug, allowing Byzantine troops to enter the mines and kill the Turkish workers. Johannes Grant was an engineer employed by the Greeks at the Fall of Constantinople in 1453 The Byzantines intercepted the first Serbian tunnel on the night of 16 May. Subsequent tunneling efforts were interrupted on 21, 23, and 25 May, destroying them with Greek fire and vigorous combat. On 23 May, the Byzantines captured and tortured two Turkish officers, who revealed the location of all the Turkish tunnels, which were then destroyed.
Mehmed offered to lift the siege if they gave him the city. When this was declined, Mehmed planned to overpower the walls by sheer force, knowing that the weak Byzantine defense would be worn out before he ran out of troops. Around this time, Mehmed had a final council with his senior officers. Here he encountered some resistance; one of his Viziers, the veteran Halil Pasha, who had always disapproved of Mehmed's plans to conquer the city, now admonished him to abandon the siege in the face of recent adversity. Çandarlı (Chandarly Halil Pasha was a highly influential Ottoman grand vizier under the Sultans Murat II and for the first years of his reign under Mehmet Halil was overruled by Zaganos Pasha, who insisted on an immediate attack, an advice which the Sultan was glad to follow. Suspected of having been bribed by the Byzantines, Halil Pasha was put to death later that year. 
On May 22, 1453, the moon, symbol of Constantinople, rose in dark eclipse, fulfilling a prophecy on the city's demise. Events 334 BC - The Greek army of Alexander the Great defeats Darius III of Persia in the Battle of the Granicus. An eclipse is an astronomical event that occurs when one Celestial object moves into the shadow of another Four days later, the whole city was blotted out by a thick fog, a condition unknown in that part of the world in May. When the fog lifted that evening, a strange light was seen playing about the dome of the Hagia Sophia, and from the city walls lights were seen in the countryside to the West, far behind the Turkish camp. Hagia Sophia (Ayasofya Αγία Σοφία " Holy Wisdom " Sancta Sophia or Sancta Sapientia) is a former patriarchal Basilica, later The light around the dome was interpreted by some as the Holy Spirit departing from the Cathedral, while there was a distant hope that the lights were the campfires of the troops of John Hunyadi who had come to relieve the city. In mainstream Christianity, the Holy Spirit or Holy Ghost is one of the three entities of the Holy Trinity which make up the single substance John Hunyadi ( Medieval Latin: Ioannes Corvinus, Hungarian: Hunyadi János, (c 
The following day a small Venetian ship of 12 entered the Capital and reported to the Emperor that no Venetian relief fleet was on its way after having searched the Aegean.  Nonetheless the Emperor was able to receive the aid of the 12 in the defense of the city.
Mehmed called a war council on 26 May and at his tent declared that the siege had gone on long enough. Preparations were to be made in the evening and continue on into the next day on the 27th.  Prayer and resting would be then granted to the soldiers on the 28th and thereafter the final assault would be launched. For 36 hours after the war council the Ottomans mobilized their manpower for extensive preparations for an all-out assault.  Prior to this the Ottomans had tried to starve the city and make notable breaches in the walls with artillery, occasionally testing the sea walls with his land-hauled fleet.
On May 28, as the Ottoman army prepared for the final assault, large-scale religious processions were held in the city. In the evening a last solemn ceremony was held in the Hagia Sophia, in which the Emperor and representatives of both the Latin and Greek church partook, together with nobility from both sides.  Shortly after midnight the attack began. The first wave of attackers, the azabs (auxiliaries), were poorly trained and equipped, and were meant only to kill as many defenders as possible. The military of the Ottoman Empire was divided in three organizational structures the Army Navy and Air Force The second assault, consisting largely of Anatolians, focused on a section of the Blachernae walls in the northwest part of the city, which had been partially damaged by the cannon. Anatolia (Anadolu Ανατολία Anatolía) or Asia minor, comprising most of modern Turkey, is the geographic region bounded by the Black Blachernae (Βλαχερναί was a suburb in the northwestern section of Constantinople. This section of the walls had been built much more recently, in the eleventh century, and was much weaker; the crusaders in 1204 had broken through the walls there. The Ottoman attackers also managed to break through, but were just as quickly pushed back out by the defenders. The Christians also managed for a time to hold off the third attack by the Sultan's elite Janissaries, but the Genoese general in charge of the land troops, Giovanni Giustiniani, was grievously wounded during the attack, and his evacuation from the ramparts caused a panic in the ranks of the defenders. The Janissaries (derived from Ottoman Turkish ينيچرى ( yeniçeri) meaning "new soldier" comprised Infantry units that formed Giovanni Giustiniani Longo (Latin Ioannes Iustinianus Longus, died 1453 was a Genoese captain during the Middle Ages and Protostrator of the  Giustiniani was carried to Chios, where he succumbed to his wounds a few days later. Chios (Χίος pronounced ˈçio̞s alternative transliterations Khíos and Híos) is the fifth largest of the Greek islands, situated
With Giustiniani's Genoese troops retreating into the city and towards the harbour, Constantine and his men, now left to their own devices, kept fighting and managed to hold off the attackers for a while. At this point, some historians suggest that the Kerkoporta gate in the Blachernae section had been left unlocked, and the Ottomans soon discovered this mistake. The Walls of Constantinople are a series of stone walls that have surrounded and protected the city of Constantinople (today Istanbul in Turkey) since its Blachernae (Βλαχερναί was a suburb in the northwestern section of Constantinople.  The Ottomans rushed in. Around the same time, the defenders were being overwhelmed at several points in Constantine's section. When Turkish flags were seen flying above the Kerkoporta, a panic ensued and the defense collapsed. It is said that Constantine, throwing aside his purple regalia, led the final charge against the oncoming Ottomans, dying in the ensuing battle in the streets like his soldiers, although his ultimate fate remains unknown. 
After the initial assault, the Ottoman army fanned out along the main thoroughfare of the city, the Mese, past the great forums, and past the Church of the Holy Apostles, which Mehmed II wanted to provide a seat for his newly appointed patriarch which would help him better control his Christian subjects. For other structures of this name including in the Moscow Kremlin, see Church of the Holy Apostles (disambiguation. Mehmed II had sent an advance guard to protect key buildings such as the Holy Apostles, as he did not wish to establish his new capital in a thoroughly devastated city.
The Army converged upon the Augusteum, the vast square that fronted the great church of Hagia Sophia whose bronze gates were barred by a huge throng of civilians inside the building, hoping for divine protection at this late hour. After the doors were breached, the troops separated the congregation according to what price they might bring on the slave markets. There were some raping and pillaging according to the English historian John Julius Norwich. John Julius Cooper 2nd Viscount Norwich CVO (born 15 September 1929) is an English historian travel writer and television personality  Soldiers fought over the possession of some of the spoils of war.  The Ottoman conquerors treated the Byzantine people much better compared to the Crusaders who had taken Constantinople in 1204. At the conclusion of the siege, Mehmet ordered all looting to stop and sent his troops back outside the walls. 
There are many legends in Greece surrounding the Fall of Constantinople. One of them holds that two priests saying divine liturgy over the crowd disappeared into the cathedral's walls as the first Turkish soldiers entered. The Divine Liturgy is the common term for the Eucharistic service of the Byzantine tradition of Christian liturgy. According to the legend, the priests will appear again on the day Constantinople returns to Christian hands.  Another legend refers to the Marble King, Constantine XI, holding that, when the Ottomans entered the city, an angel rescued the emperor, turned him into marble and placed him in a cave under the earth near the Golden Gate, where he waits to be brought to life again (a variant of the sleeping hero legend). A king in the mountain, king under the mountain or sleeping hero is a prominent motif in Folklore and Mythology, that is found in many Folktales . 
Byzantine historian George Sphrantzes was in the city, and witnessed the fall of Constantinople. Constantine XI Palaiologos or Palaeologus ( Greek: Κωνσταντίνος ΙΑ' Δραγάσης Παλαιολόγος Kōnstantinos XI Dragasēs Palaiologos George Sphrantzes (also Phrantzes or Phrantza, Greek: Γεώργιος Φραντζής 1401-c He later recalled in his chronicle about the fall of the city, what happened at the end of the third day of the conquest:
On the third day after the fall of our city, the Sultan celebrated his victory with a great, joyful triumph. He issued a proclamation: the citizens of all ages who had managed to escape detection were to leave their hiding places throughout the city and come out into the open, as they were remain free and no question would be asked. He further declared the restoration of houses and property to those who had abandoned our city before the siege, if they returned home, they would be treated according to their rank and religion, as if nothing had changed. 
Far from being in its heyday, by then, Constantinople was severely depopulated as a result of the general economic and territorial decline of the empire following its partial recovery from the disaster of the Fourth Crusade inflicted on it by the Christian army two centuries before. Therefore, the city in 1453 was a series of walled villages separated by vast fields encircled in whole by the fifth-century Theodosian walls. The Walls of Constantinople are a series of stone walls that have surrounded and protected the city of Constantinople (today Istanbul in Turkey) since its When the Ottoman troops first broke through the defenses, many of the leading citizens of these little townlets submitted their surrender to Mehmed's generals. These villages, specifically along the land walls, were allowed to keep their citizens and churches and were protected by Mehmed's special contingents of Janissaries. It was these people who formed what the Ottomans called a Millet, or self governing community in the multi-national empire of what would become Ottoman Istanbul. Millet is an Ottoman Turkish term for a Confessional community in the Ottoman Empire. Hagia Sophia was converted into a mosque, although the Greek Orthodox Church remained intact, and Gennadius Scholarius was appointed Patriarch of Constantinople. Hagia Sophia (Ayasofya Αγία Σοφία " Holy Wisdom " Sancta Sophia or Sancta Sapientia) is a former patriarchal Basilica, later History Early history Christianity in Byzantium existed from the time of the Twelve Apostles, but it was in the year 330 that the Roman Emperor Gennadius II (in Greek Γεννάδιος Β' (lay name Georgios Kourtesios Scholarios, in Greek Γεώργιος Κουρτέσιος Σχολάριος "Patriarch of Constantinople" redirects here For the institutional church itself see Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople.
Many Greeks fled the city and found refuge in the Latin West, bringing with them knowledge and documents from the Greco-Roman tradition that further propelled the Renaissance, although the influx of Greek scholars into the West began much earlier, especially in the Northern Italian city-states which had started welcoming scholars in the eleventh and twelfth centuries. Holy Wisdom, also called Divine Wisdom ( Ancient Greek: Ἁγία Σοφία Hagia Sophia; Latin: Sancta Sophia) is the theological Hagia Sophia (Ayasofya Αγία Σοφία " Holy Wisdom " Sancta Sophia or Sancta Sapientia) is a former patriarchal Basilica, later A "mosque" in English refers to all types of buildings dedicated for Islamic worship although there is a distinction in Arabic between the smaller privately owned mosque and the larger The Italian city states were a remarkable political phenomenon of small independent states in the northern Italian peninsula between the tenth and fifteenth centuries The chancellor of Florence Coluccio Salutati began this cultural exchange in 1396 by inviting a Byzantine Scholar to lecture at the University of Florence. Coluccio Salutati ( February 16 1331 &ndash May 4 1406) was an Italian man of letters and one of the most important political and cultural leaders The University of Florence ( Università degli Studi di Firenze, UNIFI is one of the largest and oldest universities in Italy. It was the Italians' hunger for Latin Classics and a command of the Greek Language that fueled the Renaissance. Those Greeks who stayed behind in Constantinople were mostly confined to the Phanar and Galata districts. Fener, Fanar or Phanar ( Greek Φανάρι) is a neighborhood midway up the Golden Horn, within the borough of Fatih in Galata or Galatae is a district in Istanbul, the largest city of Turkey. The Phanariots, as they were called, provided many capable advisers to the Ottoman Sultans, but were seen as traitors by many Greeks. Phanariotes, Phanariots, or Phanariote Greeks ( Greek:Φαναριώτες Romanian: Fanarioţi, Bulgarian:Фанариоти
The Morean (Peloponnesian) fortress of Mystras, where Constantine's brothers Thomas and Demetrius ruled, constantly in conflict with each other and knowing that Mehmed would eventually invade them as well, held out until 1460. Morea ( Greek: Μορέας or Μοριάς) was the name of the Peloponnese peninsula in southern Greece during the Middle Ages Demetrios Palaiologos or Demetrius Palaeologus ( Greek: Δημήτριος Παλαιολόγος Dēmētrios Palaiologos) (1407&ndash1470 Despot Long before the fall of Constantinople, Demetrius had fought for the throne with Thomas, Constantine, and their other brothers John and Theodore. John VIII Palaiologos or Palaeologus ( Greek Ιωάννης Η' Παλαιολόγος Iōannēs VIII Palaiologos) ( December 18 1392  Thomas escaped to Rome when the Ottomans invaded Morea while Demetrius expected to rule a puppet state, but instead was imprisoned and remained there for the rest of his life. In Rome, Thomas and his family received some monetary support from the Pope and other Western rulers as Byzantine emperor in exile, until 1503. In 1461 the independent Byzantine state in Trebizond fell to Mehmed. The Empire of Trebizond ( was a Byzantine Greek successor state of the Byzantine Empire founded in 1204 as a result of the capture of Constantinople 
Scholars consider the Fall of Constantinople as a key event ending the Middle Ages and starting the Renaissance because of the end of the old religious order in Europe and the use of cannon and gunpowder. The Renaissance (from French Renaissance, meaning "rebirth" Italian: Rinascimento, from re- "again" and nascere The fall of Constantinople and general encroachment of the Turks in that region also severed the main overland trade link between Europe and Asia, and as a result more Europeans began to seriously consider the possibility of reaching Asia by sea. For additional context see History of Portugal and Portuguese Empire. 
With Byzantium considered the continuation of the Roman Empire, or the "Second Rome", the fall of Constantinople led competing factions to lay claim to being the "Third Rome". The term Third Rome describes the idea that some European city or state is the successor to the legacy of the Roman Empire, with Byzantium being the "second The Papal States are described by a Russian monk as the "third. . . still standing", counting Moscow and the emerging power of the Russians as the fourth. Russian claims to Byzantine heritage clashed with those of the Ottoman empire's own claim. In Mehmed's view, he was the successor to the Roman Emperor, declaring himself Kayser-i Rum, literally "Caesar of Rome", that is, of the Roman Empire, though he was remembered as "the Conqueror", founder of a political system that survived until 1922 with the establishment of the Republic of Turkey that has since held Constantinople (renamed Istanbul) but moved the capital of the Turkish state to Ankara. Caesar (plural Caesars Latin: Caesar (plural Caesares is a Title of imperial character Year 1922 ( MCMXXII) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches Ankara is the capital of Turkey and the country's second largest city after İstanbul. Such conflict in ideology only stimulated warfare between the two countries, with the 18th and 19th century seeing Russian armies approach slowly closer to Constantinople. Stefan Dušan, Tsar of Serbia, and Ivan Alexander, Tsar of Bulgaria both made similar claims, regarding themselves as legitimate heirs to the Byzantine Empire. Stefan Uroš IV Dušan ( c.1308 – 20 December 1355) called Silni ("the Mighty" was the King of Serbia (from Serbia (Србија Srbija) officially the Republic of Serbia (Република Србија Republika Srbija) is a Landlocked Country Ivan Alexander (Иван Александър transliterated Ivan Aleksandǎr; iˈvan alɛkˈsandɤr original spelling ІѠАНЪ АЛЄѮАНдРЪ The state of Bulgaria (България transliterated bg-Latn ''Balgaria'' The country preserves the traditions (in ethnic name language and alphabet of the First Bulgarian Other potential claimants, such as the Republic of Venice and the Holy Roman Empire have disintegrated into history. The Most Serene Republic of Venice ((Serenìsima Repùblica Vèneta or Repùblica de Venesia Serenissima Repubblica The Holy Roman Empire ( HRE; German Heiliges Römisches Reich (HRR, Latin Sacrum Romanum Imperium (SRI was a union of territories in The Papal States were the final remaining claimant. The Papal States, State(s of the Church or Pontifical States (in Italian Stato Ecclesiastico, Stato della Chiesa, Stati della Chiesa Forged as the "Rome-Ravenna" corridor after Emperor Justinian's conquests, and later placed under Frankish protection, it could claim Byzantine descent until its conquest in 1870 by Victor Emanuel.
The loss of the city was a massive blow to Christendom; the Pope called for an immediate counter-attack in the form of a crusade, but when no European monarch was willing to lead the crusade, the Pope himself decided to go; his early death eliminated the possibility of a counter-attack.
With Constantinople beneath his belt, Mehmed II had acquired a great, rich city albeit one in decline due to years of war. The Capital allowed the Turks to establish a permanent supply base in Christian Europe. Further advances into Hungary and the principalities bordering the two kingdoms would have been difficult, if not impossible, without the harbors of Constantinople bringing in supplies and serving as a fortified center from which to administer the empire and strategy.
In addition to the military and political benefits bestowed upon the Turks with its capture, it also brought the trade in Eastern Spices through Muslim intermediaries into a declining period. Europeans would continue to trade through Constantinople into the 16th century but high prices propelled the search for alternative sources of supply that did not pass through the intermediaries of the Ottomans and, to a lesser extent, the Safavids and Mamelukes. An increasing number of Portuguese, Spanish and Dutch ships began to attempt to sail to India via the southern tip of Africa. Indeed, had Columbus not believed that he would reach Asia to negotiate trade rights by sailing west--the mission as he presented it to his patron, the King of Spain--he would not have found the New World.
It is widely believed that the city was renamed to "Istanbul" in the aftermath of the conquest. In actuality, Ottomans used the Arabic translation of the city, "Konstantiniyye," as can be seen in numerous Ottoman documents. The name Istanbul, deriving from a Greek phrase ("in the City", Greek eis -tin- polin ) was already spread among the populace before the conquest. The city of Istanbul has been known through the ages under a large number of different names Istanbul would become the official name of the city in 1930.
Ottoman casualties are unknown; the Venetian surgeon Barbaro describes the sea around the capital floating with the bodies of the Turks and Christians "like melons out to canal". Whatever the Ottoman casualties, the Empire had to recover its strength; to the East lay the Karamanids, and to the North the Hungarians and numerous smaller states, such as the Despotate of Morea and the many Slavic territories in the Balkans contested by Hungary.
The Christian reconquest of Constantinople remained a fascinating and much sought-after event in Western Europe for years to come after its fall to the House of Osman. House of Osman is the name to the administrative structure of the Ottoman Dynasty, which is part of State organization of the Ottoman Empire, however directly linked Rumours of Constantine XI's survival and subsequent rescue by an angel led many to hope that the city would one day return to Christian hands. However as Western Europe entered the 15th century the age of Crusading began to come to an end. Initially, the fall of the city seemed to cause a stir of crusading zeal in the West, where, apart from religious sentiments, Renaissance humanism had for about a century been fuelling an interest in the cultural and intellectual heritage of classical antiquity, and the role that Byzantium had played in preserving that heritage. Renaissance Humanism was a European intellectual movement beginning in Florence in the last decades of the 14th century Classical antiquity (also the classical era or classical period) is a broad term for a long period of cultural History centered on the Mediterranean Guillaume Dufay composed several songs lamenting the fall of the Eastern church, the duke of Burgundy, Philip the Good, avowed to take up arms against the Turks, and Pope Pius II went to great lengths trying to organize a crusade which was to reconquer the city, but any genuine enthusiasm that existed was short-lived, and a crusade never came into effect. Guillaume Dufay ( Du Fay, Du Fayt) ( August 5, 1397 ? &ndash November 27, 1474) was a Franco-Flemish composer Philip the Good (Philippe le Bon also Philip III Duke of Burgundy ( July 31, 1396 &ndash June 15, 1467) was Duke of Burgundy The Feast of the Pheasant ( French: Banquet du Voeu du Faisan, "Banquet of the Oath of the Pheasant" was a banquet given by Philip the Good of Pope Pius II, born Enea Silvio Piccolomini ( Latin Aeneas Sylvius; October 18, 1405 &ndash August 14, 1464) With the Protestant Reformation and subsequent counter-reformation, the recapture of Constantinople became an ever-distant dream. The Protestant Reformation was a reform movement in Europe that began in 1517 though its roots lie further back in time The Counter-Reformation (also Catholic Reformation denotes the period of Catholic revival from the pontificate of Pope Pius IV in 1560 to the close of the Even France, once the greatest participants of the Crusades became an ally of the Ottomans. Nonetheless depictions of Christian coalitions taking the city and of the late Emperor's resurrection by Leo the Wise persisted.  Entertaining such ideas became politically incorrect in the Western world after the Turkish war of independence, where Turkey emerged with a secular republic constitution. The Turkish War of Independence (Kurtuluş Savaşı May 19, 1919 October 29, 1923) refers to the political and military resistance developed
Contrary to popular belief, the name of the city remained Constantinople and the Turks did not change the name until Turkey emerged as a new nation. An example illustrating the retention of the Greco-Roman Christian name is the Convention of Constantinople. The Convention of Constantinople was a Treaty signed by the United Kingdom, Germany, Austro-Hungary, Spain, France
The fall of the city fulfilled the call of the city's capture hundreds of years earlier.  With the rise of Arab nationalism however and the breakup of the Ottoman Empire, the efforts of Saladin became more popular in the Middle East than the achievements of Mehmed.
This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain. The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911 is a 29-volume reference work that marked the beginning of the Encyclopædia Britannica The public domain is a range of abstract materials &ndash commonly referred to as Intellectual property &ndash which are not owned or controlled by anyone
Justin Wintle (born 1949) is an English author editor and journalist who has contributed to a wide variety of media-outlets