F-22 Raptor

Two F-22 Raptors in column flight formation

TypeStealth Air superiority fighter
National originUnited States
ManufacturersLockheed Martin Aeronautics
Boeing Integrated Defense Systems
Maiden flightYF-22: 29 September 1990

F-22: 7 September 1997

Introduction15 December 2005
StatusActive: 91[1]
Planned: 187[2]
Primary userUnited States Air Force
Number built112 (as of February 2008)
Program costUS$62 billion[3] Unit costUS$137. Stealth aircraft are Aircraft that use Stealth technology to make it harder to be detected by radar and other means than conventional aircraft by employing a An air superiority fighter is a type of Fighter aircraft intended to enter and seize control of enemy airspace The United States of America —commonly referred to as the An aerospace manufacturer is a company or individual involved in the various aspects of designing building testing selling and maintaining Aircraft, Aircraft parts Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company is a major unit of Lockheed Martin with headquarters at Fort Worth, Texas. Boeing Integrated Defense Systems ( Boeing IDS) based in St Louis, Missouri, USA, is a unit of The Boeing Company responsible for The maiden flight of an Aircraft is the first occasion on which an aircraft leaves the ground of its own accord Events 522 BC - Darius I of Persia kills the Magian usurper Gaumâta securing his hold as king of the Persian Empire. This is a list of Aviation -related events from 1990: Events Pan American World Airways and Trans World Airlines, both in Events 1251 BC - A Solar eclipse on this date might mark the birth of legendary Heracles at Thebes Greece. This is a list of Aviation -related events from 1997: Events British Airways adopts a new livery which consists of a revised Events 533 - Byzantine general Belisarius defeats the Vandals, commanded by King Gelimer, at the Battle of This is a list of Aviation -related events from 2005: Events January January 18 - The world's largest passenger plane the The United States dollar ( sign: $; code: USD) is the unit of Currency of the United States; it has also been 5 million (2008 flyaway cost)[4] VariantsX-44 MANTA FB-22 The Lockheed Martin/Boeing F-22 Raptor is a fighter aircraft that uses stealth technology. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout A fighter aircraft is a Military aircraft designed primarily for air-to-air combat with other Aircraft, as opposed to a Bomber, which is designed Stealth aircraft are Aircraft that use Stealth technology to make it harder to be detected by radar and other means than conventional aircraft by employing a It is primarily an air superiority fighter, but has multiple capabilities that include ground attack, electronic warfare, and signals intelligence roles. An air superiority fighter is a type of Fighter aircraft intended to enter and seize control of enemy airspace Ground-attack aircraft are military aircraft designed to attack targets on the ground and are often deployed as Close air support for and in proximity to their own ground forces Electronic warfare ( EW) is the use of the Electromagnetic spectrum to effectively deny the use of this medium by an adversary while optimizing its use by friendly The United States Air Force considers the F-22 a critical component of the U. S. strike force. [1] Faced with a protracted development period, the aircraft was variously designated F-22 and F/A-22 during the three years before formally entering US Air Force service in December 2005, as the F-22A. Lockheed Martin Aeronautics is the prime contractor and is responsible for the majority of the airframe, weapon systems and final assembly of the F-22. Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company is a major unit of Lockheed Martin with headquarters at Fort Worth, Texas. Program partner Boeing Integrated Defense Systems provides the wings, aft fuselage, avionics integration, and all of the pilot and maintenance training systems. Boeing Integrated Defense Systems ( Boeing IDS) based in St Louis, Missouri, USA, is a unit of The Boeing Company responsible for The F-22 is claimed by multiple sources to be the world’s most effective air superiority fighter. Air superiority is the dominance in the Air power of one side's air forces over the other side's during a Military campaign. The US Air Force claims that the F-22 cannot be matched by any known or projected fighter aircraft. [1] Air Chief Marshal Angus Houston, Chief of the Australian Defence Force, said in 2004 that the "F-22 will be the most outstanding fighter plane ever built. Air Chief Marshal Allan Grant "Angus" Houston AC, AFC is the Chief of the Australian Defence Force, as of 4 July 2005 The Australian Defence Force (ADF is the military organisation responsible for the defence of Australia "[5] ## Contents ## Development The original Lockheed Advanced Tactical Fighter concept (1986) In 1981 the United States Air Force (USAF) developed a requirement for a new air superiority fighter, the Advanced Tactical Fighter (ATF), to replace the capability of the F-15 Eagle. The Advanced Tactical Fighter (ATF contract was a demonstration and validation program undertaken by the United States Air Force to develop a next-generation ATF was a demonstration and validation program undertaken by the USAF to develop a next-generation air superiority fighter to counter emerging worldwide threats, including development and proliferation of Soviet-era Su-27 "Flanker"-class fighter aircraft. It was envisaged that the ATF would incorporate emerging technologies including advanced alloys and composite materials, advanced fly-by-wire flight control systems, higher power propulsion systems, and low-observable/stealth technology. Composite materials (or composites for short are engineered Materials made from two or more constituent materials with significantly different physical or chemical Aircraft flight control systems consist of Flight control surfaces, the respective cockpit controls connecting linkages and the necessary operating mechanisms to control Stealth technology also known as LOT (Low Observability Technology is a sub-discipline of military Electronic countermeasures which covers a range of techniques used with A request for proposal (RFP) was issued in July 1986, and two contractor teams, Lockheed/Boeing/General Dynamics and Northrop/McDonnell Douglas were selected in October 1986 to undertake a 50-month demonstration/validation phase, culminating in the flight test of two prototypes, the YF-22 and the YF-23. For other meanings see RFP (disambiguation. For information about Wikipedia proposals see WikipediaVillage pump (proposals. The Lockheed Corporation (originally Loughead Aircraft Manufacturing Company was an American aerospace company founded in 1912 which merged with Martin Marietta The Boeing Company is a major Aerospace and defense corporation originally founded by William E General Dynamics Corporation ( is a defense conglomerate formed by Mergers and Divestitures and as of 2008 it is the fifth largest Defense contractor The Northrop Corporation was a leading Aircraft manufacturer of the United States from its formation in 1939 until its merger with Grumman to form Northrop Grumman McDonnell Douglas was a major American Aerospace manufacturer and Defense contractor, producing a number of famous commercial and military aircraft WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout On 23 April 1991 the USAF ended the design and test-flight competition by announcing Lockheed's YF-22 as the winner. Events 215 BC - A temple is built on the Capitoline Hill dedicated to Venus Erycina to commemorate the Roman defeat at Year 1991 ( MCMXCI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar. It was anticipated at the time that 650 aircraft would be ordered. [6] ### Into production The first production F-22 was delivered to Nellis Air Force Base, Nevada, on 14 January 2003 and "Dedicated Initial Operational Test and Evaluation" commenced on 27 October 2004. Nellis Air Force Base is a United States Air Force base located in Clark County, Nevada. Nevada ( is a state located in the western region of the United States of America. Events 1129 - Formal approval of the Order of the Templar at the Council of Troyes. Year 2003 ( MMIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. Events 312 - Constantine the Great is said to have received his famous Vision of the Cross. "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again " By 2004, 51 Raptors were in service. The first crash of a production F-22 occurred during takeoff at Nellis Air Force Base on 20 December 2004, in which the pilot ejected safely prior to impact. Takeoff is the phase of Flight in which an Aircraft goes through a transition from moving along the ground ( Taxiing) to flying in the air usually Nellis Air Force Base is a United States Air Force base located in Clark County, Nevada. Events 69 - Vespasian, formerly a general under Nero, enters Rome to claim the title of Emperor. "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again " [7] The crash investigation revealed that a brief interruption in power during an engine shutdown prior to flight caused a malfunction in the flight-control system;[8] consequently, the technical data for the aircraft has been amended to avoid a recurrence of this problem. In August 2007, the United States Air Force signed a$5 billion, multi-year contract with Lockheed Martin that will extend production to 2011,[9] and as of 2008, F-22 Raptors are being procured at the rate of 20 per year. [4]

In a ceremony on 29 August 2007, Lockheed Martin reached its "100th F-22 Raptor" milestone, delivering aircraft 05-4100. Events 708 - Copper coins are minted in Japan for the first time (Traditional Japanese date: August 10, 708) Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. [10]

### Procurement

Two F-22s, the upper one being the first EMD F-22, "Raptor 01"

The United States Air Force originally planned to order 750 ATFs, with production beginning in 1994; however, the 1990 Major Aircraft Review altered the plan to 648 aircraft beginning in 1996. The goal changed again in 1994, when it became 442 aircraft entering service in 2003 or 2004, but a 1997 Department of Defense report put the purchase at 339. The United States Department of Defense ( DOD or DoD) is the federal department charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government In 2003, the Air Force said that the existing congressional cost cap limited the purchase to 277. By 2006, the Pentagon said it will buy 183 aircraft, which would save $15 billion but raise the cost of each aircraft, and this plan has been de facto approved by Congress in the form of a multi-year procurement plan, which still holds open the possibility for new orders past that point. The total cost of the program by 2006 was$62 billion. [3]

In April 2006, the cost of the F-22A was assessed by the Government Accountability Office to be $361 million per aircraft. This cost reflects the F-22A total program cost, divided by the number of fighters the Air Force is programmed to buy; and which has so far invested$28 billion in the Raptor's research, development and testing. That money, referred to as a "sunk cost", is already spent and is separate from money used for future decision-making, including procuring a copy of the jet. In Economics and business decision-making sunk costs are Costs which cannot be recovered once they have been incurred The Unit Procurement Cost was estimated at $177. 6 million in 2006 based on a production run of 181 airframes by Defense-Aerospace. com. [11] This cost will decrease if total production is higher. This cost includes$3. 233 billion already spent on research and development by 2006. [12]

By the time all 183 fighters have been purchased, $34 billion will have been spent on actual procurement, resulting in a total program cost of$62 billion or about $339 million per aircraft. The incremental cost for one additional F-22 is around$138 million;[4] decreasing with larger volumes. In Economics and Finance, marginal cost is the change in Total cost that arises when the quantity produced changes by one unit If the Air Force were to buy 100 more F-22s today, the cost of each one would be less and would continue to drop with additional aircraft purchases. [3]

F-22A Raptors over Utah in their first official deployment, October 2005

The F-22 is not the most expensive aircraft aloft. That distinction likely belongs to the roughly $2. 2 billion-per-unit B-2 Spirit, whose orders went from hundreds to a few dozen when the Cold War ended thus making the unit cost skyrocket, though the incremental cost was under US$1 billion. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout Cold War is the state of conflict tension and competition that existed between the United States and the Soviet Union (USSR and their respective allies from the The F-22 uses fewer radar absorbent materials than the B-2 or F-117 Nighthawk, which is expected to translate into lower maintenance costs. Radar absorbent material, or RAM, is a class of materials used in Stealth technology to disguise a vehicle or structure from radar detection

On 31 July 2007, Lockheed Martin received a multiyear contract for 60 F-22s worth a total of US$7. Events 30 BC - Battle of Alexandria: Mark Antony achieves a minor victory over Octavian 's forces but most of his army subsequently Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. 3 billion. [9][13] The contract brings the number of F-22s on order to 183 and extends production through 2011. [9] During the two-month grounding of nearly 700 older F-15s in November and December 2007, some US Senators demanded that Deputy Secretary of Defense Gordon England release three government reports that support additional F-22 Raptors beyond the planned 183 jets. Gordon Richard England ( September 15, 1937) is an American Businessman who currently serves as the United States Deputy Secretary of Defense [14] Forbes has reported that the USAF plans to extend the production of the F-22 past 2011. This is believed to be a response to the recent grounding of F-15A-D. [15] In January 2008, the Pentagon announced that it would ask Congress for funds to buy additional F-22s to replace other aircraft lost in combat, and proposed that$497 million that would have been used to shut down the F-22 line instead be used to buy four more F-22s, keeping open the production line beyond 2011 and providing the successor to President George W. Bush the option to buy even more F-22s. [2] The funds earmarked for the line shutdown, however, were directed by Pentagon Comptroller Tina W. Jonas on December 17, 2007, to be used to fund repairs to the F-15 fleet caused by the world-wide grounding of that aircraft in November 2007. This diversion had the same effect of postponing the decision to shut down the F-22 production line until at least 2009. [16][17]

### Proposed foreign purchases

Unlike many other tactical fighters, the opportunity for export is currently non-existent because the export sale of the F-22 is barred by federal law. There was a time in the 1970s when the then-new F-16 was similarly restricted. However, regardless of restrictions, very few allies would even be considered for export sale because the F-22 is such a sensitive and expensive system. Most current customers for U. S. fighters are either acquiring earlier designs like the F-15 or F-16, or else are waiting to acquire the F-35, which contains much of the F-22's technology but is designed to be cheaper and more flexible. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout

The Japanese government reportedly showed some interest in buying F-22As in its Replacement-Fighter program for its Air Self-Defense Force (JASDF). The, or JASDF, is the Aviation branch of the Japan Self-Defense Forces responsible for the defense of Japanese Airspace and other aerospace [18] In such an event, it would most likely involve a "watered-down" export variant while still retaining most of its advanced avionics and stealth characteristics. Avionics means "aviation electronics" It comprises electronic systems for use on aircraft artificial satellites and spacecraft comprising Communications Stealth technology also known as LOT (Low Observability Technology is a sub-discipline of military Electronic countermeasures which covers a range of techniques used with However, such a proposal would still need approval from the Pentagon, State Department and Congress.

Israeli Air Force (IAF) chief procurement officer Brigadier-General Ze'ev Snir said that, "The IAF would be happy to equip itself with 24 F-22s, but the problem at this time is the US refusal to sell the aircraft, and its $200 million price tag. The Israeli Air Force ( IAF; Hebrew: זרוע האויר והחלל Zroa HaAvir VeHahalal, "Air and Space Arm" commonly known as חיל "[19] Some Australian politicians and defense commentators have proposed that Australia purchase F-22s instead of the F-35. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout [20][21] In 2006, the Australian Labor Party supported this proposal on the grounds that the F-22 is a proven, highly capable aircraft, while the F-35 is still under development. [22] However, the Howard government ruled out purchase of the F-22, on the grounds that it is unlikely to be released for export, and does not have sufficient ground/maritime strike capacity. See also Howard Government John Winston Howard AC (born 26 July 1939 was the 25th Prime Minister of Australia from 11 March [23] This assessment was supported by the Australian Strategic Policy Institute, which claimed that the F-22 "has insufficient multi-role capability at too high a price. The Australian Strategic Policy Institute (ASPI is an Australian Government -funded Think tank which was established in 2001 "[24] The ASPI analysis was, however, criticized by Air Power Australia. Air Power Australia is a private non-profit Australian think tank [25] The US Congress upheld the ban on F-22 Raptor foreign sales during a joint conference on 27 September 2006. Events 489 - Odoacer attacks Theodoric at the Battle of Verona and is defeated again Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. [26] After talks in Washington in December 2006, the US DoD reported the F-22 would not be available for foreign sale. The United States Department of Defense ( DOD or DoD) is the federal department charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government [27] Following the victory of the Australian Labor Party in the 2007 national election, the new government ordered a review of plans to procure the F-35 and F/A-18E/F Super Hornet. Federal elections for the Parliament of Australia were held on Saturday 24 November 2007 after a 6-week campaign in which 13 WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout This review will include an evaluation of the F-22's suitability for Australia; moreover, Defence Minister Joel Fitzgibbon has stated: "I intend to pursue American politicians for access to the Raptor". Joel Andrew Fitzgibbon (born 16 January 1962) is the Minister for Defence in the First Rudd Ministry. [28] In February 2008, U. S. Defense Secretary Robert Gates said he had no objection to sale of the Raptor to Australia, but Congress would have to change the law. Robert Michael Gates (born September 25 1943) is currently serving as the 22nd United States Secretary of Defense. [29] ## Design ### Characteristics F-22 Raptor displaying its F119-PW-100 engines on full afterburner The F-22 is a fifth-generation fighter that is considered a fourth-generation stealth aircraft by the USAF. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout Aircraft classified as fourth generation jet fighters are those in service approximately from 1980–2010 representing the design concepts of the 1970s Stealth aircraft are Aircraft that use Stealth technology to make it harder to be detected by radar and other means than conventional aircraft by employing a [30] Its dual afterburning Pratt & Whitney F119-PW-100 turbofans incorporate thrust vectoring, but in the pitch axis only, with a range of ±20 degrees. The AfterBurner is a lighting solution for the Game Boy Advance system that was created by Triton-Labs WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout A turbofan is a type of Jet engine, similar to a Turbojet. It essentially consists of a Ducted fan with a smaller diameter turbojet engine Thrust vectoring is the ability of an Aircraft or other vehicle to direct the Thrust from its main Engine (s in a direction other than parallel to Flight dynamics is the science of air and space vehicle orientation and control in three dimensions The maximum thrust is classified, though most sources place it at about 35,000 lbf (156 kN) per engine. The United States government classification system is established under Executive Order 13292, the latest in a long series of executive This article deals with the unit of force For the unit of mass see Pound (mass. Maximum speed, without external weapons, is estimated to be Mach 1. Mach number (\mathrm{Ma} or M (generally ˈmɑːk sometimes /ˈmɑːx/ or /ˈmæk/ is the speed of an object moving through air or any Fluid 72 in supercruise mode; as demonstrated by General John P. Jumper, former US Air Force Chief of Staff, when his Raptor exceeded Mach 1. A supercruising Aircraft is able to maintain Supersonic speeds in level flight without the use of Afterburners and with a cargo/weapons load General John P Jumper is a United States Air Force officer who served as Chief of Staff of the United States Air Force from September 6, 2001 7 without afterburners on 13 January 2005. Events 532 - Nika riots in Constantinople. 888 - Odo Count of Paris becomes King of the Franks Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. [31] With afterburners, it is "greater than Mach 2. 0" (1,317 mph, 2,120 km/h), according to Lockheed Martin; however, the Raptor can easily exceed its design speed limits, particularly at low altitudes, with max-speed alerts to help prevent the pilot from exceeding them. Former Lockheed Raptor chief test pilot Paul Metz stated that the Raptor has a fixed inlet; but while the absence of variable intake ramps may theoretically make speeds greater than Mach 2. 0 unreachable, there is no evidence to prove this. Such ramps would be used to prevent engine surge resulting in a compression stall, but the intake itself may be designed to prevent this. Metz has also stated that the F-22 has a top speed greater than 1,600 mph (Mach 2. 42) and its climb rate is faster than the F-15 Eagle due to advances in engine technology, despite the F-15's thrust-to-weight ratio of about 1. 2:1, with the F-22 having a ratio closer to 1:1. [32] The US Air Force claims that the F-22A cannot be matched by any known or projected fighter. [1] Aircraft wing planform shapes: a KC-10 Extender (top) refuels an F-22 Raptor The true top-speed of the F-22 is largely unknown to the general public, as engine power is only one factor. Overview Fixed-wing aircraft range from small training and recreational aircraft to Wide-body aircraft and military cargo aircraft. A planform or Plan view is a vertical Orthographic projection of an object on a horizontal plane like a Map. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout Aerial refueling, also called air refueling, in-flight refueling ( IFR) air-to-air refueling ( AAR) or tanking, is The ability of the airframe to withstand the stress and heat from friction is a further, key factor, especially in an aircraft using as many polymers as the F-22. A polymer is a large Molecule ( Macromolecule) composed of repeating Structural units typically connected by Covalent Chemical bonds However, while some aircraft are faster on paper, the internal carriage of its standard combat load allows the aircraft to reach comparatively higher performance with a heavy load over other modern aircraft due to its lack of drag from external stores. It is one of only a handful of aircraft that can sustain supersonic flight without the use of afterburner augmented thrust (and its associated high fuel usage). For other uses see Supersonic. The term supersonic is used to define a speed that is over the Speed of sound ( Mach 1 This ability is called supercruise. A supercruising Aircraft is able to maintain Supersonic speeds in level flight without the use of Afterburners and with a cargo/weapons load The F-22 is highly maneuverable, at both supersonic and subsonic speeds. It is extremely departure-resistant,[33] enabling it to remain controllable at extreme pilot inputs. Departure resistance is a quality of an Aircraft which enables it to remain in controlled flight and resist entering dangerous uncontrolled maneuvers such as spin. The F-22's thrust vectoring nozzles allow the aircraft to turn tightly, and perform extremely high alpha (angle of attack) maneuvers such as the Herbst maneuver (or J-turn), Pugachev's Cobra,[32] and the Kulbit, though the J-Turn is more useful in combat. Angle of attack ( AOA, \alpha Greek letter alpha) is a term used in Aerodynamics to describe the Angle between the The Herbst maneuver (also known as a J-Turn) is an air combat maneuver which uses Post-stall technology such as Thrust vectoring and advanced The Pugachev's Cobra (or Pugachev Cobra) is an Aircraft cobra maneuver The " Kulbitinscy " (or simply " Kulbit " is an aerial maneuver developed by Russian pilots in which the aircraft performs an [32] The F-22 is also capable of maintaining a constant angle of attack of over 60°, yet still having some control of roll. [32][34] During June 2006 exercises in Alaska, F-22 pilots demonstrated that cruise altitude has a significant effect on combat performance, and routinely attributed their altitude advantage as a major factor in achieving an unblemished kill ratio. Alaska ( Аляска Alyaska) is a state in the United States of America, in the northwest of the North American continent [35] ### Avionics The F-22's avionics include BAE Systems E&IS radar warning receiver (RWR) AN/ALR-94,[36] and the Northrop Grumman AN/APG-77 Active Electronically Scanned Array (AESA) radar. BAE Systems Electronics & Integrated Solutions (E&IS is a major operating group of BAE Systems Inc Northrop Grumman Corporation ( is an Aerospace and defense technology company formed by the 1994 purchase of Grumman by Northrop. An Electronically Scanned Array (AESA also known as active Phased array Radar is a type of Radar whose Transmitter and The AN/APG-77 has both long-range target acquisition and low probability of interception of its own signals by enemy aircraft. The AN/ALR-94 is a passive receiver system capable of detecting the radar signals in the environment. Composed of more than 30 antennas smoothly blended into the wings and fuselage, it is described by the former head of the F-22 program at Lockheed Martin Tom Burbage as "the most technically complex piece of equipment on the aircraft. Lockheed Martin ( is a large multinational Aerospace manufacturer and advanced technology Company formed in 1995 by the merger of " With greater range (250+ nmi) than the radar, it enables the F-22 to limit its own radar emission which might otherwise compromise its stealth. A nautical mile or sea mile is a unit of Length. It corresponds approximately to one minute of Latitude along any meridian. As the target approaches, AN/ALR-94 can cue the AN/APG-77 radar to keep track of its motion with a narrow beam, which can be as focused as 2° by 2° in azimuth and elevation. [37] The AN/APG-77 AESA radar, designed for air-superiority and strike operations, features a low-observable, active-aperture, electronically-scanned array that can track multiple targets in all kinds of weather. The AN/APG-77 changes frequencies more than 1,000 times per second to reduce the chance of being intercepted. The radar can also focus its emissions to overload enemy sensors, giving the aircraft an electronic-attack capability. [38] The radar’s information is processed by two Raytheon Common Integrated Processor (CIP)s. Raytheon Company ( is a major American Defense contractor and industrial corporation with core Manufacturing concentrations in Defense systems Each CIP operates at 10. 5 billion instructions per second and has 300 megabytes of memory. Instructions per second (IPS is a measure of a Computer 's processor speed A megabyte is a unit of Information or Computer storage equal to either 106 (1000000 Bytes or 220 (1048576 bytes depending on Information can be gathered from the radar and other onboard and offboard systems, filtered by the CIP, and offered in easy-to-digest ways on several cockpit displays, enabling the pilot to remain on top of complicated situations. The Raptor’s software is composed of over 1. 7 million lines of code, most of which concerns processing data from the radar. Source lines of code ( SLOC) is a Software metric used to measure the size of a software program by counting the number of lines in the text of the program's [39] The radar has an estimated range of 125-150 miles, though planned upgrades will allow a range of 250 miles (400 km) or more in narrow beams. [35] The F-22 has several unique functions for an aircraft of its size and role. For instance, it has threat detection and identification capability along the lines of that available on the RC-135 Rivet Joint. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout [35] While the F-22's equipment isn't as powerful or sophisticated, because of its stealth, it can be typically hundreds of miles closer to the battlefield, which often compensates for the reduced capability. [35] The F-22 is capable of functioning as a "mini-AWACS. " Though reduced in capability compared to dedicated airframes such as the E-3 Sentry, as with its threat identification capability, the F-22's forward presence is often of benefit. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout [32] The system allows the F-22 to designate targets for cooperating F-15s and F-16s, and even determine if two friendly aircraft are targeting the same enemy aircraft, thus enabling one of them to choose a different target. [35][32] It is often able to identify targets hundreds of times faster than accompanying dedicated AWACS. [35] The F-22's low probability of intercept radar is being given a high-bandwidth data transmission capability, to allow it to be used in a "broadband" role to permit high-speed relaying of data between friendly transmitters and receivers in the area. [35] The F-22 can already pass data to other F-22s, resulting in considerably reduced radio "chatter. "[35] The IEEE-1394B data bus, developed for the F-22, was derived from the commercial IEEE-1394 "FireWire" bus system,[40] often used on personal computers. The IEEE 1394 interface is a serial bus Interface standard for high-speed communications and Isochronous real-time data transfer frequently The same data bus is employed by the subsequent F-35 Lightning II fighter. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout [40] ### Cockpit The F-22 cockpit is a glass cockpit design without any traditional analog flight instruments and represents a marked improvement on the cockpit design of previous advanced aircraft. When the aircraft was introduced in January 2003 the F-22 Raptor's cockpit represented a zenith in the so-called “glass-cockpit” without any traditional flight instruments A glass cockpit is an Aircraft cockpit that features electronic instrument displays. [41] The leading features of the F-22 cockpit include simple and rapid start-up, highly developed HMI, light helmet, large anthropometric accommodation and highly integrated warning system. The user interface (or Human Computer Interface) is the aggregate of means by which people&mdash the users '&mdash interact with the System [42] Other main features include the large single-piece canopy and improved life support systems. [42] ### Airframe Several small design changes were made from the YF-22A prototype to the production F-22A. The swept-back angle on the wing's leading edge was decreased from 48 degrees to 42 degrees, while the vertical stabilizer area was decreased 20%. To improve pilot visibility, the canopy was moved forward 7 inches (178 mm) and the engine intakes were moved rearward 14 inches (356 mm). The shape of the wing and stabilator trailing edges was refined to improve aerodynamics, strength, and stealth characteristics. [43] ### Armament An F-22 releases a JDAM from its internal bay while flying at supersonic speed The Raptor is designed to carry air-to-air missiles in internal bays, both to avoid disrupting its stealth capability and to reduce drag resulting in higher top speeds and longer combat ranges. Overview The JDAM is not a weapon rather it is a "bolt-on" upgrade for unguided gravity bombs installed during build up of the munition by Naval Ordnancemen or Air Force Launching missiles requires opening the weapons bay doors for less than a second, while the missiles are pushed clear of the airframe by hydraulic arms. The aircraft can also carry bombs compatible with the Joint Direct Attack Munition (JDAM) guidance system, and the new Small-Diameter Bomb (SDB). Overview The JDAM is not a weapon rather it is a "bolt-on" upgrade for unguided gravity bombs installed during build up of the munition by Naval Ordnancemen or Air Force The GBU-39 Small-Diameter Bomb ( SDB) is a 250 pound (113 kg) Guided bomb that is intended to provide Aircraft with the ability The Raptor carries an M61A2 Vulcan 20 mm rotary cannon, also with a trap door, in the right wing root. The M61 Vulcan is a 20 mm Hydraulically or Pneumatically driven six- barreled air-cooled The Gatling gun is considered by some to have been the first Machine gun: although it did not automatically reload under its own power it was capable of firing continuously The M61A2 is a last ditch weapon, and carries only 480 rounds; enough ammunition for approximately five seconds of sustained fire. Despite this, the F-22 has been able to use its gun in dogfighting without being detected, which can be necessary when missiles are depleted. [32] The Raptor's very high sustained cruise speed and operational altitude add significantly to the effective range of both air-to-air and air-to-ground munitions. These factors may be the rationale behind the USAF's decision not to pursue long-range, high-energy air-to-air missiles such as the MBDA Meteor. Meteor is an active radar guided beyond-visual-range air to air Missile (BVRAAM being developed by MBDA to equip the Eurofighter However, the USAF plans to procure the AIM-120D AMRAAM, which will have a significant increase in range compared to the AIM-120C. The AIM-120 Advanced Medium-Range Air-to-Air Missile, or AMRAAM (pronounced am-ram is a modern Beyond Visual Range (BVR air-to-air Missile The Raptor launch platform provides additional energy to the missile which helps improve the range of air-to-ground ordnance. While specific figures remain classified, it is expected that JDAMs employed by F-22s will have twice or more the effective range of munitions dropped by legacy platforms. [44] In testing, a Raptor dropped a 1,000 lb (450 kg) JDAM from 50,000 feet (15,000 m), while cruising at Mach 1. 5, striking a moving target 24 miles (39 km) away. [45] The SDB, as employed from the F-22, should see even greater increases in effective range, due to the improved lift to drag ratio of these weapons. While in its air-superiority configuration, the F-22 carries its weapons internally, though it is not limited to this option. The wings are capable of supporting four detachable hardpoints. A hardpoint is any part of an Airframe designed to carry an external load Each hardpoint is theoretically capable of handling 5,000 lb (2,300 kg) of ordnance. However, use of external stores greatly compromises the F-22's stealth, and has a detrimental effect on maneuverability, speed, and range. As many as two of these hardpoints are "plumbed", allowing the usage of external fuel tanks. The hardpoints are detachable in flight allowing the fighter to regain its stealth once these external stores are exhausted. Currently, there is research being conducted to develop a stealth ordnance pod and hardpoints for it. Such a pod would comprise a stealth shape and carry its weapons internally, then would split open when launching a missile or dropping a bomb. Both the pod and hardpoints could be detached when no longer needed. This system would allow the F-22 to carry its maximum ordnance load while remaining stealthy, albeit at a loss of maneuverability. However, there is concern over this program as external carriage of fuel tanks has shown more stress placed on the wings than originally anticipated. ### Stealth Although several recent Western fighter aircraft are less detectable on radar than previous designs using techniques such as radar absorbent material-coated S-shaped intake ducts that shield the compressor fan from reflecting radar waves, the F-22 design placed a much higher degree of importance on low observance throughout the entire spectrum of sensors including radar signature, visual, infrared, acoustic, and radio frequency. Radar absorbent material, or RAM, is a class of materials used in Stealth technology to disguise a vehicle or structure from radar detection The stealth of the F-22 is due to a combination of factors, including the overall shape of the aircraft, the use of radar absorbent material (RAM), and attention to detail such as hinges and pilot helmets that could provide a radar return. Stealth technology also known as LOT (Low Observability Technology is a sub-discipline of military Electronic countermeasures which covers a range of techniques used with [46] However, reduced radar cross section is only one of five facets that designers addressed to create a stealth design in the F-22. The F-22 has also been designed to disguise its infrared emissions to make it harder to detect by infrared homing ("heat seeking") surface-to-air or air-to-air missiles. Infrared homing refers to a passive missile guidance system which uses the emission from a target of Electromagnetic radiation in the Infrared A surface to air missile ( SAM) or ground-to-air missile ( GTAM) is a Missile designed to be launched from the ground to destroy Aircraft An air-to-air missile ( AAM) is a guided Missile fired from an Aircraft for the purpose of destroying another aircraft Designers also made the aircraft less visible to the naked eye, and controlled radio and noise emissions. [46] The Raptor has an under bay carrier made for hiding heat from missile threats, like surface-to-air missiles. [47] The F-22 apparently relies less on maintenance-intensive radar absorbent material and coatings than previous stealth designs like the F-117. These materials caused deployment problems due to their susceptibility to adverse weather conditions. [48] Unlike the B-2, which requires climate-controlled hangers, the F-22 can undergo repairs on the flight line or in a normal hangar. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout [48] Furthermore, the F-22 has a warning system (called "Signature Assessment System" or "SAS") which presents warning indicators when routine wear-and-tear have degraded the aircraft's radar signature to the point of requiring more substantial repairs. [48] The exact radar cross section of the F-22 remains classified. Radar cross section (RCS is a measure of how detectable an object is with a Radar. ### External lighting The aircraft has integral position and anti-collision lighting (including strobes) on the wings, compatible with stealth requirements, supplied by Goodrich Corporation. The low voltage electroluminescent formation lights are located on the aircraft at critical positions for night flight operations (on both sides of the forward fuselage under the chin, on the tip of the upper left and right wings, and on the outside of both vertical stabilizers). There are similar air refueling lights on the butterfly doors that cover the air refueling receptacle. [42] ## Operational history The 27th Fighter Squadron at Langley Air Force Base was the first squadron to receive the F-22 Intended to be the leading American advanced tactical fighter in the early part of the 21st century, the Raptor is an expensive fighter with an incremental cost of about US$138 million per unit. Langley Air Force Base is located three Nautical miles (6 km) north of the Central business district of the city of Hampton, Virginia The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The United States dollar ( sign: ; code: USD) is the unit of Currency of the United States; it has also been [4] The number of aircraft to be built has dropped to 183,[9] down from the initial requirement of 750. Part of the reason for the decrease in the requirement is that the F-35 Lightning II uses much of the technology used on the F-22, but at a much more affordable price. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout To a large extent the cost of these technologies is only lower for the F-35 because they have already been developed for the F-22. ### YF-22 "Lightning II" The prototype YF-22 won a fly-off competition against the Northrop/McDonnell-Douglas YF-23 for the Advanced Tactical Fighter contract. The Northrop Corporation was a leading Aircraft manufacturer of the United States from its formation in 1939 until its merger with Grumman to form Northrop Grumman McDonnell Douglas was a major American Aerospace manufacturer and Defense contractor, producing a number of famous commercial and military aircraft WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout In April 1992 during flight testing after contract award, test pilot Tom Morgenfeld escaped without injury when the first YF-22 prototype that he was flying crashed while landing at Edwards Air Force Base in California. Edwards Air Force Base is a United States Air Force base located on the border of Kern County and Los Angeles County California in the Antelope The cause of the crash was found to be a flight control software error that failed to prevent a pilot-induced oscillation. A software bug (or just “bug” is an error flaw mistake Failure, fault or “undocumented feature” in a Computer program that prevents it Pilot-induced oscillation occurs when the pilot of an Aircraft inadvertently commands an often increasing series of corrections in opposite directions each an [49] The YF-22 was a developmental aircraft that led to the F-22; however, there are significant differences between the YF-22 and the F-22. Relocation of cockpit, structural changes, and many other smaller changes exist between the two types. [50] The two are sometimes confused in pictures, often at angles where it is difficult to see certain features. For example, there are some F-22 with pitot booms which some think are only found on the YF-22. A Pitot (ˈpiːtoʊ tube is a Pressure measurement instrument used to measure Fluid flow Velocity. The YF-22 was originally given the unofficial name "Lightning II", after the WWII fighter P-38, by Lockheed, which persisted until the mid-1990s when the USAF officially named the aircraft "Raptor". World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including For a short while, the aircraft was also dubbed "SuperStar" and "Rapier". [51] The F-35 later received the Lightning II name on 7 July 2006. Events 1456 - A retrial verdict acquits Joan of Arc of heresy 25 years after her death Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. [52] ### F-22 Raptor to F/A-22 and back again The production model was formally named F-22 "Raptor" when the first production-representative aircraft was unveiled on 9 April 1997 at Lockheed-Georgia Co., Marietta, Georgia. Events 193 - Septimius Severus is proclaimed Roman Emperor by the army in Illyricum (in the Balkans) Year 1997 ( MCMXCVII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1997 Gregorian calendar Lockheed Martin ( is a large multinational Aerospace manufacturer and advanced technology Company formed in 1995 by the merger of Marietta is a City located in central Cobb County Georgia, and is its County seat. The State of Georgia ( is a state in the United States and was one of the original Thirteen Colonies that revolted against British rule First flight occurred on 7 September 1997. Events 1251 BC - A Solar eclipse on this date might mark the birth of legendary Heracles at Thebes Greece. Year 1997 ( MCMXCVII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1997 Gregorian calendar In September 2002, Air Force leaders changed the Raptor’s designation to F/A-22. The new designation, which mimicked that of the Navy’s F/A-18 Hornet, was intended to highlight plans to give the Raptor a ground-attack capability amid intense debate over the relevance of the expensive air-superiority jet. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout This was later changed back to simply F-22 on 12 December 2005. Events 627 - Battle of Nineveh: A Byzantine army under Emperor Heraclius defeats Emperor Khosrau II 's Persian Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. On 15 December 2005, the F-22A entered service. Events 533 - Byzantine general Belisarius defeats the Vandals, commanded by King Gelimer, at the Battle of Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. [53] ### Testing An F-22 refuels from a KC-135; the attachment on the back top is for a spin recovery chute Testing of the F-22 began in 1997 and has been curtailed to save program costs, but risks hiding flaws until a point at which fixing flaws becomes unaffordable. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout [54] The U. S. General Accounting Office cautioned, "Moreover, engine and stealthiness problems already disclosed by the DoD, and the potential for avionics and software problems, underscore the need to demonstrate the weapon system’s performance through flight testing before significant commitments are made to production. The Government Accountability Office ( GAO) is the Audit, Evaluation, and investigative arm of the United States Congress. "[54] Raptor 4001 was retired and sent to Wright-Patterson AFB to be fired at for testing the fighter's survivability. Wright-Patterson Air Force Base is a United States Air Force base located in Greene and Montgomery counties eight miles (13 km) northeast of Usable parts of 4001 would be used to make a new F-22. Another engineering and manufacturing development (EMD) F-22 was also retired and likely to be sent to be rebuilt. A testing aircraft was converted to a maintenance trainer at Tyndall AFB. Tyndall Air Force Base is a base of the United States Air Force located near Panama City in Bay County, Florida, United [55] On 3 May 2006, a report was released detailing a problem with a forward titanium boom on the aircraft that was not properly heat treated. Events 1491 - Kongo monarch Nkuwu Nzinga is baptised by Portuguese missionaries adopting the baptismal name of João Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Officials are still investigating the problem which was caused by the boom portion not being subjected to high temperatures in the factory for long enough, causing the boom to be less ductile than specified and potentially shortening the lives of the first 80 or so F-22s. Ductility is a mechanical property used to describe the extent to which materials can be deformed plastically or "stretched" into "wires" without Work is underway to restore them to full life expectancy. [55] The F-22 fleet underwent modifications at Hill AFB,[56] and at Edwards AFB near Palmdale, California. Hill Air Force Base is a major United States Air Force base located in northern Utah, south of the city of Ogden, adjacent to the cities of Clearfield Edwards Air Force Base is a United States Air Force base located on the border of Kern County and Los Angeles County California in the Antelope Palmdale, the first community within the Antelope Valley to incorporate as a city (on August 24, 1962 ### Recent developments An F-22 observes as an F-15 Eagle banks left. The F-22 is slated to replace the F-15C/D. In 2006, the Raptor's development team, composed of Lockheed Martin and over 1,000 other companies, plus the United States Air Force, won the Collier Trophy, American aviation's most prestigious award. The Collier Trophy is an annual Aviation award administered by the U [57] The U. S Air Force will acquire F-22s that are to be divided among seven active duty combat squadrons, and jointly flown and maintained by three integrated Reserve and Air National Guard squadrons. [3] During Exercise Northern Edge in Alaska in June 2006, 12 F-22s of the 94th FS downed 108 adversaries with no losses in simulated combat exercises. [3] In two weeks of exercises, the Raptor-led Blue Force amassed 241 kills against two losses in air-to-air combat, and neither Blue Force loss was an F-22. This was followed with the Raptor's first participation in a Red Flag exercise. RED FLAG is an advanced aerial combat training exercise hosted at Nellis Air Force Base, Nevada and Eielson Air Force Base Alaska 14 F-22s of the 94th FS supported attacking Blue Force strike packages as well as engaging in close air support sorties themselves in Red Flag 07-1 between 3 February and 16 February 2007. Events 1112 - Ramon Berenguer III of Barcelona and Douce I of Provence marry uniting the fortunes of those two states Events 1249 - Andrew of Longjumeau is dispatched by Louis IX of France as his ambassador to meet with the Khan of the Mongols Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Against designed superior numbers of Red Force Aggressor F-15s and F-16s, it established air dominance using eight aircraft during day missions and six at night, reportedly defeating the Aggressors quickly and efficiently, even though the exercise rules of engagement allowed for four to five Red Force regenerations of losses but none to Blue Force. An aggressor squadron is a Squadron that is trained to act as an Opposing force in military wargames. In Military or Police operations the rules of engagement ( ROE) determine when where and how force shall be used (for example a submarine of Further, no sorties were missed because of maintenance or other failures, and only one Raptor was adjudged lost against the virtual annihilation of the defending force. [58] When their ordnance was expended, the F-22s remained in the exercise area providing electronic surveillance to the Blue Forces. [59] While attempting its first overseas deployment to the Kadena Air Base in Okinawa, Japan, on 11 February 2007, a group of six Raptors flying from Hickam AFB experienced multiple computer crashes coincident with their crossing of the 180th meridian of longitude (the International Date Line). Kadena Air Base is a United States Air Force base located in the towns Events 660 BC - Traditional founding date of Japan by Emperor Jimmu. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. For the civil airport use of this facility see Honolulu International Airport Hickam Air Force Base is a United States Air Force base located Longitude (ˈlɒndʒɪˌtjuːd or ˈlɒŋgɪˌtjuːd symbolized by the Greek character Lambda (λ is the east-west Geographic coordinate measurement The computer failures included at least navigation (completely lost) and communication. The fighters were able to return to Hawaii by following their tankers in good weather. Aerial refueling, also called air refueling, in-flight refueling ( IFR) air-to-air refueling ( AAR) or tanking, is The error was fixed within 48 hours and the F-22s continued their journey to Kadena. [60] On 30 April 2007, the National Museum of the Air Force announced that EMD Raptor 91-4003 would be put on display later in 2007[61] in the space being occupied by the YF-22. Events 313 - Roman emperor Licinius unifies the entire Eastern Roman Empire under his rule Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. The Museum publicly unveiled its Raptor 91-4003 display on January 18, 2008. Events 350 - Generallus Magnentius deposes Roman Emperor Constans and proclaims himself Emperor 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common [62] In 2007, tests carried out by Northrop Grumman, Lockheed Martin, and L-3 Communications enabled the AESA system of a Raptor to act like a WiFi access point, able to transmit data at 548 Megabit/sec and receive at Gigabit speed; far faster than the current Link 16 system used by US and allied aircraft, which transfers data at just over 1 Megabit/sec. Northrop Grumman Corporation ( is an Aerospace and defense technology company formed by the 1994 purchase of Grumman by Northrop. Lockheed Martin ( is a large multinational Aerospace manufacturer and advanced technology Company formed in 1995 by the merger of Not to be confused with Level 3 Communications, an Internet carrier L-3 Communications Holdings Inc An Electronically Scanned Array (AESA also known as active Phased array Radar is a type of Radar whose Transmitter and Wi-Fi (ˈwaɪfaɪ is the trade name for the popular wireless technology used A megabit is a unit of Information or computer storage abbreviated Mbit (or Mb) A gigabit is a unit of information or computer storage abbreviated Gbit (or Gb) Link 16 is a Military inter-computer Data exchange format of NATO, the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation [63] On 22 November 2007, F-22A Raptors of the 90th Fighter Squadron performed their first intercept of two Russian Tu-95MS 'Bear-H' bombers in Alaska. Events 498 - Kofi Aseidu- After the death of Anastasius II, Symmachus is elected Pope in the Lateran Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout This was the first time that F-22s had been called to support a NORAD mission. [64] On 12 December 2007, Gen. Events 627 - Battle of Nineveh: A Byzantine army under Emperor Heraclius defeats Emperor Khosrau II 's Persian Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. John D.W. Corley, commander of Air Combat Command, officially declared the F-22s of the integrated active duty 1st Fighter Wing and Air National Guard 192nd FW fully operational, three years after the first Raptor arrived at Langley Air Force Base. General John D W Corley, USAF is the current Commander Air Combat Command, with headquarters at Langley Air Force Base Va Air Combat Command ( ACC) is a major command (MAJCOM of the United States Air Force. [65][66] This was followed from 13 April to 19 April 2008 by an Operational Readiness Inspection (ORI) of the integrated wing in which it received an "excellent" rating in all categories while scoring a simulated kill-ratio of 221-0. Events 1111 - Henry V is crowned Holy Roman Emperor. 1204 - The Fourth Crusade sacks Constantinople Events 1012 - Martyrdom of Alphege in Greenwich London. 1529 - At the Second Diet of Speyer 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common [67] ## Variants Under the Navalized Advanced Tactical Fighter (NATF) program, a carrier-borne variant of the F-22 with swing-wings was proposed for the U.S. Navy to replace the F-14 Tomcat, though the program was subsequently cancelled in 1993. A Variable-sweep wing is an Aeroplane Wing that may be swept back and then returned to its original position during flight A two-seat F-22B trainer variant was planned, but was cut in 1996 to save development costs. [68] Another more recent proposal is the FB-22, which would be used as a deep strike bomber for the USAF, but there has yet to be any word on whether the USAF plans further development of the program. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout Also, the X-44 MANTA, short for multi-axis, no-tail aircraft, was a planned experimental aircraft based on the F-22 with enhanced thrust vectoring controls and no aerodynamic backup (i. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout Thrust vectoring is the ability of an Aircraft or other vehicle to direct the Thrust from its main Engine (s in a direction other than parallel to e. the aircraft is controlled solely by thrust vectoring, without rudders, ailerons, or elevators). Funding for the program was halted in 2000. [69] ## Operators • Air Education and Training Command • 325th Fighter Wing, Tyndall Air Force Base, Florida • 43d Fighter Squadron - The only USAF squadron to operate F-22As at Tyndall AFB, Florida. Air Education and Training Command ( AETC) was established July 1 1993 with the realignment of Air Training Command and Air University. The 325th Fighter Wing ( 325 FW) is a wing of the United States Air Force based out of Tyndall Air Force Base, Florida. Tyndall Air Force Base is a base of the United States Air Force located near Panama City in Bay County, Florida, United The 43d Fighter Squadron ( 43 FS) is part of the 325th Fighter Wing at Tyndall Air Force Base, Florida. Tyndall Air Force Base is a base of the United States Air Force located near Panama City in Bay County, Florida, United The 43d was re-established at Tyndall in 2002, and, in 2003, with a corps of 15 Raptor Instructor Pilots, began training student Raptor pilots. The 43d continues to produce new Raptor pilots and serves as the focal point for all F-22 training of pilots and maintainers. [70] • Air Combat Command • 1st Fighter Wing, Langley Air Force Base, Virginia. Air Combat Command ( ACC) is a major command (MAJCOM of the United States Air Force. The 1st Fighter Wing ( 1 FW) is an air combat unit of the United States Air Force and the host unit at Langley Air Force Base, Virginia. Langley Air Force Base is located three Nautical miles (6 km) north of the Central business district of the city of Hampton, Virginia • 27th Fighter Squadron - The first combat F-22 squadron. Began conversion in December 2005 after receiving sufficient numbers of trained Raptor pilots and flew the first F-22A operational mission (January 2006 in support of Operation Noble Eagle). Operation Noble Eagle (ONE is a North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD initiative to aid in the defense of North American skies [71] • 94th Fighter Squadron - Full complement as of 19 January 2007. Events 1419 - Hundred Years' War: Rouen surrenders to Henry V of England completing his reconquest of Normandy. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. [71] • 49th Fighter Wing, Holloman AFB, New Mexico. The 49th Fighter Wing ( 49 FW) is a wing of the United States Air Force based at Holloman Air Force Base, New Mexico. Holloman Air Force Base is a United States Air Force base located six miles (10 km) southwest of the Central business district of Alamogordo [72] • 53d Wing, Eglin Air Force Base, Florida. The 7th Fighter Squadron ( 7 FS) is part of the 49th Fighter Wing at Holloman Air Force Base, New Mexico. The 53d Wing ( 53 WG) is a wing of the United States Air Force based out of Eglin Air Force Base, Florida. Eglin Air Force Base is a United States Air Force base located southwest of Valparaiso in Okaloosa County, Florida, United States • 422d Test and Evaluation Squadron - The "Green Bats" are responsible for operational testing, tactics development and evaluation for the F-22. [73] • Air Force Material Command • 412th Flight Test Squadron - Conducts developmental tests of F-22 enhancements and modernization. Air Force Materiel Command (AFMC is a major command of the United States Air Force. • Pacific Air Forces • 3d Wing, Elmendorf Air Force Base, Alaska. Elmendorf Air Force Base is a United States Air Force base adjacent to Anchorage, the largest city in Alaska. • 90th Fighter Squadron - Converted from F-15Es to F-22s; first F-22A arrived 8 August 2007. The 90th Fighter Squadron ( 90 FS) is part of the 3d Wing at Elmendorf Air Force Base, Alaska. Events 1220 - Sweden is defeated by Estonian tribes in the Battle of Lihula. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. [74][75] • 525th Fighter Squadron - Activated on 30 October 2007 - second of two active duty F-22 squadrons in the 3d Wing. Events 637 - Antioch surrenders to the Muslim forces under Rashidun Caliphate after the Battle of Iron bridge. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. • 477th Fighter Group, Elmendorf Air Force Base, Alaska. The 477th Fighter Group is the Air Force Reserve Command 's first F-22A Raptor unit Elmendorf Air Force Base is a United States Air Force base adjacent to Anchorage, the largest city in Alaska. (Air Force Reserve Command). Jointly flies and maintains aircraft assigned to the 3rd Wing. • 302d Fighter Squadron - Converted from F-16s at Luke Air Force Base and moved to Elmendorf AFB. The 302d Fighter Squadron ( 302 FS) is part of the 477th Fighter Group at Elmendorf Air Force Base, Alaska. Luke Air Force Base is a United States Air Force base located seven miles (11 km west of the Central business district of Glendale, in Maricopa County • Air National Guard • 192d Fighter Wing - Virginia Air National Guard. The Air National Guard ( ANG), often referred to as the Air Guard, is the air force militia organized by each of the several states and The United States Air Force 's 192d Fighter Wing is a fighter organization of the Virginia Air National Guard located at Langley Air Force Base, Virginia • 149th Fighter Squadron - Transitioned from F-16s and moved from Richmond International Airport, Richmond, VA to Langley AFB, Virginia. Richmond International Airport is a public Airport located in Sandston, Virginia, an Unincorporated community This article is about the city of Richmond the capital of the Commonwealth of Virginia. Jointly flies and maintains aircraft assigned to the 1st Fighter Wing. Future bases and units will include: • 154th Wing, Hickam AFB, Hawaii. For the civil airport use of this facility see Honolulu International Airport Hickam Air Force Base is a United States Air Force base located (2009/2010) • 199th Fighter Squadron Hawaii Air National Guard squadron to jointly fly and maintain 531st FS aircraft. • 531st Fighter Squadron, Hickam AFB, Hawaii. For the civil airport use of this facility see Honolulu International Airport Hickam Air Force Base is a United States Air Force base located ## Specifications (F-22 Raptor) Data from USAF,[1] F-22 Raptor Team web site,[76] Lockheed Martin,[77] Aviation Week,[35] and Journal of Electronic Defense[37] General characteristics • Crew: 1 • Length: 62 ft 1 in (18. Aviation Week & Space Technology, often abbreviated Aviation Week or AW&ST, is a weekly Magazine. A foot (plural feet or foot; symbol or abbreviation ft or sometimes &prime – the prime symbol) is a non-SI unit Inches redirects here To see the Les Savy Fav album see Inches. 90 m) • Wingspan: 44 ft 6 in (13. The wingspan (or just span) of an airplane or a Bird, is the distance from the left wingtip to the right wingtip 56 m) • Height: 16 ft 8 in (5. 08 m) • Wing area: 840 ft² (78. 04 m²) • Airfoil: NACA 64A?05.92 root, NACA 64A?04. An airfoil (in American English) or aerofoil (in British English) is the shape of a Wing or blade (of a Propeller, rotor The NACA airfoils are Airfoil shapes for aircraft wings developed by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA 29 tip • Empty weight: 31,670 lb (14,365 kg) • Loaded weight: 55,352 lb (25,107 kg) • Max takeoff weight: 80,000 lb (36,288 kg) • Powerplant:Pratt & Whitney F119-PW-100 Pitch Thrust vectoring turbofans, 35,000+ lb (156+ kN) each Performance • Maximum speed: • At altitude: Mach 2+[78][79] (1,325+ mph, 2,132+ km/h) • Supercruise: Mach 1. The pound or pound-mass (abbreviation lb, lbm, or sometimes in the United States #) is a unit of Mass The Maximum Takeoff Weight or Maximum Takeoff Mass of an Aircraft is the maximum weight at which the pilot of the aircraft is allowed to attempt to take off WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout A turbofan is a type of Jet engine, similar to a Turbojet. It essentially consists of a Ducted fan with a smaller diameter turbojet engine In Aviation, V-speeds or Velocity-speeds are standard terms used to define Airspeeds important or useful to the operation of Aircraft, such Mach number (\mathrm{Ma} or M (generally ˈmɑːk sometimes /ˈmɑːx/ or /ˈmæk/ is the speed of an object moving through air or any Fluid A supercruising Aircraft is able to maintain Supersonic speeds in level flight without the use of Afterburners and with a cargo/weapons load 72 (1,140 mph, 1,825 km/h)[1][76] at altitude • Range: 1,600 nmi (1,840 mi, 2,960 km) with 2 external fuel tanks • Combat radius: 410 nmi[76] (471 mi, 759 km) • Ferry range: 2,000 mi (1,738 nmi, 3,219 km) • Service ceiling 65,000 ft (19,812 m) • Wing loading: 66 lb/ft² (322 kg/m²) • Thrust/weight: 1. The maximal total range is the distance an Aircraft can fly between Takeoff and Landing, as limited by fuel capacity in powered aircraft or cross-country For Aircraft, ferry range means the maximum range the aircraft can fly A mile is a unit of Length, usually used to measure Distance, in a number of different systems including Imperial units United States A nautical mile or sea mile is a unit of Length. It corresponds approximately to one minute of Latitude along any meridian. In Aeronautics, a ceiling is the maximum Density altitude an aircraft can reach under a set of conditions In Aerodynamics, wing loading is the loaded weight of the aircraft divided by the area of the wing Thrust-to-weight ratio is as its name suggests the ratio of instantaneous Thrust to Weight (where weight means weight at the Earth ’s surface 26 • Maximum g-load: -3. 5/+9. 5 g USAF poster overview of key features and armament Armament • Note: It is estimated that the internal bays can carry about 2,000 lb (910 kg) worth of bombs, and/or missiles. The M61 Vulcan is a 20 mm Hydraulically or Pneumatically driven six- barreled air-cooled The Gatling gun is considered by some to have been the first Machine gun: although it did not automatically reload under its own power it was capable of firing continuously The AIM-120 Advanced Medium-Range Air-to-Air Missile, or AMRAAM (pronounced am-ram is a modern Beyond Visual Range (BVR air-to-air Missile The AIM-9 Sidewinder is a heat-seeking, short-range Air-to-air missile carried by Fighter aircraft and recently certain gunship helicopters The AIM-120 Advanced Medium-Range Air-to-Air Missile, or AMRAAM (pronounced am-ram is a modern Beyond Visual Range (BVR air-to-air Missile The AIM-9 Sidewinder is a heat-seeking, short-range Air-to-air missile carried by Fighter aircraft and recently certain gunship helicopters Overview The JDAM is not a weapon rather it is a "bolt-on" upgrade for unguided gravity bombs installed during build up of the munition by Naval Ordnancemen or Air Force The Wind Corrected Munitions Dispenser system is a tail kit for use with the TMD (Tactical Munitions Dispenser family of Cluster bombs to convert them to Precision-guided The GBU-39 Small-Diameter Bomb ( SDB) is a 250 pound (113 kg) Guided bomb that is intended to provide Aircraft with the ability Four external hardpoints can be fitted to carry weapons or fuel tanks, each with a capacity of about 5,000 lb (2268 kg). Avionics ## Popular culture The F-22 has been featured in numerous books, such as Tom Clancy's Debt of Honor (1994)[80] and Fighter Wing (1995)[81] as well as Clive Cussler's Dark Watch (2005). A nautical mile or sea mile is a unit of Length. It corresponds approximately to one minute of Latitude along any meridian. Radar is a system that uses electromagnetic waves to identify the range altitude direction or speed of both moving and fixed objects such as Aircraft, ships Thomas Leo Clancy Jr (born April 12 1947) is an American author best known for his technically detailed espionage and Military science storylines Debt of Honor ( 1994) is a Novel by Tom Clancy. It is a continuation of the series featuring his character Jack Ryan. [82] The F-22 made its first major Hollywood debut in the 2007 film Transformers[83] as the form taken by the Decepticon character Starscream in addition to numerous USAF fighters that engaged during the initial and climactic battles. Transformers is a 2007 Live-action Film adaptation of the ''Transformers'' franchise, directed by Michael Bay and "Deceptacon" redirects here but is also the name of a song by the group Le Tigre. Starscream The movie crew was allowed to film actual Raptors in flight, unlike previous computer-generated appearances, because of the military's support of director Michael Bay. The term computer-generated most often refers to a sound or visual that has been created in whole or in part with the aid of Computer software. Michael Benjamin Bay (born February 17, 1965) is an American Film director and producer. The Raptors were filmed at Edwards Air Force Base. Edwards Air Force Base is a United States Air Force base located on the border of Kern County and Los Angeles County California in the Antelope [84] ## See also Related development Comparable aircraft Related lists ## References ### Notes 1. ^ a b c d e f F-22 Raptor fact sheet, USAF, April 2008. The Advanced Tactical Fighter (ATF contract was a demonstration and validation program undertaken by the United States Air Force to develop a next-generation Aircraft classified as fourth generation jet fighters are those in service approximately from 1980–2010 representing the design concepts of the 1970s WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout A fighter aircraft is a Military aircraft designed primarily for air-to-air combat with other Aircraft, as opposed to a Bomber, which is designed This is a list of aircraft produced or proposed by the Lockheed Aircraft Corporation from its founding as the Lockheed Aircraft Company in 1926 to its merging with Martin Marietta This list of military aircraft of the United States includes prototype pre-production and operational types 2. ^ a b Sevastopulo, Demetri. "Lockheed Martin given F-22 reprieve." Financial Times 17 January 2008. Events 38 BC - Octavian marries Livia Drusilla. 1287 - King Alfonso III of Aragon invades Minorca 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Retrieved: 2 February 2008. Events 962 - Translatio imperii: Pope John XII crowns Otto I Holy Roman Emperor, the first Holy Roman Emperor 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common 3. ^ a b c d e Lopez, C. T. "F-22 excels at establishing air dominance." Air Force Print News, 23 June 2006. Events 1180 - First Battle of Uji, starting the Genpei War in Japan 1305 - The Flemish Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. 4. ^ a b c d "FY 2009 Budget Estimates." p. 1–13. United States Air Force. February 2008. 5. ^ Houston, A. "Strategic Insight 9 - Is the JSF good enough?." Canberra:Australian Strategic Policy Institute, 18 August 2004. The Australian Strategic Policy Institute (ASPI is an Australian Government -funded Think tank which was established in 2001 Events 293 BC - The oldest known Roman temple to Venus is founded starting the institution of Vinalia Rustica. "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again " 6. ^ Pearlstein, Steven and Gellman, Barton. Steven Pearlstein is an American columnist He writes a column on Business and the Economy that is published twice weekly in The Washington Post "Lockheed Wins Huge Jet Contract; Air Force Plans to Buy 650 Stealth Planes At100 Million Each. " Washington Post, 24 April 1991. Events 1479 BC - Thutmose III ascends to the throne of Egypt, although power effectively shifts to Hatshepsut (according to Year 1991 ( MCMXCI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar.
7. ^ Nevada crash grounds F-22 fighters
8. ^ Pike, J. "F-22 Raptor Flight Test." GlobalSecurity.org. GlobalSecurityorg, launched in 2000 is a Public policy organization whose mission is to be a reliable source of background information and developing News stories
9. ^ a b c d "Lockheed Martin Awarded Additional \$5 Billion in Multiyear Contract to Build 60 F-22 Raptors", Aviation Today, 31 July 2007. Events 30 BC - Battle of Alexandria: Mark Antony achieves a minor victory over Octavian 's forces but most of his army subsequently Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century.
10. ^ Shamim, Asif. "Lockheed Martin delivers 100th F-22 to the USAF." F-16. net, 29 August 2007. Events 708 - Copper coins are minted in Japan for the first time (Traditional Japanese date: August 10, 708) Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Access date: 26 October 2007. Events 740 - An Earthquake strikes Constantinople, causing much damage and death Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century.
11. ^ "Sticker Shock: Estimating the Real Cost of Modern Fighter Aircraft" p. 2. Defense-Aerospace. com, July 2006.
12. ^ "Defense Acquisitions: Assessments of Selected Major Weapon Programs," p. 59. Government Accountability Office, 31 March 2006. Events 307 - After divorcing his wife Minervina, Constantine marries Fausta, the daughter of the retired Roman Emperor Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Retrieved: 2 February 2008. Events 962 - Translatio imperii: Pope John XII crowns Otto I Holy Roman Emperor, the first Holy Roman Emperor 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common
13. ^ US Department of Defense contracts, 31 July 2007. Events 30 BC - Battle of Alexandria: Mark Antony achieves a minor victory over Octavian 's forces but most of his army subsequently Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century.
14. ^ "Senators demand more F-22 fighters", Yahoo news, 9 November 2007. Events 694 - Egica, a king of the Visigoths of Hispania, accuses Jews of aiding Muslims sentencing all Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century.
15. ^ "Pentagon Plans for more F-22s", Forbes, 7 December 2007. Events 43 BC - Marcus Tullius Cicero assassinated 1696 - Connecticut Route 108, one of the oldest highways Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century.
16. ^ [1], Bloomberg. com
17. ^ "Washington Watch: The Fighter Dilemma" p. 12. AIR FORCE Magazine February 2008.
18. ^ Bennet, J. T. "Air Force Plans to Sell F-22As to Allies." InsideDefense. com, 18 February 2006. Events 3102 BC - Epoch (origin of the Kali Yuga. 1229 - The Sixth Crusade: Frederick II Holy Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar.
19. ^ Defense Industry Daily, "Israel Plans to Buy Over 100 F-35s" (June 27, 2006)
20. ^ Carmen, G. "Rapped in the Raptor: why Australia must have the best." The Age, 2 October 2006. The Age is a Broadsheet daily Newspaper, which has been published in Melbourne, Australia since 1854 Events 1187 - Siege of Jerusalem: Saladin captures Jerusalem after 88 years of Crusader rule Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar.
21. ^ Dr Carlo Kopp "Is The Joint Strike Fighter Right For Australia?" Air Power Australia
22. ^ Beazley, K.. Air Power Australia is a private non-profit Australian think tank For Kim Beazley's father Kim Beazley senior, see Kim Edward Beazley. "Media Statement." Australian Labor Party, 26 June 2006. Events 363 - Roman Emperor Julian is killed during the retreat from the Sassanid Empire. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar.
23. ^ Landers, K. "Australia to buy 100 Lockheed jet fighters." The World Today, 27 June 2006. Events 1358 - Republic of Dubrovnik is founded 1709 - Peter the Great defeats Charles XII of Sweden Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar.
24. ^ Brogo, A. "A Big Deal: Australia's future air combat capability." p. 62. Australian Strategic Policy Institute (Canberra), 25 February 2004. The Australian Strategic Policy Institute (ASPI is an Australian Government -funded Think tank which was established in 2001 Events 138 - The Emperor Hadrian adopts Antoninus Pius, effectively making him his successor "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again "
25. ^ Dr Carlo Kopp, Peter Goon "Is the JSF Really Good Enough?" Air Power Australia
26. ^ Bruno, M. Air Power Australia is a private non-profit Australian think tank "Appropriators Approve F-22A Multiyear, But Not Foreign Sales." Aerospace Daily & Defense Report. 27 September 2006. Events 489 - Odoacer attacks Theodoric at the Battle of Verona and is defeated again Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar.
27. ^ Stewart, C. "US rules out deal on F-22 Raptor fighter jets." News. com. au. Retrieved: 14 February 2007. Events 842 - Charles the Bald and Louis the German swear the Oaths of Strasbourg in the French and German Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century.
28. ^ Govindasamy, Siva. "Australia to weigh Lockheed Martin F-22 against Russian fighters." Reed Business Information, Flightglobal. com, 10 January 2008. Events 49 BC - Julius Caesar crosses the Rubicon, signaling the start of civil war. 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Retrieved: 2 February 2008. Events 962 - Translatio imperii: Pope John XII crowns Otto I Holy Roman Emperor, the first Holy Roman Emperor 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common
29. ^ International Herald Tribune, "Australian minister says he wants option to buy US F-22 Raptor", February 23, 2006
30. ^ Carlson, Maj. Gen. Bruce. "Subject: Stealth Fighters." U. S. Department of Defense Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Public Affairs) News Transcript. Retrieved: 16 July 2007. Events 622 - The beginning of the Islamic calendar. 1054 - Three Roman legates fractured relations between the Western and Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century.
31. ^ Powell, 2nd Lt. William "General Jumper qualifies in F/A-22 Raptor" Air Force Link, 13 January 2005. Events 532 - Nika riots in Constantinople. 888 - Odo Count of Paris becomes King of the Franks Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
32. ^ a b c d e f g Fulghum, D. A. and Fabey, M. J. "Turn and Burn. " Aviation Week & Space Technology. Aviation Week & Space Technology, often abbreviated Aviation Week or AW&ST, is a weekly Magazine. 8 January 2007. Events 871 - Battle of Ashdown - Ethelred of Wessex defeats a Danish invasion army Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. [2].
33. ^ Code One Magazine: F-22 Pilot Perspective
34. ^ Peron, L. R. "F-22 Initial High Angle-of-Attack Flight Results."(Abstract) Air Force Flight Test Center. Edwards Air Force Base is a United States Air Force base located on the border of Kern County and Los Angeles County California in the Antelope
35. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Fulghum, D. A and Fabey, M. J. ""F-22: Unseen and Lethal: Raptor Scores in Alaskan Exercise." (online edition) Aviation Week & Space Technology. Aviation Week & Space Technology, often abbreviated Aviation Week or AW&ST, is a weekly Magazine. 8 January 2007. Events 871 - Battle of Ashdown - Ethelred of Wessex defeats a Danish invasion army Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century.
36. ^ Klass, Philip J. "Sanders Will Give BAE Systems Dominant Role in Airborne EW. " Aviation Week & Space TechnologyVolume 153, issue 5, 31 July 2000. Aviation Week & Space Technology, often abbreviated Aviation Week or AW&ST, is a weekly Magazine. Events 30 BC - Battle of Alexandria: Mark Antony achieves a minor victory over Octavian 's forces but most of his army subsequently 2000 ( MM) was a Leap year that started on Saturday of the Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. p. 74.
37. ^ a b c Sweetman 2000. p. 41–47.
38. ^ JSF-Raptor Radar Can Fry Enemy Sensors
39. ^ Pike, J. "F-22 Avionics." GlobalSecurity.org. GlobalSecurityorg, launched in 2000 is a Public policy organization whose mission is to be a reliable source of background information and developing News stories
40. ^ a b Philips, E. H. "The Electric Jet. " Aviation Week & Space Technology. Aviation Week & Space Technology, often abbreviated Aviation Week or AW&ST, is a weekly Magazine. 5 February 2007. Events 1576 - Henry of Navarre converts to Roman Catholicism in order to ensure his right to the throne of France. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century.
41. ^ Williams 2002, p. 10.
42. ^ a b c F-22 Raptor Cockpit, GlobalSecurity. org
43. ^ Pace 2002, p. 12–13.
44. ^ "USAF Almanac. " AIR FORCE Magazine May 2006.
45. ^ "U.S. orders two dozen raptors for 2010." United Press International, 22 November 2006. Events 498 - Kofi Aseidu- After the death of Anastasius II, Symmachus is elected Pope in the Lateran Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar.
46. ^ a b "F-22 Stealth." Globalsecurity.org. GlobalSecurityorg, launched in 2000 is a Public policy organization whose mission is to be a reliable source of background information and developing News stories Retrieved: 21 February 2007. Events 362 - Athanasius returns to Alexandria. 1245 - Thomas, the first known Bishop of Finland Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century.
47. ^ F-22 team, responsibilities
48. ^ a b c Fulghum, D. A. "Away Game. " Aviation Week & Space Technology. Aviation Week & Space Technology, often abbreviated Aviation Week or AW&ST, is a weekly Magazine. 8 January 2007. Events 871 - Battle of Ashdown - Ethelred of Wessex defeats a Danish invasion army Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century.
49. ^ F-22 Timeline
50. ^ "YF-22/F-22A comparison diagram". GlobalSecurity.org. GlobalSecurityorg, launched in 2000 is a Public policy organization whose mission is to be a reliable source of background information and developing News stories
51. ^ Military Aircraft Names
52. ^ "Lockheed Martin Joint Strike Fighter Officially Named 'Lightning II.'" Official Joint Strike Fighter program office press release. 7 July 2006. Events 1456 - A retrial verdict acquits Joan of Arc of heresy 25 years after her death Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar.
53. ^ "U.S. To Declare F-22 Fighter Operational." Agence France-Presse, 15 December 2005. Agence France-Presse ( AFP) is the oldest News agency in the world and one of the three largest with Associated Press and Reuters. Events 533 - Byzantine general Belisarius defeats the Vandals, commanded by King Gelimer, at the Battle of Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
54. ^ a b "Tactical Aircraft: Concurrency in Development and Production of F-22 Aircraft Should Be Reduced." General Accounting Office. The Government Accountability Office ( GAO) is the Audit, Evaluation, and investigative arm of the United States Congress. April, 1995.
55. ^ a b "Tyndall AFB receives F-22 maintenance trainer." 325th Fighter Wing Public Affairs. The 325th Fighter Wing ( 325 FW) is a wing of the United States Air Force based out of Tyndall Air Force Base, Florida. 29 April 2006. Events 1429 - Joan of Arc arrives to relieve the Siege of Orleans. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar.
56. ^ "Hill begins modifications on F-22A Raptor."
57. ^ "F-22 Raptor Wins 2006 Collier Trophy." National Aeronautic Association.
58. ^ The F-22 was "lost" when its victim exited the area, regenerated, and immediately reentered the engagement, with the Raptor pilot erroneously assuming it was still "dead".
59. ^ "Aerospace World: Red Flag Raptors" Air Force Magazine May 2007. Retrieved: 9 February 2008. Events 474 - Zeno crowned as co-emperor of the Byzantine Empire. 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common
60. ^ "Lockheed's F-22 Raptor Gets Zapped by International Date Line: Raptors arrive at Kadena." Daily Tech, 26 February 2007. Events 747 BC - Epoch (origin of Ptolemy 's Nabonassar Era 364 - Valentinian I is proclaimed Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century.
61. ^ "Museum adds the world's first stealthy air dominance fighter to collection"
62. ^ "Museum unveils F-22 public display." U. S. Air Force, 18 January 2008. Events 350 - Generallus Magnentius deposes Roman Emperor Constans and proclaims himself Emperor 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common
63. ^ "F-22 superjets could act as flying Wi-Fi hotspots." The Register.
64. ^ "Raptors Perform First Intercept of Russian Bombers."
65. ^ "US Air Force: Raptor Stealth Fighter Jet Fully Operational."
66. ^ "F-22s at Langley receive FOC status."
67. ^ Langley earns "excellent' in ORI
68. ^ Pace 1999, p. 28.
69. ^ "X-Planes Explained", NASAExplores
70. ^ "F/A-22 Raptor arrives at Tyndall.". Retrieved: 20 January 2007. Events 250 - Emperor Decius begins a widespread persecution of Christians in Rome. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century.
71. ^ a b "Langley receives last Raptor, completes fleet.". Retrieved: 25 March 2008. Events 1199 - Richard I is wounded by a crossbow bolt while fighting France which leads to his death on April 6. 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common
72. ^ Lockheed Martin Press Release June 6, 2008
73. ^ "F-22A Raptor goes operational.". Retrieved: 25 March 2008. Events 1199 - Richard I is wounded by a crossbow bolt while fighting France which leads to his death on April 6. 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common
74. ^ "Lockheed Martin F-22 Raptor Air Dominance Fighters Begin Operational Service In Alaska." Lockheed Martin, 8 August 2007. Events 1220 - Sweden is defeated by Estonian tribes in the Battle of Lihula. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century.
75. ^ "Elmendorf welcomes F-22 Raptor.", USAF Press, 8 August 2007. Events 1220 - Sweden is defeated by Estonian tribes in the Battle of Lihula. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century.
76. ^ a b c "Flight Test Data." F-22 Raptor team. Retrieved: 18 April 2006. Events 1025 - Bolesław Chrobry is crowned in Gniezno, becoming the first King of Poland. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar.
77. ^ F-22 Raptor Specifications, Lockheed Martin. Retrieved: 24 April 2008. Events 1479 BC - Thutmose III ascends to the throne of Egypt, although power effectively shifts to Hatshepsut (according to 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common
78. ^ Pace 1999
79. ^ USAF F-22 Fact sheet on Archive.org, June 2007.
80. ^ Clancy, Tom. Debt of Honor. Thorndike, Maine: Thorndike Press, 1994. ISBN 0-7862-0335-8. A lengthy mission by F-22s dominates the last part of the book.
81. ^ Clancy, Tom. Fighter Wing: A Guided Tour of an Air Force Combat Wing. New York: Berkley Books, 1995. ISBN 0-425-14957-9. The F-22 features as a major new combat aircraft in the non-fiction book.
82. ^ Cussler, Clive. Dark Watch. New York: Berkley Books, 2005. ISBN 0-425-20559-2. In the book, an F-22 embarks on a secret mission to take out a Syrian foe.
83. ^ Miles, Donna. "Movie makers team with military to create realism." American Forces Press Service, 21 June 2007. Events 524 - Godomar, King of the Burgundians defeats the Franks at the Battle of Vézeronce. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century.
84. ^ Michael Bay's DVD audio commentary for Transformers, 2007, Paramount/DreamWorks

### Bibliography

• Crosby, Francis. Michael Benjamin Bay (born February 17, 1965) is an American Film director and producer. On disc based video formats an audio commentary is an additional audio track consisting of a lecture or comments by one or more speakers that plays in real time with video Transformers is a 2007 Live-action Film adaptation of the ''Transformers'' franchise, directed by Michael Bay and DreamWorks LLC, also known as DreamWorks Pictures, DreamWorks SKG, or DreamWorks Studios, is a major American Film studio Fighter Aircraft. London: Lorenz Books, 2002. ISBN 0-7548-0990-0.
• Miller, Jay. Lockheed Martin's Skunk Works: The Official History. . . (updated edition). Leicester, UK: Midland Publishing Ltd. , 1995. ISBN 1-85780-037-0.
• Pace, Steve. F-22 Raptor. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1999. ISBN 0-07-134271-0.
• Pace, Steve. X-Fighters: USAF Experimental and Prototype Fighters, XP-59 to YF-23. Oscela, Wisconsin: Motorbooks International, 1991. ISBN 0-87938-540-5.
• Sweetman, Bill. "Fighter EW: The Next Generation. " Journal of Electronic Defense, Volume 23, issue 7, July 2000.
• Williams, Mel, ed. Superfighters: The Next Generation of Combat Aircraft. London: AIRtime Publishing Inc. , 2002. ISBN 1-880588-53-6.