Ezra Pound in 1913
|Born||30 October 1885|
Hailey, Idaho Territory, United States
|Died||1 November 1972 (aged 87)|
Ezra Weston Loomis Pound (Hailey, Idaho Territory, United States, October 30, 1885 – Venice, Italy, November 1, 1972) was an American expatriate poet, critic and intellectual who was a major figure of the Modernist movement in the first half of the 20th century. Events 637 - Antioch surrenders to the Muslim forces under Rashidun Caliphate after the Battle of Iron bridge. Year 1885 ( MDCCCLXXXV) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Hailey is a city and the County seat of Blaine County in the Wood River Valley of the central part of the U Idaho Territory was an Organized territory of the United States which existed from 1863 to 1890 The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Events 996 - Emperor Otto III issues a deed to Gottschalk Bishop of Freising which is the oldest known document using the name Ostarrîchi Year 1972 ( MCMLXXII) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Venice ( Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venesia or Venexia) is a city in Northern Italy, the capital of the Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Employment is a Contract between two parties, one being the employer and the other being the employee. A poet is a person who writes Poetry. Etymology From the Ancient greek: ποιέω, poieō: "I make or compose" Literary criticism is the study discussion evaluation and interpretation of Literature. Guido Cavalcanti (c 1255 – August 1300 was an Italian Poet who was a role model for and a very close friend of Dante. Confucius ( lit " Master Kung " September 28, 551 BC - 479 BC) was a Chinese thinker and social philosopher Arnaut Daniel de Riberac (today Arnaut Danièl) was an Occitan Troubadour of the 12th century praised by Dante as " il miglior fabbro Major C H (Clifford Hugh Douglas MIMechE MIEE ( January 20 1879 &ndash September 29 1952), was a British Engineer and pioneer Ernest Francisco Fenollosa (February 18 1853 – September 21 1908 was an American professor of Philosophy and Political economy at Tokyo Imperial University Ford Madox Ford ( December 17, 1873 &ndash June 26, 1939) was an English Novelist, Poet, Critic Leo Viktor Frobenius ( 29 June 1873 - 9 August 1938) was an Ethnologist and Archaeologist and a major figure in German Silvio Gesell (born March 17 1862 in Sankt Vith (now Belgium) died March 11 1930 in Oranienburg) was a Remy de Gourmont ( April 4, 1858 - September 27, 1915) was a French Symbolist poet Novelist and influential Henry James, OM ( –) son of theologian Henry James Sr, brother of the philosopher and psychologist William James and diarist Alice James Alfred Richard Orage (born January 22 1873 Dacre Yorkshire England - died November 6 1934 London was a British Intellectual, now best known for editing the magazine Walter Whitman (May 31 1819 &ndash March 26 1892 was an American poet, Essayist journalist, and humanist. George Antheil ( July 8, 1900, Trenton New Jersey – February 12, 1959, New York City) was an American Edward Estlin Cummings (October 14 1894 &ndash September 3 1962 popularly known as E Thomas Stearns Eliot, OM (September 26 1888 – January 4 1965 was a poet Dramatist, and Literary critic. Henri Gaudier-Brzeska ( 4 October 1891 &ndash 5 June 1915) was a French sculptor who developed a rough hewn primitive style of direct carving James Augustine Aloysius Joyce (2 February 1882 &ndash 13 January 1941 was an Irish expatriate writer widely considered to be one of the most influential writers of the Percy Wyndham Lewis ( November 18, 1882 &ndash March 7, 1957) was an English painter and Author (he dropped William Carlos Williams ( 17 September 1883 &ndash 4 March 1963) was an American poet closely associated with modernism Louis Zukofsky ( January 23, 1904 – May 12, 1978) was one of the most important second-generation American Hailey is a city and the County seat of Blaine County in the Wood River Valley of the central part of the U Idaho Territory was an Organized territory of the United States which existed from 1863 to 1890 The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Events 637 - Antioch surrenders to the Muslim forces under Rashidun Caliphate after the Battle of Iron bridge. Year 1885 ( MDCCCLXXXV) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Venice ( Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venesia or Venexia) is a city in Northern Italy, the capital of the Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Events 996 - Emperor Otto III issues a deed to Gottschalk Bishop of Freising which is the oldest known document using the name Ostarrîchi Year 1972 ( MCMLXXII) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the An expatriate (in abbreviated form expat) is a person temporarily or permanently residing in a country and culture other than that of the person's upbringing The word critic comes from the Greek el κριτικός ( el-Latn kritikós) "able to discern" which in turn derives from the word An intellectual (from the adjective meaning "involving thought and reason" is a person who tries to use his or her Intelligence and analytical thinking, Modernist poetry refers to poetry written between 1890 and 1930 in the tradition of Modernist literature; the dates of the term depend upon a number of factors including the
Pound was the driving force behind several Modernist movements, notably Imagism and Vorticism. Imagism was a movement in early 20th-century Anglo-American poetry that favored precision of Imagery, and clear sharp language Vorticism was a short lived British Art movement of the early 20th century
Pound was born in Hailey, Idaho Territory, to Homer Loomis and Isabel Weston Pound. Hailey is a city and the County seat of Blaine County in the Wood River Valley of the central part of the U Idaho Territory was an Organized territory of the United States which existed from 1863 to 1890 His grandfather was the Lieutenant Governor of Wisconsin, Thaddeus C. Pound. The Lieutenant Governor of Wisconsin is the first person in the Order of succession of Wisconsin 's Executive branch, thus serving as governor in the event Thaddeus Coleman Pound ( December 6, 1833 in Elk Township Warren County Pennsylvania - November 21, 1914 in Chicago Illinois  When he was 18 months old, his family moved to the suburbs of Philadelphia. He studied for two years at the University of Pennsylvania, then transferred to Hamilton College, where he received his Ph. The University of Pennsylvania (also known as Penn) is a private University located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. Hamilton College is a private independent liberal arts college located in Clinton, New York. B. in 1905. He then returned to Penn, completing an M. A. in Romance philology in 1906. The Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages, or Neolatin languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family comprising all See Comparative linguistics for the narrower field of "comparative philology"
During his studies at Penn, he met and befriended William Carlos Williams and H.D. (Hilda Doolittle), to whom he was engaged for a time. William Carlos Williams ( 17 September 1883 &ndash 4 March 1963) was an American poet closely associated with modernism HD (September 10 1886 – September 27 1961 born Hilda Doolittle, was an American poet, Novelist and Memoirist She is best known H. D. also became involved with a woman named Frances Gregg around this time. Shortly afterwards, H. D. and Gregg, along with Gregg's mother, went to Europe. Afterward, Pound taught at Wabash College in Crawfordsville, Indiana, for less than a year, and left as the result of a minor scandal. Wabash College is a small private liberal arts college for men, located in Crawfordsville Indiana. Crawfordsville is a city in Montgomery County, Indiana, United States. In 1908 he traveled to Europe, settling in London after spending several months in Venice.
Pound's early poetry was inspired by his reading of the pre-Raphaelites and other 19th century poets and medieval Romance literature, as well as much neo-Romantic and occult/mystical philosophy. The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood (also known as the Pre-Raphaelites) was a group of English painters Poets, and critics founded in 1848 by As a Literary genre of High culture, romance or chivalric romance refers to a style of heroic Prose and verse Narrative After moving to London, the influence of Ford Madox Ford and T. E. Hulme encouraged Pound to cast off overtly archaic poetic language and forms and begin to remake himself as a poet. Ford Madox Ford ( December 17, 1873 &ndash June 26, 1939) was an English Novelist, Poet, Critic Thomas Ernest Hulme ( 16 September 1883 &ndash 28 September 1917) was an English writer who during his informal tenure from 1909 as critic Pound believed William Butler Yeats was the greatest living poet, and befriended him in England.  Pound eventually became Yeats' secretary, and soon became interested in Yeats's occult beliefs. During World War I Pound and Yeats lived together at Stone Cottage in Sussex, England, studying Japanese, especially Noh plays. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All Sussex is a historic county in South East England corresponding roughly in area to the ancient Kingdom of Sussex. Japanese literature spans a period of almost two millennia Early works were heavily influenced by cultural contact with China and Chinese literature, often written or is a major form of classic Japanese musical Drama that has been performed since the 14th century They paid particular attention to the works of Ernest Fenollosa, an American professor in Japan, whose work on Chinese characters fascinated Pound. Ernest Francisco Fenollosa (February 18 1853 – September 21 1908 was an American professor of Philosophy and Political economy at Tokyo Imperial University Eventually, Pound used Fenollosa's work as a starting point for what he called the Ideogrammic Method. The Ideogrammic Method was a technique expounded by Ezra Pound which allowed Poetry to deal with abstract content through concrete images In 1914, Pound married Dorothy Shakespear, an artist, and the daughter of Olivia Shakespear, a novelist and former lover of W. Dorothy Shakespear (1886 - 1973 was an English Artist, the daughter of Olivia Shakespear (a novelist and sometime lover of W B. Yeats.
In the years before the First World War, Pound was largely responsible for the appearance of Imagism, and contributed the name to the movement known as Vorticism, which was led by Wyndham Lewis. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All Imagism was a movement in early 20th-century Anglo-American poetry that favored precision of Imagery, and clear sharp language Vorticism was a short lived British Art movement of the early 20th century Percy Wyndham Lewis ( November 18, 1882 &ndash March 7, 1957) was an English painter and Author (he dropped These two movements, which helped bring to notice the work of poets and artists like James Joyce, Wyndham Lewis, William Carlos Williams, H.D., Jacob Epstein, Richard Aldington, Marianne Moore, Rabindranath Tagore, Robert Frost, Rebecca West and Henri Gaudier-Brzeska, can be seen as central events in the birth of English-language modernism. James Augustine Aloysius Joyce (2 February 1882 &ndash 13 January 1941 was an Irish expatriate writer widely considered to be one of the most influential writers of the Percy Wyndham Lewis ( November 18, 1882 &ndash March 7, 1957) was an English painter and Author (he dropped William Carlos Williams ( 17 September 1883 &ndash 4 March 1963) was an American poet closely associated with modernism HD (September 10 1886 – September 27 1961 born Hilda Doolittle, was an American poet, Novelist and Memoirist She is best known Sir Jacob Epstein ( 10 November 1880 – 19 August 1959) was an American-born sculptor who worked chiefly in the UK where Richard Aldington (born Edward Godfree Aldington July 8 1892 &ndash July 27 1962 was an English writer and poet. Marianne Moore ( November 15, 1887 – February 5, 1972) was a Modernist American Poet and Writer Robert Lee Frost (March 26 1874 &ndash January 29 1963 was an American Poet. Cicely Isabel Fairfield ( December 21, 1892 - March 15, 1983) known by her pen name Rebecca West, or Dame Rebecca West Henri Gaudier-Brzeska ( 4 October 1891 &ndash 5 June 1915) was a French sculptor who developed a rough hewn primitive style of direct carving Pound also edited his friend T. S. Eliot's The Waste Land, the poem that was to force the new poetic sensibility into public attention. Thomas Stearns Eliot, OM (September 26 1888 – January 4 1965 was a poet Dramatist, and Literary critic. The Waste Land ( 1922) is a highly influential 434-line modernist poem by T
In 1915, Pound published Cathay, a small volume of poems that Pound described as “For the most part from the Chinese of Rihaku (Li Po), from the notes of the late Ernest Fenollosa, and the decipherings of the professors Mori and Ariga. Cathay is the Anglicized version of "Catai" and an alternative name for China in English Ernest Francisco Fenollosa (February 18 1853 – September 21 1908 was an American professor of Philosophy and Political economy at Tokyo Imperial University ".  The volume includes works such as The River Merchant's Wife: A Letter and A Ballad of the Mulberry Road. Unlike previous American translators of Chinese poetry, who tended to work with strict metrical and stanzaic patterns, Pound offered readers free verse translations celebrated for their ease of diction and conversationality. Free verse is a term describing various styles of Poetry that are written without using strict meter or Rhyme, but that still are recognizable as poetry Many critics consider the poems in Cathay to be the most successful realization of Pound's Imagist poetics. Whether the poems are valuable as translations continues to be a source of controversy. Neither Pound nor Fenollosa spoke or read Chinese proficiently, and Pound has been criticized for omitting or adding sections to his poems which have no basis in the original texts though many critics argue that the fidelity of Cathay to the original Chinese is beside the point. Hugh Kenner, in a chapter entitled "The Invention of China" in his The Pound Era contends that Cathay should be read primarily as a book about World War I, not as an attempt at accurately translating ancient Eastern poems. Hugh Kenner ( January 7, 1923 &ndash November 24, 2003) was a Canadian Literary Scholar, Critic World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All The real achievement of the book, Kenner argues, is in how it combines meditations on violence and friendship with an effort to "rethink the nature of an English poem".  These ostensible translations of ancient Eastern texts, Kenner argues, are actually experiments in English poetics and compelling elegies for a warring West.
The war shattered Pound's belief in modern western civilization and he abandoned London soon after, but not before he published Homage to Sextus Propertius (1919) and Hugh Selwyn Mauberley (1920). Hugh Selwyn Mauberley (1920 is a long poem by Ezra Pound. It has been regarded as a turning point in Pound's career (by F If these poems together form a farewell to Pound's London career, The Cantos, which he began in 1915, pointed his way forward. The Cantos by Ezra Pound is a long incomplete Poem in 120 sections each of which is a Canto.
In 1920, Pound moved to Paris, where he moved among a circle of artists, musicians, and writers who were revolutionizing the whole world of modern art. Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city He was friends with notable figures such as Marcel Duchamp, Tristan Tzara, Fernand Leger and others of the Dada and Surrealist movements. Marcel Duchamp (maʀsɛl dyˈʃɑ̃ (28 July 1887 &ndash 2 October 1968 was a French artist whose work is most often associated with the Dadaist and Surrealist Tristan Tzara (born Samuel or Samy Rosenstock, also known as S Joseph Fernand Henri Léger ( February 4, 1881 – August 17, 1955) was a French painter, sculptor, and For other meanings see Dada (disambiguation DaDa is a Concept album by Alice Cooper, released Surrealism is a cultural movement that began in the early-1920s and is best known for the visual artworks and writings of the group members He was also good friends with Basil Bunting and Ernest Hemingway, whom Pound asked to teach him to box. Ernest Miller Hemingway (July 21 1899 — July 2 1961 was an American novelist short-story writer, and Journalist. (Hemingway would later write, in A Moveable Feast, "I was never able to teach him to throw a left hook. ") He continued working on The Cantos, writing the bulk of the "Malatesta Sequence," which introduced one of the major personas of the poem. The poem increasingly reflected his preoccupations with politics and economics. Politics Politics is the process by which groups of people make decisions Economics is the social science that studies the production distribution, and consumption of goods and services. During this time, he also wrote critical prose and translations and composed two complete operas (with help from George Antheil) and several pieces for solo violin. Opera is an art form in which Singers and Musicians perform a Dramatic work (called an opera which combines a text (called a Libretto George Antheil ( July 8, 1900, Trenton New Jersey – February 12, 1959, New York City) was an American In 1922 he met and became involved with Olga Rudge, a violinist. Olga Rudge ( 13 April 1895, Youngstown, Ohio &ndash 15 March 1996 Together with Dorothy Shakespear, they formed an uneasy ménage à trois which was to last until the end of the poet's life. Ménage à trois is the French term describing a relationship or domestic arrangement in which three people share a sexual relationship
On 10 October 1924, Pound left Paris permanently and moved to Rapallo, Italy. Rapallo is a commune in the Province of Genoa, in Liguria, Italy. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest He and Dorothy stayed there briefly, moving on to Sicily, and then returning to settle in Rapallo in January 1925. Sicily ( Italian and Sicilian: Sicilia) is an autonomous region of Italy.  In Italy he continued to be a creative catalyst. The young sculptor Heinz Henghes came to see Pound, arriving penniless. Heinz Henghes ( August 20, 1906 - December 20, 1975) was a British sculptor. He was given lodging and marble to carve, and quickly learned to work in stone. The poet James Laughlin was also inspired at this time to start the publishing company New Directions which would become a vehicle for many new authors. James Laughlin ( 30 October, 1914 – 12 November, 1997) was an American Poet and literary book publisher who founded New Directions Publishing Corp was founded in 1936 by James Laughlin, then a Harvard University sophomore
At this time Pound also organized an annual series of concerts in Rapallo, where a wide range of classical and contemporary music was performed. In particular this musical activity contributed to the 20th century revival of interest in Vivaldi, who had been neglected since his death. Pound made his first trip back home to the U. S. in many years in 1939, on the eve of World War II, and considered moving back permanently, but in the end he chose to return to Italy. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including Aside from his political sympathy with the Mussolini regime, Pound had personal reasons for staying. His elderly parents had retired to Italy to be with him, and were in poor health and would have difficulty making the trip back to America even under peacetime conditions. He also had an Italian-born daughter by his mistress Olga Rudge: Mary (or Maria) Rudge was a young woman in her late teens who had lived in Italy her whole life and who might have had difficulty relocating to America (even though she had American as well as Italian citizenship). Olga Rudge ( 13 April 1895, Youngstown, Ohio &ndash 15 March 1996
Pound remained in Italy after the outbreak of World War II, which began more than two years before his native United States formally entered the war in December 1941. He became a leading Axis propagandist. The Axis powers also known as the Axis alliance Axis nations Axis countries or sometimes just the Axis were those Countries Propaganda is a concerted set of messages aimed at influencing the opinions or behaviors of large numbers of people He also continued to be involved in scholarly publishing, and he wrote many newspaper pieces. He disapproved of American involvement in the war and tried to use his political contacts in Washington D.C. to prevent it. Washington DC ( formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D He spoke on Italian radio and gave a series of talks on cultural matters. Pound believed that economics was the core issue at hand. Specifically, his talks were largely about usury and the notion that representative democracy has been usurped by bankers' infiltration of governments through the existence of central banks, which made governments pay interest to private banks for the use of their own money. Usury (ˈjuːʒəri comes from the Medieval Latin usuria, "interest" or "excessive interest" from the Latin usura "interest" A central bank, reserve bank, or monetary authority is the entity responsible for the Monetary policy of a country or of a group of member states Interest is a fee paid on borrowed capital Assets lent include Money, Shares, Consumer goods through Hire purchase, major assets He maintained that the central bank's ability to create money out of thin air allowed banking interests to buy up American and British media outlets to sway opinion in favor of the war and the banks. Pound was not the first prominent American to make this assertion; for example New York City Mayor John Hylan had publicly said the same thing back in 1922 when he said "these international bankers control the majority of the magazines and newspapers in this country. John Francis Hylan ( April 20, 1868 &ndash January 12, 1936) nicknamed "Red Mike" was the Mayor of New York City " Pound believed that economic freedom was a prerequisite for a free country. Economic freedom is freedom to produce trade and consume any goods and services acquired without the use of force fraud or theft Inevitably, he touched on political matters, and incorporated antisemitism into his denunciations of the war. 
It is not clear if anyone in the United States ever actually heard his radio broadcasts, since Italian radio's shortwave transmitters were weak and unreliable, though it is clear that his writings for Italian newspapers (as well as a number of books and pamphlets) did have some influence in Italy. The broadcasts were monitored by the Foreign Broadcast Monitoring Service of the United States government, and transcripts, now stored in the Library of Congress, were made of them. Foreign Broadcast Information Service (FBIS is an Open source intelligence component of the CIA 's Directorate of Science and Technology that monitors translates Pound was indicted for treason by the United States government in 1943.
On July 10, 1943, the Allied forces landed in Sicily and rapidly began to overrun the southern part of Italy. Events 48 BC - Battle of Dyrrhachium, Julius Caesar barely avoids a catastrophic defeat to Pompey in Macedonia. Year 1943 ( MCMXLIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. In general allies are people groups or nations that have joined together in an association for mutual benefit or to achieve some common purpose On July 25, 1943 King Victor Emmanuel III summoned Mussolini and dismissed him as the premier of the Kingdom of Italy. Events 285 - Diocletian appoints Maximian as Caesar, co-ruler Year 1943 ( MCMXLIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Victor Emmanuel III (Vittorio Emanuele III 11 November, 1869 – 28 December, 1947) was a member of the House of Savoy and Upon leaving the palace, Mussolini was arrested and sent to Gran Sasso, a mountain resort in central Italy (Abruzzo). About two months after he was stripped of power, Mussolini was rescued by the Germans in Operation Oak and relocated to the north, where he declared himself the President of the new Salò Republic. The Gran Sasso raid refers to Operation Eiche ( German for 'Oak' the daring rescue of Italian dictator Benito Mussolini by German Paratroopers The Italian Social Republic ( Italian: Repubblica Sociale Italiana or RSI) was a Puppet state of Nazi Germany led by the "Duce of the Pound played a significant role in cultural and propaganda activities in the new republic, which lasted till the spring of 1945. On May 2, 1945, he was arrested by Italian partisans, and taken (according to Hugh Kenner) "to their HQ in Chiavari, where he was soon released as possessing no interest. Events 1194 - King Richard I of England gives Portsmouth its first Royal Charter. Year 1945 ( MCMXLV) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar Hugh Kenner ( January 7, 1923 &ndash November 24, 2003) was a Canadian Literary Scholar, Critic Chiavari is a town on the Italian Riviera in the Province of Genoa, region of Liguria. " The next day, he turned himself in to U. S. forces. He was incarcerated in a United States Army detention camp outside Pisa, spending 25 days in an open cage before being given a tent. The United States Army is a military organization whose primary mission is to "provide necessary forces and capabilities. Pisa is a city in Tuscany, central Italy, on the right bank of the mouth of the Arno River on the Ligurian Sea. Here he appears to have suffered a nervous breakdown. Mental breakdown (also known as nervous breakdown or snapping) is a non-medical term used to describe a sudden acute attack of Mental illness such as He also drafted the Pisan Cantos in the camp. This section of the work in progress marks a shift in Pound's work, being a meditation on his own and Europe's ruin and on his place in the natural world. The Pisan Cantos won the first Bollingen Prize from the Library of Congress in 1949. The Cantos by Ezra Pound is a long incomplete Poem in 120 sections each of which is a Canto. The Bollingen Prize, which is presently awarded every two years by Beinecke Library of Yale University, is a prestigious literary honor bestowed on an American Poet
After the war, Pound was brought back to the United States to face charges of treason. In Law, treason is the Crime that covers some of the more serious acts of disloyalty to one's sovereign or Nation. The charges covered only his activities during the time when the Kingdom of Italy was officially at war with the United States, i. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest e. , the time before the Allies captured Rome and Mussolini fled to the North. Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 Pound was not prosecuted for his activities on behalf of Mussolini's Saló Republic, evidently because the Republic's existence was never formally recognized by the United States. The Italian Social Republic ( Italian: Repubblica Sociale Italiana or RSI) was a Puppet state of Nazi Germany led by the "Duce of the He was found incompetent to face trial by a special federal jury and sent to St. Elizabeths Hospital in Washington, D.C., where he remained for 12 years from 1946 to 1958. Washington DC ( formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D His insanity plea is still a matter of controversy, since in retrospect his activities and his writings during the war years do appear to be those of a sane person. In Criminal trials the insanity defenses are possible defenses by Excuse, an Affirmative defense by which Defendants argue that  Treason is potentially a capital offense. Capital punishment, the death penalty or execution, is the Killing of a person by judicial process as Punishment. Pound's controversial insanity plea is mirrored by the fate of Norwegian author and collaborator Knut Hamsun, who was dubbed insane by embarrassed authorities despite evidence in the form of subsequent published material to the contrary. Norway ( Norwegian: Norge ( Bokmål) or Noreg ( Nynorsk) officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Constitutional Knut Hamsun, born Knud Pedersen ( August 4, 1859 - February 19, 1952) was a Norwegian author. 
Following his release, Pound was asked his opinions on his home country. He famously quipped: "America is a lunatic asylum. " Subsequently he returned to Italy, where he remained in exile until his death in 1972.
E. Fuller Torrey believed that Pound was given special treatment by colluding authorities, specifically Winfred Overholser, the superintendent of St. Edwin Fuller Torrey, MD (b September 6, 1937, Utica, New York) is an American Psychiatrist and Schizophrenia Elizabeths. According to Torrey, Overholser admired Pound's poetry and allowed him to live in a private room at the hospital, where he wrote three books, received visits from literary figures and enjoyed conjugal relations with his wife. The reliability of Torrey’s allegations has been questioned; other scholars have presented Overholser as behaving solely in a humane way to his famous patient, without allowing him special privileges. At St. Elizabeths, Pound was surrounded by poets and other admirers and continued working on The Cantos as well as translating the Confucian classics. The Cantos by Ezra Pound is a long incomplete Poem in 120 sections each of which is a Canto. Confucianism ( is a Chinese ethical and philosophical system originally developed from the teachings of the fifth century B
Pound was also frequently visited by his protegé, a Library of Congress researcher named Eustace Mullins. Eustace Mullins (born 1923 is an American political writer author biographer and the last surviving protege of the 20th century intellectual and writer Ezra Pound. Pound commissioned Mullins to write a book about the history of the Federal Reserve and to tell it like a detective story. Pound believed that the bankers in charge of the Federal Reserve and their associates in the Bank of England were responsible for getting the United States into both World Wars, in an effort to drive up government debt beyond sustainable levels (the national debt did indeed rise astronomically because of the wars). The Bank of England (formally the Governor and Company of the Bank of England) is a state-owned institution and the Central bank of the United Kingdom Government debt (also known as public debt or national debt) is Money (or credit) owed by any level of government either Central government The book, Secrets Of The Federal Reserve, charges that bankers hide behind the screen of the central banks and pull political strings to drive countries into the war, creating immense profits for themselves as the principal beneficiaries of wartime debt. Pound advocated an abandonment of the current system of money being created by private bankers. He favored government issued currency with no interest to pay, preventing the need for an income tax and national debt, much like the system used by the Pennsylvania Colony from 1723 to 1764. A currency is a unit of exchange, facilitating the transfer of Goods and/or services It is one form of Money, where money is Pound argued that his views on money aligned with those of Thomas Jefferson, as well as with Benjamin Franklin's Colonial Scrip. Thomas Jefferson (April 13 1743 – July 4 1826 was the third President of the United States (1801–1809 the principal author of the Declaration of Independence Benjamin Franklin ( April 17 1790 was one of the Founding Fathers of the United States of America. Colonial Scrip was a paper Fiat money as opposed to specie issued by the colonies in the pre-revolution era up until 1775
Pound was also befriended there by Hugh Kenner, whose The Poetry of Ezra Pound (1951) was highly influential in causing a reassessment of Pound's poetry. Hugh Kenner ( January 7, 1923 &ndash November 24, 2003) was a Canadian Literary Scholar, Critic Other scholars began to edit the Pound Newsletter, which eventually led to the publication of the first guide to The Cantos, Annotated Index to the Cantos of Ezra Pound (1957). The Cantos by Ezra Pound is a long incomplete Poem in 120 sections each of which is a Canto. Pound had many friends and admirers among his fellow poets, like Elizabeth Bishop, who recorded her response to Pound’s situation in the poem "Visits to St. Elizabeth's," and Robert Lowell, who visited and corresponded extensively with Pound. Elizabeth Bishop ( February 8, 1911 &ndash October 6, 1979) was an American Poet and Writer from Worcester ' Visits to St Elizabeth's' is a poem by Elizabeth Bishop which is modelled on the English Nursery rhyme This is the house that Jack built. Robert Lowell (March 1 1917&ndashSeptember 12 1977 born Robert Traill Spence Lowell IV, was an American Poet whose works confessional in nature The artist Sheri Martinelli, meanwhile, is believed to have inspired the love poetry in Cantos XC–XCV. Both William Carlos Williams and Louis Zukofsky were among Pound's visitors, as was Guy Davenport, who subsequently wrote his Harvard dissertation on Pound's poetry (published as Cities on Hills in 1983), and the Colonial French nonfigurative painter René Laubies, the first translator of the work of Pound into French (Cantos et poèmes choisis / Ezra Pound, Paris: P. William Carlos Williams ( 17 September 1883 &ndash 4 March 1963) was an American poet closely associated with modernism Louis Zukofsky ( January 23, 1904 – May 12, 1978) was one of the most important second-generation American Guy Mattison Davenport ( November 23 1927 – January 4 2005) was an American Writer, Translator, Illustrator J. Oswald, 1958. 77 pages). In his Portraits et Aphorismes (2001) Laubies writes that he did not remember having any "difficulties returning to visit Pound at the Asylum of St. Elisabeths. " He asked Pound whether the surroundings obstructed him: "Not at all, they are the only acceptable Americans. " When Laubies told Pound that he was born in Saigon: "Ah, that's why! Only Europeans with a master key to the Suez Canal are worth something. . . . " Charles Olson was a frequent visitor (Pound wrote in a note to his attorney that "Olson saved my life" by providing sane conversation. Charles Olson ( 27 December 1910 &ndash 10 January 1970) was an important 2nd generation American modernist poet Olson eventually became disgusted with Pound's anti-Semitic statements and stopped his visits. Pound was finally released after a concerted campaign by many of his fellow poets and artists, particularly Robert Frost and Archibald MacLeish. Robert Lee Frost (March 26 1874 &ndash January 29 1963 was an American Poet. Archibald MacLeish ( May 7, 1892 – April 20, 1982) was an American Poet, Writer and the Librarian He was still considered incurably insane, but not dangerous to others.
Rudd Fleming, a professor at the University of Maryland, visited Pound often. The University of Maryland College Park (often referred to as The University of Maryland UMD, UMCP or simply Maryland) is a public research They collaborated on a translation of Sophocles' Electra, which was published by Princeton University Press in 1989. Electra or Elektra (Ηλέκτρα / Ēlektra) is a Greek tragic play by Sophocles.  Fleming stated, when asked about Pound's anti-semitism, that Pound considered it a mistake. A statement from Pound's foreword to a collection of his prose writings (written on July 4th, 1972) would seem to support Fleming's assertion: "In sentences referring to groups or races 'they' should be used with great care. re USURY: I was out of focus, taking a symptom for a cause. The cause is AVARICE. "
On his release, Pound returned to Italy continuing work on The Cantos. In 1972, two days after his 87th birthday, Pound died in Venice, where he is buried. Venice ( Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venesia or Venexia) is a city in Northern Italy, the capital of the
Pound's The Cantos contains music and bears a title that could be translated as The Songs—although it never is. The Cantos by Ezra Pound is a long incomplete Poem in 120 sections each of which is a Canto. Pound's ear was tuned to the motz et sons of troubadour poetry where, as musicologist John Stevens has noted, "melody and poem existed in a state of the closest symbiosis, obeying the same laws and striving in their different media for the same sound-ideal - armonia. A troubadour ( IPA:, originally) was a composer and performer of Occitan Lyric poetry during the High Middle Ages (1100&ndash1350 Musicology ( Greek: μουσική = "music" and λόγος = "word" or "reason" is the scholarly study of Music This article is about the biological phenomenon for other uses see Symbiosis (disambiguation The term symbiosis (from the Greek "
In his essays, Pound wrote of rhythm as "the hardest quality of a man's style to counterfeit. " He challenged young poets to train their ear with translation work to learn how the choice of words and the movement of the words combined. But having translated texts from 10 different languages into English, Pound found that translation did not always serve the poetry: "The grand bogies for young men who want really to learn strophe writing are Catullus and François Villon. For persons with a Cognomen "Catulus" see Lutatius Gaius Valerius Catullus (ca François Villon (in modern French fʀɑ̃swa viˈjɔ̃ in fifteenth-century French viˈlɔn (c I personally have been reduced to setting them to music as I cannot translate them. " While he habitually wrote out verse rhythms as musical lines, Pound did not set his own poetry to music.
In 1919, when he was 34, Pound began charting his path as a novice composer, writing privately that he intended a revolt against the impressionistic music of Claude Debussy. Impressionism was a 19th-century Art movement that began as a loose association of Paris -based Artists exhibiting their art publicly in the 1860s Achille-Claude Debussy (aʃil klod dəbysi (August 22 1862 &ndash March 25 1918 was a French Composer. An autodidact, Pound described his working method as "improving a system by refraining from obedience to all its present 'laws'. Autodidacticism (also autodidactism) is self-education or self-directed learning . . " With only a few formal lessons in music composition, Pound produced a small body of work, including a setting of Dante's sestina, "Al poco giorno," for violin. His most important output is the pair of operas: Le Testament, a setting of François Villon's long poem of that name, written in 1461; and Cavalcanti, a setting of 11 poems by Guido Cavalcanti (c. François Villon (in modern French fʀɑ̃swa viˈjɔ̃ in fifteenth-century French viˈlɔn (c Guido Cavalcanti (c 1255 – August 1300 was an Italian Poet who was a role model for and a very close friend of Dante. 1250–1300). Pound began composing the Villon with the help of Agnes Bedford, a London pianist and vocal coach. Though the work is notated in Bedford's hand, Pound scholar Robert Hughes has been able to determine that Pound was artistically responsible for the work's overall dramatic and acoustic design.
During his years in Paris (1921–1924), Pound formed close friendships with the American pianist and composer George Antheil, and Antheil's touring partner, the American concert violinist Olga Rudge. George Antheil ( July 8, 1900, Trenton New Jersey – February 12, 1959, New York City) was an American Pound championed Antheil's music and asked his help in devising a system of micro-rhythms that would more accurately render the vitalistic speech rhythms of Villon's Old French for Le Testament. Old French was the Romance Dialect continuum spoken in territories which span roughly the northern half of modern France and parts of modern Belgium The resulting collaboration of 1923 used irregular meters that were considerably more elaborate than Stravinsky's benchmarks of the period, Le Sacre du Printemps (1913) and L'Histoire du Soldat (1918). Igor Fyodorovich Stravinsky (Игорь Фёдорович Стравинский) ( &ndash 6 April 1971 was a Russian born Composer, considered by many to This article is about the ballet music For the emo/hardcore band see Rites of Spring The Rite of Spring, commonly referred Histoire du soldat (sometimes written L'histoire du soldat; translated as The Soldier's Tale or A Soldier's Tale For example, "Heaulmiere," one of the opera's key arias, at a tempo of quarter note = M. This article is about the musical term "aria" For other meanings or uses of the word see Aria (disambiguation. 2266-Tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl or TEMPO is the Chemical compound with the formula (CH23(CMe22NO M. 88, moves from 2/8 to 25/32 to 3/8 to 2/4 meter (bars 25–28), making it difficult for performers to hear the current bar of music and anticipate the upcoming bar. In Musical notation, a bar or measure is a segment of time defined as a given number of beats of a given duration Rudge performed in the 1924 and 1926 Paris preview concerts of Le Testament, but insisted to Pound that the meter was impractical.
In Le Testament there is no predictability of manner; no comfort zone for singer or listener; no rests or breath marks. Though Pound stays within the hexatonic scale to evoke the feel of troubadour melodies, modern invention runs throughout, from the stream of unrelenting dissonance in the mother's prayer to the grand shape of the work's aesthetic arc over a period of almost an hour. In Music and Music theory, a hexatonic scale is a scale with six pitches or notes per Octave. A troubadour ( IPA:, originally) was a composer and performer of Occitan Lyric poetry during the High Middle Ages (1100&ndash1350 The rhythm carries the emotion. The music admits the corporeal rhythms (the score calls for human bones to be used in the percussion part); scratches, hiccoughs, and counter-rhythms lurch against each other—an offense to courtly etiquette. With "melody against ground tone and forced against another melody," as Pound puts it, the work spawns a polyphony in polyrhythms that ignores traditional laws of harmony. In Music, polyphony is a texture consisting of two or more independent Melodic voices, as opposed to music with just one voice ( Monophony In Western music, harmony is the use of different pitches simultaneously and chords actual or implied in Music. It was a test of Pound's ideal of an "absolute" and "uncounterfeitable" rhythm conducted in the laboratory of someone obsessed with the relationship between words and music.
After hearing a concert performance of Le Testament in 1926, Virgil Thomson praised Pound's accomplishment. For the American author with a similar name see Virgil Thompson (author Virgil Thomson ( November 25, 1896 - September "The music was not quite a musician's music," he wrote, "though it may well be the finest poet's music since Thomas Campion. Thomas Campion, (sometimes Campian) (12 February 1567 &ndash 1 March 1620 was an English Composer, poet and Physician. . . . Its sound has remained in my memory. "
Robert Hughes has remarked that where Le Testament explores a Webernesque pointillistic orchestration and derives its vitality from complex rhythms, Cavalcanti (1931) thrives on extensions of melody. WikipediaWikiProject Composers#Lead section --> Anton Webern (December 3 1883 &ndash September 15 1945 was an Austrian Composer See also Neo-Impressionism Pointillism is a style of Painting in which small distinct points of Primary colors create the impression of a wide selection Based on the lyric love poetry of Guido Cavalcanti, the opera's numbers are characterized by a challenging bel canto, into which Pound incorporates a number of tongue-in-cheek references to Verdi and a musical motive that gestures to Stravinsky's neo-classicism. Bel canto ( Bel-Canto) ( Italian, "beautiful singing" an Italian musical term refers to the art and science of vocal technique which originated in Neoclassicism (sometimes rendered as Neo-Classicism or Neo-classicism) is the name given to quite distinct movements in the decorative and By this time his relationship with Antheil had considerably cooled, and Pound, in his gradual acquisition of technical self-sufficiency, was free to emulate certain aspects of Stravinsky. Cavalcanti demands attention to its varying cadences, to a recurring leitmotif, and to a symbolic use of octaves. A leitmotif (ˌlaɪtmoʊˈtiːf (also leitmotiv; lit "leading motif" is a recurring Musical theme, associated with a particular person place In Music, an octave ( is the the use of which is "common in most musical systems The play of octaves creates a surrealist straining against the limits of established laws of composition, history, physiology, reason, and love. Surrealism is a cultural movement that began in the early-1920s and is best known for the visual artworks and writings of the group members Physiology (from Greek grc φύσις physis, "nature origin" and grc -λογία -logia) is the study of the mechanical physical
Pound's statement, "Rhythm is a FORM cut into TIME," distinguishes his 20th century medievalism from Antheil's SPACE/TIME theory of modern music, which sought pure abstraction. In academic usage medievalism is the study of the Middle Ages, also referred to as medieval studies. Antheil's system of time organization is inherently biased for complex, asymmetric, and fast tempi; it thrives on innovation and surprise. Asymmetry is the absence of or a violation of a Symmetry. In organisms Due to how cells divide in Organisms asymmetry in organisms is Pound's more open system allows for any sequence of pitches; it can accommodate older styles of music with their symmetry, repetition, and more uniform tempi, as well as newer methods, such as the asymmetrical micro-metrical divisions of rhythm created for Le Testament. Symmetry generally conveys two primary meanings The first is an imprecise sense of harmonious or aesthetically-pleasing proportionality and balance such that it reflects beauty or 2266-Tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl or TEMPO is the Chemical compound with the formula (CH23(CMe22NO
Because of his political views, his support of Mussolini, his opposition to central banking (The Federal Reserve, The Bank of England. . . ) and his anti-Semitism, Pound acquired many enemies throughout the second half of the twentieth century. Historians and scholars generally agree, however, that he played a vital role in the modernist revolution in 20th century literature in English. See also 19th century in literature, other events of the 20th century, 21st century in literature, List of years in literature. The location of Pound—as opposed to other writers such as T. S. Eliot—at the center of the Anglo-American Modernist tradition was famously asserted by the critic Hugh Kenner, most fully in his account of the Modernist movement titled The Pound Era. Thomas Stearns Eliot, OM (September 26 1888 – January 4 1965 was a poet Dramatist, and Literary critic. Hugh Kenner ( January 7, 1923 &ndash November 24, 2003) was a Canadian Literary Scholar, Critic The critic Marjorie Perloff has also insisted upon Pound's centrality to numerous traditions of "experimental" poetry in the 20th century. Marjorie Perloff (b September 28, 1931 —) is a poetry critic and Professor Emerita of English and Comparative Literature at Stanford As a poet, Pound was one of the first to successfully employ free verse in extended compositions. Free verse is a term describing various styles of Poetry that are written without using strict meter or Rhyme, but that still are recognizable as poetry His Imagist poems influenced, among others, the Objectivists. The Objectivist poets were a loose-knit group of second-generation Modernists who emerged in the 1930s The Cantos and many of Pound's shorter poems were a touchstone for Allen Ginsberg and other Beat poets; Ginsberg made an intense study of Pound's use of parataxis which had a major influence on his poetry. Irwin Allen Ginsberg (ˈgɪnzbɝg (June 3 1926 &ndash April 5 1997 was an American Poet. Parataxis (from Greek for 'act of placing side by side' fr para, beside + tassein, to arrange contrasted to Syntaxis) is a Literary technique Almost every 'experimental' poet in English since the early 20th century has been considered by some to be in his debt.
As critic, editor and promoter, Pound helped shape the careers of some of the 20th century's most influential writers. These writers include W. B. Yeats, T. S. Eliot, James Joyce, Wyndham Lewis, Robert Frost, William Carlos Williams, H.D., Marianne Moore, Ernest Hemingway, D. H. Lawrence, Louis Zukofsky, Basil Bunting, George Oppen, and Charles Olson. Thomas Stearns Eliot, OM (September 26 1888 – January 4 1965 was a poet Dramatist, and Literary critic. James Augustine Aloysius Joyce (2 February 1882 &ndash 13 January 1941 was an Irish expatriate writer widely considered to be one of the most influential writers of the Percy Wyndham Lewis ( November 18, 1882 &ndash March 7, 1957) was an English painter and Author (he dropped Robert Lee Frost (March 26 1874 &ndash January 29 1963 was an American Poet. William Carlos Williams ( 17 September 1883 &ndash 4 March 1963) was an American poet closely associated with modernism HD (September 10 1886 – September 27 1961 born Hilda Doolittle, was an American poet, Novelist and Memoirist She is best known Marianne Moore ( November 15, 1887 – February 5, 1972) was a Modernist American Poet and Writer Ernest Miller Hemingway (July 21 1899 — July 2 1961 was an American novelist short-story writer, and Journalist. David Herbert Richards Lawrence (11 September 1885 – 2 March 1930 was an English writer of the 20th century whose prolific and diverse output included Novels short Louis Zukofsky ( January 23, 1904 – May 12, 1978) was one of the most important second-generation American Basil Cheesman Bunting ( 3 March 1900 – 17 April 1985) was a British modernist poet George Oppen ( April 24, 1908 - July 7, 1984) was an American poet best known as one of the members of the Objectivist Charles Olson ( 27 December 1910 &ndash 10 January 1970) was an important 2nd generation American modernist poet Immediately before the first world war Pound became interested in art when he was associated with the Vorticists (Pound coined the word). Vorticism was a short lived British Art movement of the early 20th century Pound did much to publicize the movement and was instrumental in bringing it to the attention of the wider public (he was particularly important in the artistic careers of Henri Gaudier-Brzeska and Wyndham Lewis). Henri Gaudier-Brzeska ( 4 October 1891 &ndash 5 June 1915) was a French sculptor who developed a rough hewn primitive style of direct carving Percy Wyndham Lewis ( November 18, 1882 &ndash March 7, 1957) was an English painter and Author (he dropped
As a translator, Pound did much to introduce Provençal and Chinese poetry to English-speaking audiences. Provençal ( Provençau) is one of several dialects of Occitan spoken by a minority of people mostly in Provence (in southern France Chinese literature extends back thousands of years from the earliest recorded dynastic court Archives to the mature fictional Novel that arose during the Ming Dynasty For example, he helped popularize major poets such as Cavalcanti and Du Fu. Cavalcanti is an Italian surname, also common in Portugal and Brazil where is used by people of ancient Italian origin Du Fu ( 712–770 was a prominent Chinese poet of the Tang Dynasty. He revived interest in the Confucian classics and introduced the West to classical Japanese poetry and drama (e. Confucius ( lit " Master Kung " September 28, 551 BC - 479 BC) was a Chinese thinker and social philosopher For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. g. the Noh). or is a major form of classic Japanese musical Drama that has been performed since the 14th century He also translated and championed Greek, Latin and Anglo-Saxon classics and helped keep these alive for poets at a time when classical education and knowledge of Anglo-Saxon was in decline. Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. In the early 1920s in Paris, Pound became interested in music, and was probably the first serious writer in the 20th century to praise the work of the long-neglected Italian composer Antonio Vivaldi and to promote early music generally. A composer (literally meaning 'one who puts together' is a person who creates Music, usually in the medium of notation, for Interpretation and Performance Early music is commonly defined as European classical music from the Middle Ages, the Renaissance and the Baroque. He also helped the early career of George Antheil, and collaborated with him on various projects. George Antheil ( July 8, 1900, Trenton New Jersey – February 12, 1959, New York City) was an American Pound was also interested in mysticism and the occult, but biographers have only recently begun to document his work in those fields. Mysticism (from the Greek grc μυστικός mystikos, an initiate of a Mystery religion) is the pursuit of communion with identity The word occult comes from the Latin word occultus (clandestine hidden secret referring to "knowledge of the hidden" Leon Surrette wrote extensively of Pound's involvement in mysticism in The Birth of Modernism.
Pound's works by year published (with links to years-in-poetry pages; cities are location first editions published):
Readings of Ezra Pound's work by other than author