The trait of Extraversion-Introversion is a central dimension of human personality. In Psychology, Trait theory is a major approach to the study of human personality. Personality psychology studies personality based on theories of individual differences Extraverts (also spelled extroverts) are gregarious, assertive, and generally seek out excitement. Introverts, in contrast, are more reserved, less outgoing, and less sociable. They are not necessarily asocial, but they tend to have smaller circles of friends, and are less likely to thrive on making new social contacts. For the Marvel Comics series see Loners. For the CBS television series see The Loner.
The terms introversion and extraversion were first popularized by Carl Jung.  Virtually all comprehensive models of personality include these concepts. Examples include Jung's analytical psychology, Eysenck's three factor model, Cattell's 16 personality factors, the Big Five personality traits, the four temperaments, the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, the Myers Briggs Type Indicator, and Socionics. Analytical psychology (or Jungian psychology) refers to the school of Psychology originating from the ideas of Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jung, and then advanced Hans Jürgen Eysenck ( March 4, 1916 in Berlin, Germany - September 4, 1997 in London, UK) was a In Psychology, the "Big Five" personality traits are five broad factors or dimensions of personality developed through lexical analysis Erich Adickes, Eduard Spränger, Ernst Kretschmer, and Erich Fromm all theorized on the four temperaments (with different names and greatly The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI is one of the most frequently used personality tests in Mental health. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI assessment is a psychometric questionnaire designed to measure psychological preferences in how people perceive the world and make decisions Socionics (соционика is a theory of information processing that incorporates elements of Carl Jung 's work on Psychological Types, Freud 's
Extraversion and introversion are typically understood as a single continuum. Continuum theories or models explain variation as involving a gradual quantitative transition without abrupt changes or discontinuities Thus, to be high on one is necessarily to be low on the other. That said, people fluctuate in their behavior all the time, and even extreme introverts and extraverts do not always act consistently.
Extraversion is "the act, state, or habit of being predominantly concerned with and obtaining gratification from what is outside the self".  Extraverts tend to enjoy human interactions and to be enthusiastic, talkative, assertive, and gregarious. They take pleasure in activities that involve large social gatherings, such as parties, community activities, public demonstrations, and business or political groups. Acting, teaching, directing, managing, brokering are fields that favor extraversion. An extraverted person is likely to enjoy time spent with people and find less reward in time spent alone. They enjoy risk-taking and often show leadership abilities. 
An extravert is energized when around other people. Extraverts tend to "fade" when alone and can easily become bored without other people around. Extraverts tend to think as they speak. When given the chance, an extravert will talk with someone else rather than sit alone and think.
Introversion is "the state of or tendency toward being wholly or predominantly concerned with and interested in one's own mental life".  Introverts tend to be low-key, deliberate, and relatively less engaged in social situations. They often take pleasure in solitary activities such as reading, writing, drawing, watching movies, and using computers. The archetypal artist, writer, sculptor, composer and inventor are all highly introverted. An archetype ( pronounced: /ˈɑːkɪtaɪp/ (Brit or /ˈɑrkɪtaɪp/ (Amer The definition of an artist is wide-ranging and covers a broad spectrum of Activities to do with creating Art, practicing the Arts and/or demonstrating A writer is anyone who creates a written work although the word usually designates those who write creatively or professionally as well as those who have written in many different forms A composer (literally meaning 'one who puts together' is a person who creates Music, usually in the medium of notation, for Interpretation and Performance An inventor is a person who creates or discovers a new method form device or other useful means An introverted person is likely to enjoy time spent alone and find less reward in time spent with large groups of people (although they tend to enjoy interactions with close friends). They prefer to concentrate on a single activity at a time and like to observe situations before they participate. 
Introversion is not the same as shyness. In Humans shyness (also called diffidence) is a Social psychology term used to describe the Feeling of apprehension lack of confidence Introverts choose solitary over social activities by preference, whereas shy people avoid social encounters out of fear. 
An introvert is energized when alone. Introverts tend to "fade" when with people and can easily become overstimulated with too many others around. Introverts tend to think before speaking. 
Although many people view being introverted or extraverted as a question with only two possible answers, most contemporary trait theories (e. g. the Big Five) measure levels of extraversion as part of a single, continuous dimension of personality, with some scores near one end, and others near the half-way mark. 
Ambiversion is a term used to describe people who fall more or less directly in the middle and exhibit tendencies of both groups.  An ambivert is normally comfortable with groups and enjoys social interaction, but also relishes time alone and away from the crowd.
Extraversion-introversion is normally measured by self-report. A questionnaire might ask if the test-taker agrees or disagrees with statements such as I am the life of the party or I think before I talk. A questionnaire is a Research instrument consisting of a series of Questions and other prompts for the purpose of gathering information from respondents
Imagine a questionnaire consisting of ten "agree or disagree" statements. For the first five questions, agreement indicates a tendency towards extraversion, while for the last five questions, agreement indicates introversion. Five people take this questionnaire and answer as follows:
|I am the life of the party.||Agree||Agree||Agree||Disagree||Disagree|
|I enjoy being the center of attention.||Agree||Disagree||Agree||Disagree||Disagree|
|I am skilled in handling social situations.||Agree||Agree||Agree||Disagree||Disagree|
|I like to be where the action is.||Agree||Agree||Disagree||Agree||Disagree|
|I make new friends easily.||Agree||Agree||Disagree||Agree||Disagree|
|I am quiet around strangers.||Disagree||Disagree||Agree||Disagree||Agree|
|I don't like to draw attention to myself.||Disagree||Agree||Agree||Agree||Agree|
|I don't like to party on the weekends.||Disagree||Disagree||Agree||Agree||Agree|
|I like to work independently.||Disagree||Agree||Disagree||Agree||Agree|
|I often enjoy spending time by myself.||Disagree||Disagree||Disagree||Agree||Agree|
|Score||100% Extravert||70% Extravert||50% Extravert|
|70% Introvert||100% Introvert|
In this example, John and Maria are extraverted, Sarah and David are introverted, and Marcus is neither.
Self-report questionnaires have obvious limitations in that people may misrepresent themselves either intentionally or through lack of self-knowledge. It is also common to use peer report or observation.
Another approach is to present test-takers with various sets of adjectives (for example: thoughtful, talkative, energetic, independent) and ask which describes them most and least. Psychological measures of this trait may break it down into subfactors including warmth, affiliation, positive affect, excitement seeking, and assertiveness/dominance seeking.
According to Carl Jung, introversion and extraversion refer to the direction of psychic energy. The use of the word "energy" in psychological studies is comparatively new although it was in use in psychological thought long before the modern physical concept of Energy was If a person’s energy usually flows outwards, he or she is an extravert, while if this energy normally flows inwards, this person is an introvert.  Extraverts feel an increase of perceived energy when interacting with a large group of people, but a decrease of energy when left alone. Conversely, introverts feel an increase of energy when alone, but a decrease of energy when surrounded by a large group of people.
Most modern psychologists consider theories of psychic energy to be obsolete. First, it is difficult to operationalize mental "energy" in a way that can be scientifically measured and tested. An operational definition is a demonstration of a process &mdash such as a Variable, term, or object &mdash relative in terms of the specific Process Second, more detailed explanations of extraversion and the brain have replaced Jung's rather speculative theories. Nevertheless, the concept is still in popular usage in the general sense of "feeling energized" in particular situations. Jung’s primary legacy in this area may be the popularizing of the terms introvert and extravert to refer to a particular dimension of personality.
Hans Eysenck described extraversion-introversion as the degree to which a person is outgoing and interactive with other people. Hans Jürgen Eysenck ( March 4, 1916 in Berlin, Germany - September 4, 1997 in London, UK) was a These behavioral differences are presumed to be the result of underlying differences in brain physiology.  Extraverts seek excitement and social activity in an effort to heighten their arousal level, whereas introverts tend to avoid social situations in an effort to keep such arousal to a minimum (see Differences in brain function below). Eysenck designated extraversion as one of three major traits in his P-E-N model of personality, which also includes psychoticism and neuroticism. Psychoticism is one of the three traits used by the psychologist Hans Eysenck in his P-E-N model (psychoticism extraversion and neuroticism model of personality Neuroticism is a fundamental personality trait in the study of Psychology.
Eysenck originally suggested that extraversion was a combination of two major tendencies, impulsiveness and sociability. He later added several other more specific traits, namely liveliness, activity level, and excitability. These traits are further linked in his personality hierarchy to even more specific habitual responses, such as partying on the weekend.
Eysenck compared this trait to the four temperaments of ancient medicine, with choleric and sanguine temperaments equating to extraversion, and melancholic and phlegmatic temperaments equating to introversion. Erich Adickes, Eduard Spränger, Ernst Kretschmer, and Erich Fromm all theorized on the four temperaments (with different names and greatly 
The relative importance of nature versus environment in determining the level of extraversion is controversial and the focus of many studies. The nature versus nurture debates concern the relative importance of an individual's innate qualities ("nature" i Twin studies find a genetic component of 39% to 58%. Twin studies are one of a family of designs in Behavior genetics which aid the study of individual differences by highlighting the role of environmental and genetic In terms of the environmental component, the shared family environment appears to be far less important than individual environmental factors that are not shared between siblings. 
Eysenck proposed that extraversion was caused by variability in cortical arousal. The cerebral cortex is a structure within the Brain that plays a key role in Memory, Attention, perceptual Awareness, Thought, He hypothesized that introverts are characterized by higher levels of activity than extraverts and so are chronically more cortically aroused than extraverts. The fact that extraverts require more external stimulation than introverts has been interpreted as evidence for this hypothesis. Other evidence of the "stimulation" hypothesis is that introverts salivate more than extraverts in response to a drop of lemon juice. 
Extraversion has been linked to higher sensitivity of the mesolimbic dopamine system to potentially rewarding stimuli.  This in part explains the high levels of positive affect found in extraverts, since they will more intensely feel the excitement of a potential reward. One consequence of this is that extraverts can more easily learn the contingencies for positive reinforcement, since the reward itself is experienced as greater.
One study found that introverts have more blood flow in the frontal lobes of their brain and the anterior or frontal thalamus, which are areas dealing with internal processing, such as planning and problem solving. The frontal lobe is an area in the Brain of Mammals It is located at the front of each Cerebral hemisphere and positioned anterior to (in front of the The brain is the center of the Nervous system in animals All Vertebrates and the majority of Invertebrates have a brain The thalamus (from Greek θάλαμος = room chamber, IPA= /ˈθæləməs/ is a pair and symmetric part of the brain Extraverts have more blood flow in the anterior cingulate gyrus, temporal lobes, and posterior thalamus, which are involved in sensory and emotional experience. Cingulate gyrus (belt ridge in eng is a Gyrus in the medial part of the Brain. The temporal lobes are parts of the cerebrum that are involved in speech, Memory, and Hearing.  This study and other research indicates that introversion-extraversion is related to individual differences in brain function.
Acknowledging that introversion and extraversion are normal variants of behavior can help in self-acceptance and understanding of others. For example, an extravert can accept her introverted partner’s need for space, while an introvert can acknowledge his extraverted partner’s need for social interaction.
Social psychologist David Myers found a correlation between extraversion and happiness; that is, more extraverted people reported higher levels of personal happiness. for others with a similar name see Dave Meyers David G Myers is a professor of Psychology at Hope College in Michigan Happiness is an Emotion associated with feelings ranging from contentment and satisfaction to Bliss and intense Joy.  The causality is not clear, however. Extraversion may lead to greater happiness, happier people may become more extraverted, or there may be some other factor such as genetics that affects both. It is also possible that the results reflect biases in the survey itself.  Another factor is that introversion is generally regarded as less healthy in Western culture. Also, according to Carl Jung, introverts acknowledge more readily their psychological needs and problems, whereas extraverts tend to be oblivious of them because they focus more on the outer world.  On average, extraverts also have a somewhat higher self-esteem than introverts. As in the case of happiness, this may be due to inherent differences in the brain, or differential social treatment.
Extraversion is perceived as socially desirable in Western culture, but it is not always an advantage. For many years, researchers have found that introverts tend to be more successful in academic environments, which extraverts may find boring.  Extraverted youths are also more likely to engage in delinquent behavior. A delinquent is one who fails to do that which is required by Law or by Duty when such failure is minor in nature 
Career counselors often use personality traits, along with other factors such as skill and interest, to advise their clients. Career is a term defined by the Oxford English Dictionary as an individual's "course or progress through life (or a distinct portion of life"  Some careers such as computer programming may be more satisfying for an introverted temperament, while other areas such as sales may be more agreeable to the extraverted type.
Although neither introversion nor extraversion is pathological, psychotherapists can take temperament into account when treating clients. Psychotherapy is an Interpersonal, relational intervention used by trained psychotherapists to aid clients in problems of living Clients may respond better to different types of treatment depending on where they fall on the introversion/extraversion spectrum. Teachers can also consider temperament when dealing with their pupils, for example acknowledging that introverted children need more encouragement to speak in class while extraverted children may grow restless during long periods of quiet study. In Education, a teacher is one who helps Students or pupils often in a School, as well as in a Family, religious or
However, use of the terms may encourage pigeonholing or stereotyping. Pigeonholing is a term used to describe processes that attempt to classify disparate entities into a small number of categories (usually mutually exclusive ones A stereotype (from Greek: stereo + týpos = "solid impression" is a generalized perception of first impressions behaviors presumed by a group As noted above, extraversion may be a continuum and many people have a mixture of both orientations in their personalities. A person who acts introverted in one scenario may act extraverted in another, and people can learn to act “against type” in certain situations. Jung's theory states that when someone's primary function is extraverted, his secondary function is always introverted (and vice versa).