For experimental rock music
, see experimental rock
. Rock music is a genre of Popular music often though not necessarily employing Electric guitar, Bass guitar, and Drums. Experimental rock or avant-garde rock is a type of music based on rock which experiments with the basic elements of the genre and/or which pushes the boundaries
Experimental music is a term introduced by composer John Cage in 1955. WikipediaWikiProject Composers#Lead section --> John Milton Cage Jr Cage defined "an experimental action is one the outcome of which is not foreseen" (Cage 1961, 39), and he was specifically interested in completed works that performed an unpredictable action (Mauceri 1997, 197). Aleatoric music (also aleatory music or chance music; from the Latin word alea, meaning " Dice " is Music
In a broader sense, it is also used to mean any music that challenges the commonly accepted notions of what music is. The definition of music is a contested evaluation of what constitutes Music and varies through history geography and within societies David Cope describes experimental music as that, "which represents a refusal to accept the status quo" (Cope, 1997, 222).
Michael Nyman (1974) uses the term "experimental" to describe the work of American composers (John Cage, Christian Wolff, Earle Brown, Meredith Monk, Malcolm Goldstein, Morton Feldman, Terry Riley, La Monte Young, Philip Glass, John Cale, Steve Reich, etc. WikipediaWikiProject Composers#Lead section --> WikipediaWikiProject Classical music#Biographical_infoboxes WikipediaWikiProject Composers#Lead section --> John Milton Cage Jr Christian Wolff (born March 8, 1934) is an American Composer of experimental classical music. Earle Brown ( Lunenburg Massachusetts, December 26, 1926 &ndash Rye New York, July 2, 2002) was an American composer Meredith Jane Monk (born November 20, 1942, in New York) is an American Composer, performer director vocalist film-maker Malcolm Goldstein (b Brooklyn, New York, United States, March 27, 1936) is a Violinist and Composer specializing Morton Feldman (January 12 1926 – September 3 1987 was an American Composer, born in New York City. Terry Riley (born June 24 1935) is an American composer associated with the minimalist school La Monte Thornton Young (born October 14 1935) is an American Composer and musician WikipediaWikiProject Composers#Lead section --> Philip Glass (born January 31 John Davies Cale (born March 9, 1942) better known as John Cale, is a Welsh Musician, Composer, Singer-songwriter WikipediaWikiProject Composers#Lead section --> Stephen Michael Reich (born October 3 ) as opposed to the European avant-garde at the time (Karlheinz Stockhausen, Pierre Boulez, Iannis Xenakis). WikipediaWikiProject Classical music#Biographical_infoboxes --> Pierre Boulez (pjɛʁ buˈlɛz (b Iannis Xenakis (Ιάννης Ξενάκης (May 29 1922 - February 4 2001 was a Greek modernist composer musical theoretician and architect The word "experimental" in the former cases "is apt, providing it is understood not as descriptive of an act to be later judged in terms of success or failure, but simply as of an act the outcome of which is unknown" (Cage 1961, 13).
According to David Nicholls, ". . . very generally, avant-garde music can be viewed as occupying an extreme position within the tradition, while experimental music lies outside it" (Nicholls 1998, 318). That tradition is the inheritance of common-practice Western art music, with its concern for increased technical complexity, historical inheritance, composer intention and other features. Art music (or serious music or erudite music) as defined by Jacques Siron is an umbrella term generally used to refer to musical traditions implying advanced structural In general, and at least originally, experimental music took its inspiration from non-Western sources and from varying times. It may take its inspiration (directly in terms of generating systems) from other media; practitioners may or may not be professionals in the traditional sense of the word, although they may still be trained in their work and adept at it.
Leonard B. Meyer, on the other hand, includes under "experimental music" composers such as Berio, Boulez, and Stockhausen, as well as the techniques of "total serialism" (Meyer 1994, 106–107 and 266), holding that "there is no single, or even pre-eminent, experimental music, but rather a plethora of different methods and kinds" (Meyer 1994, 237). Leonard B Meyer ( January 12, 1918 &ndash December 30, 2007) was a Composer, Author, and philosopher. Luciano Berio, Cavaliere di Gran Croce OMRI ( October 24, 1925 &ndash May 27, 2003) was an Italian Composer. WikipediaWikiProject Classical music#Biographical_infoboxes --> Pierre Boulez (pjɛʁ buˈlɛz (b In Music, serialism is a technique for composition that uses sets to describe musical elements, and allows the manipulation of those
As with other edge forms that push the limits of a particular form of expression, there is little agreement as to the boundaries of experimental music, even amongst its practitioners. On the one hand, some experimental music is an extension of traditional music, adding unconventional instruments, modifications to instruments, noises, and other novelties to compositions. An experimental musical instrument (or custom-made instrument) is a Musical instrument that modifies or extends an existing instrument or class of instruments At the other extreme, there are performances that most listeners would not characterize as music at all.
While much discussion of experimental music centers on definitional issues and its validity as a musical form, the most frequently performed experimental music is entertaining and, at its best, can lead the listener to question core assumptions about the nature of music.
The term "experimental music" was used contemporaneously for electronic music, particularly in the early musique concrète work of Schaeffer and Henry in France (Vignal 2003, 298) and in the Experimental Studios at the University of Illinois, run by Lejaren Hiller. Electronic music is music that employs Electronic musical instruments and Electronic Music technology in its production Musique concrète ( French; literally "concrete music" is a style of Avant-garde music that relies on recorded sounds including natural Lejaren Hiller (b February 23, 1924, New York City, d January 26, 1994, Buffalo New York) was an American "Experimental" electronic composition may be "experimental" in the sense used in Nyman (for instance, Cage, Cartridge Music or the early work of Alvin Lucier); it may also lie more comfortably with the avant garde.
Aleatoric music - A term coined by Werner Meyer-Eppler and used by Boulez and other composers of the avant garde (in Europe) to refer to a strictly limited form of indeterminacy, also called "controlled chance". Aleatoric music (also aleatory music or chance music; from the Latin word alea, meaning " Dice " is Music Werner Meyer-Eppler (born 30 April 1913 in Antwerp, died 8 July 1960 in Bonn) was a German Physicist As this distinction was misunderstood, the term is often (and somewhat inaccurately) used interchangeably with, or in place of, "indeterminacy".
Graphic notation - Music which is written in the form of diagrams or drawings rather than using “conventional” notation (with staves, clefs, notes, etc). Musical graphic notation is a form of Music notation which refers to the use of non-traditional symbols and text to convey information about the performance of a piece of music
Indeterminate music - Related to 'chance music' (one of Cage's terms). Indeterminacy in music which began early in the twentieth century in the music of Charles Ives, and was continued in the 1930s by Henry Cowell and carried on by his Music in which the composer introduces the elements of chance or unpredictability with regard to either the composition or its performance. This term is used by experimental composers, performers and scholars working in experimental music in the United States, Britain, and in other countries influenced by Cagean aesthetics. Aesthetics or esthetics ( also spelled æsthetics) is commonly known as the study of sensory or sensori-emotional values sometimes called
Literalism - Music that rejects the aesthetic as motivating force for the creation and pursuit of sound, using either the basic building blocks of orchestral composition (strict literalism) or sounds present at the site of performance (direct literalism) instead.
Microtones - A pitch interval that is smaller than a semitone. Microtonal music is Music using microtones — intervals of less than an equally spaced Semitone. This includes quarter tones and intervals even smaller. Composers have, for example, divided the octave into 22, 31, 43, 53, 72, etc. In music 22 equal temperament, called 22-tet 22-edo, or 22-et is the tempered scale derived by dividing the octave into 22 equally large steps In music 31 equal temperament, which can be abbreviated 31-tET 31- EDO, 31-ET is the tempered scale derived by dividing the Octave into 31 equal-sized The 43-tone scale is a Just intonation scale with 43 pitches in each Octave, invented and used by Harry Partch. In music 53 equal temperament, called 53-TET 53- EDO, or 53-ET is the tempered scale derived by dividing the octave into fifty-three equally large steps In music 72 equal temperament, called twelfth-tone 72-tet 72-edo, or 72-et is the tempered scale derived by dividing the octave into twelfth-tones or in other microtones, either equally or unequally, and then used this scale as a basis for composition.
Some of the more common techniques include:
- Extended techniques: Any of a number of methods of performing on a musical instrument that are unique, innovative, and sometimes regarded as improper. Extended techniques are performance techniques used in Music to describe unconventional unorthodox or "improper" techniques of Singing, or of A musical instrument is a device constructed or modified for the purpose of making Music.
- "Prepared" instruments—ordinary instruments modified in their tuning or sound-producing characteristics. For example, guitar strings can have a weight attached at a certain point, changing their harmonic characteristics (Keith Rowe is one musician to have experimented with such prepared guitar techniques). Keith Rowe (born March 16, 1940 in Plymouth, England) is an English Free improvisation Guitarist and painter. A prepared guitar is a Guitar which has had its Timbre altered by placing various objects on or between the instrument's strings including other Extended Cage's prepared piano was one of the first such instruments. A prepared piano is a Piano which has had its sound altered by placing objects (preparations between or on the strings or on the hammers or dampers A different form is not hanging objects on the strings, but divide the string in two with a third bridge and play the inverse side, causing resonating bell-like harmonic tones at the pick-up side. A bell is a simple Sound -making device The bell is a Percussion instrument and an Idiophone. In Acoustics and Telecommunication, the harmonic of a Wave is a component Frequency of the signal that is an Integer A pickup device acts as a Transducer that captures mechanical vibrations (usually from suitably equipped Stringed instruments such as the Electric guitar
- Unconventional playing techniques—for example, strings on a piano can be manipulated directly instead of being played the orthodox, keyboard-based way (an innovation of Henry Cowell's known as "string piano"), a dozen or more piano keys may be depressed simultaneously with the forearm to produce a tone cluster (another technique popularized by Cowell), or the tuning pegs on a guitar can be rotated while a note sounds (called a "tuner glissando"). Henry Cowell ( March 11, 1897 – December 10, 1965) was an American Composer, musical theorist, Pianist String piano is a term coined by American composer-theorist Henry Cowell (1897–1965 to collectively describe those pianistic Extended techniques in which sound is A tone cluster is a musical chord comprising at least three consecutive tones in a scale. " Glissando " (plural glissandi abbreviated gliss is a glide from one pitch to another
- Incorporation of instruments, tunings, rhythms or scales from non-Western musical traditions. A musical instrument is a device constructed or modified for the purpose of making Music. Rhythm (from Greek ῥυθμός - rhythmos, "any measured flow or movement symmetry" is the variation of the length and accentuation of In Music, a scale is a group of musical notes collected in ascending and descending order that provides material for or is used to conveniently represent part or all
- Use of sound sources other than conventional musical instruments such as trash cans, telephone ringers, and doors slamming.
- Playing with deliberate disregard for the ordinary musical controls (pitch, duration, volume).
- Use of graphic notation, non-conventional written/graphic 'instructions' actively interpreted by the performer(s). Musical graphic notation is a form of Music notation which refers to the use of non-traditional symbols and text to convey information about the performance of a piece of music John Cage is credited with the original development of the radical score, and this influence continued through other composers/artists such as La Monte Young, George Brecht, George Crumb, Annea Lockwood, Yoko Ono, Krzysztof Penderecki and beyond. WikipediaWikiProject Composers#Lead section --> John Milton Cage Jr La Monte Thornton Young (born October 14 1935) is an American Composer and musician George Brecht (born George MacDiarmid, New York, United States August 27 1926 is a Minimalist Artist and Composer George Crumb (born October 24, 1929) is an American Composer of modern and Avant garde music Annea Lockwood (born July 29, 1939 in Christchurch New Zealand is a New Zealand born American Composer and teaches electronic music at Vassar College born in Tokyo on February 18 1933 is a Japanese Artist and Musician. Krzysztof Penderecki (ˈkʂɨʂtɔf pɛndɛrˈɛ͡tski born November 23 1933 in Dębica) is a Polish Composer and conductor of classical
- Creating experimental musical instruments for enhancing the timbre of compositions and exploring new techniques or possibilities. An experimental musical instrument (or custom-made instrument) is a Musical instrument that modifies or extends an existing instrument or class of instruments
- Gann, Kyle, 2000. The following is a list of notable Experimental musicians: In alphabetical order by artist's name Laurie Anderson At the turn of the 20th century classical music was characteristically late Romantic in style while at the same time the Impressionist movement spearheaded by Claude Debussy Acousmatic music is a form of Electroacoustic music that deals specifically with Acousmatic sound as a compositional resource Biomusic is a form of Experimental music which deals with sounds created or performed by living things Circuit bending is the creative short-circuiting of electronic devices such as low Voltage, battery-powered Guitar effects, children's Toys Computer music is a term that was originally used within academia to describe a field of study relating to the applications of Computing technology in music composition In the broadest and popular sense Contemporary music is any music being written in the present day Danger Music is an experimental form of Avant-garde 20th and 21st century classical music Electroacoustic music includes several different sonic and Musical genres or musical techniques European free jazz is a part of the global Free jazz scene with its own development and characteristics Musique concrète ( French; literally "concrete music" is a style of Avant-garde music that relies on recorded sounds including natural Free improvisation or free music is improvised music without any rules beyond the taste or inclination of the musician(s involved in many cases the musicians make For the Ornette Coleman album after which this genre was named see Free Jazz A Collective Improvisation. Kyle Eugene Gann (born November 21, 1955) is an American Composer and music critic born in Dallas, Texas. MUSIC; Electronic Music, Always Current, New York Times, July 9, 2000.
- Gann, Kyle, 2000. It's Sound, It's Art, and Some Call It Music, New York Times, January 9, 2000.
- Bailey, Derek. Derek Bailey ( January 29, 1930 – December 25, 2005) was an English avant-garde Guitarist and leading figure in the 1980. "Musical Improvisation: Its Nature and Practice in Music". Englewood Cliffs, N. J. : Prentice-Hall; Ashbourne: Moorland. ISBN 0136070442. Second edition, London: British Library National Sound Archive, 1992. ISBN 0712305068
- Experimental musical instruments (magazine). Experimental Musical Instruments was a periodical published by Bart Hopkins, a leader in 20th century Experimental music design and Custom made 1985–1999. A periodical (no longer published) devoted to experimental music and instruments.
- Holmes, Thomas B. 2002. Electronic and Experimental Music: Pioneers in Technology and Composition. Second edition. London: Routledge. ISBN 0415936438
- Smith Brindle, Reginald. 1975. pepr. 1986. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-315471-4
- Sutherland, Roger, 1994. New Perspectives in Music. London: Sun Tavern Fields. ISBN 0-951-7012-6-6
- Cage, John. WikipediaWikiProject Composers#Lead section --> John Milton Cage Jr 1961. Silence: Lectures and Writings. Middletown, Connecticut: Wesleyan University Press. Unaltered reprints: Weslyan University press, 1966 (pbk), 1967 (cloth), 1973 (pbk ["First Wesleyan paperback edition"], 1975 (unknown binding); Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press, 1966, 1967, 1969, 1970, 1971; London: Calder & Boyars, 1968, 1971, 1973 ISBN 0714505269 (cloth) ISBN 0714510432 (pbk). London: Marion Boyars, 1986, 1999 ISBN: 0714510432 (pbk); [n. p. ]: Reprint Services Corporation, 1988 (cloth) ISBN 9991178015 [In particular the essays "Experimental Music", pp. 7–12, and "Experimental Music: Doctrine", pp. 13–17. ]
- Cope, David. 1997. Techniques of the Contemporary Composer. New York, New York: Schirmer Books. ISBN 0-02-864737-8.
- Mauceri, Frank X. 1997. "From Experimental Music to Musical Experiment". Perspectives of New Music 35, no. 1 (Winter): 187-204.
- Meyer, Leonard B. 1994. Music, the Arts, and Ideas: Patterns and Predictions in Twentieth-Century Culture. Second edition. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-52143-5
- Nicholls, David. 1998. "Avant-garde and Experimental Music. " In Cambridge History of American Music. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521454298
- Nyman, Michael. 1974. Experimental Music: Cage and Beyond. New York: Schirmer Books. ISBN 0028712005. Second edition, Cambridge & New York: Cambridge University Press, 1999. ISBN 0521652979
- Vignal, Marc(éd. ), 2003, "Expérimentale (musique)" in Dictionnaire de la Musique, Larousse, Paris, (ISBN 2035113547)
- Experimental Music Catalogue - Experimental Music Catalogue has been publishing American and British experimental music scores and recordings since 1969. This site sponsors the Journal of Experimental Music Studies (JEMS), a peer-reviewed online journal devoted to experimental music.
- The Sound Projector - The Sound Projector music magazine and radio show
- ADDLIMB Organization
- Feza Neverd Original experimental music recordings.
© 2009 citizendia.org; parts available under the terms of GNU Free Documentation License, from http://en.wikipedia.org
network: | |