An exemplum (Latin for "example", pl. exempla, exempli gratia = "for example", abbr. : e. g. ) is a moral anecdote, brief or extended, real or fictitious, used to illustrate a point. For other uses see Anecdota. For a comparison of anecdote with other kinds of stories see Myth legend fairy tale and fable.
This genre sprang from the above, in classical, medieval and Renaissance literature, consisting of lives of famous figures, and using these (by emphasizing good or bad character traits) to make a moral point. A genre (ˈʒɑːnrə also /ˈdʒɑːnrə/ from French "kind" or "sort" from Latin: genus (stem gener-) is a loose set
Collections of Exempla helped medieval preachers to adorn their sermons, to emphasize moral conclusions or illustrate a point of doctrine. A sermon is an oration by a Prophet or member of the Clergy. Sermons address a Biblical, theological, or religious topic The subject matter could be taken from fables, folktales, legends or real history. A fable is a succinct story in prose or verse that features Animals Plants inanimate objects, or forces of nature which are History The concept of folklore developed as part of the 19th century ideology of Romantic nationalism, leading to the reshaping of oral traditions to serve modern ideological A legend ( Latin, legenda, "things to be read" is a Narrative of human actions that are perceived both by teller and listeners to Jacques de Vitry's book of exempla, c. Jacques de Vitry (c 1160/70 &ndash 1240 or 1244) was a theologian chronicler and cardinal from 1228 &ndash 40 1200, was one of the most famous collections. Geoffrey Chaucer's The Miller's Prologue and Tale became a vivid satire on these collections and the abuse they found wherever they were just brought into monotonous litanies. Geoffrey Chaucer (c 1343 – 25 October 1400? was an English author poet Philosopher, bureaucrat, courtier and Diplomat. The Miller's Tale is the second of Geoffrey Chaucer 's Canterbury Tales (1380s-1390s told by a drunken miller to "quite" (requite The Knight's A litany, in Christian worship, is a form of Prayer used in Church services and Processions and consisting of a number of petitions
The Norton Anthology of Western Literature includes three exempla (singular, exemplum), stories that illustrate a general principle or underscore a moral lesson: “The Two City Dwellers and the Country Man” and “The King’s Tailor’s Apprentice” (both from The Scholar’s Guide) and “The Cursed Dancers of Colbeck. Mirror for Magistrates is a collection of English poems from the Tudor period by various authors which retell the lives and the tragic ends of various historical figures ”
“The Pardoner’s Tale” in Chaucer’s The Canterbury Tales is a longer example of an exemplum.
A father tells the first story from The Scholar’s Guide, and his son tells the second. The father is defined as the Male Parent of an offspring The Adjective "paternal" refers to father parallel to "maternal" for SON DNA binding protein, also known as SON, is a human Gene.
In “The Two City Dwellers and the Country Man,” told by the father, the three traveling companions of the tale’s title are on a pilgrimage to Mecca. A title is a prefix or suffix added to a person's name to signify either veneration an official position or a professional or academic qualification In Religion and Spirituality, a pilgrimage is a long journey or Search of great Moral significance Mecca ˈmɛkə also spelled Makkah ˈmækə (in full Makkah Al-Mukarramah (Arabic mækːæ(t ælmʊkarˑamæ مكّة المكرمة, literally Honored Near their destination, their provisions are nearly depleted, and the two city dwellers attempt to cheat the country man by telling him that whoever of them dreams the most extraordinary dream shall get the last of their bread. A city is an Urban area with a large Population and a particular Administrative, Legal, or Historical status In Political geography and International politics, a country is a Political division of a geographical entity A man is a Male Human. The term man (irregular plural Dreams are the images sounds thoughts and feelings experienced while Sleeping, particularly strongly associated with Rapid eye movement sleep. Bread is a Staple food prepared by Baking a Dough of Flour and Water.
As the city dwellers sleep, the country man, alert to their intended deception, eats the half-baked bread before retiring. Sleep is a Natural state of bodily rest observed throughout the animal kingdom
The city dwellers relate their made-up dreams. One says he was taken to heaven and led before God by angels. Heaven may refer to the physical heavens the sky or the seemingly endless expanse of the Universe beyond God is the principal or sole Deity in Religions and other belief systems that worship one deity. The other says that angels escorted him to hell. Hell, according to many Religious beliefs, is a location in the Afterlife, which may be described as a place of suffering
The country man says he dreamed the same things that his companions dreamed and, believing them to be forever lost, one to heaven and the other to hell, ate the bread.
The son tells his father the moral of the story: “As it says in the proverb, ‘He who wanted all, lost all. A proverb (from the Latin proverbium) also called a byword or nayword, is a simple and concrete Saying popularly known and repeated ’” He says that the two city dwellers got their just comeuppance. The story says that he wishes they’d been whipped, as the antagonist in another story he has heard, was beaten for his chicanery. His comment is a transition to the next tale, causing the father to ask his son to tell him this story. Thus, the roles of the father and his son are reversed, as the father, who was the storyteller, becomes the listener, and the son, who was his father’s audience, becomes the narrator.
The son’s story recounts the story of a king’s tailor’s assistant, a youth by the name of Nedui.
One day while he is away, his master gives the other apprentices bread and honey, but does but save any for Nedui, telling them that Nedui “would not eat honey even if he were here. Honey is a sweet and Viscous fluid produced by Honey bees (and some other species and derived from the nectar of Flowers According to the ” Upon learning that he has been left out, Nedui avenges himself upon his master by telling the eunuch whom the king has set over the apprentices as their supervisor that the tailor is subject to seizures of madness, during which he becomes violent and dangerous. A eunuch (ˈjuːnək is a Castrated man in particular one castrated early enough to have major hormonal consequences the term usually refers to those castrated in order to A supervisor, foreman foreperson team leader overseer cell coach facilitator or area coordinator is a manager in business A tailor is a person whose occupation is to sew and scissor menswear style jackets and the skirts or trousers that go with them In fact, Nedui claims, he has killed those who have happened to be near him when he is in the grip of such a fit. To protect himself, Nedui says, he binds and beats the tailor when such a fit comes over him. He also tells the eunuch what to look for: “When you see him looking all around and feeling the floor with his hands and getting up from his seat and picking up the chair on which he is seated, then you will know that he is mad, and if you do not protect yourself and your servants, he will beat you on the head with a club. A floor is the walking surface of a room or vehicle Floors vary from simple dirt in a cave to many-layered surfaces using modern technology A chair is a kind of Furniture for Sitting, consisting of a back and sometimes arm rests commonly for use by one person A club is an association of people united by a common interest or goal ”
The next day, Nedui hides the tailor’s shears, and, when the master, hunting for them, behaves as Nedui mentioned to the eunuch, the eunuch orders his servants to bind the tailor and beats him himself with a club. His servants also beat him until he is unconscious and “half dead. ”
When he regains consciousness, the tailor asks the eunuch what crime he has committed to have deserved such a beating, and the eunuch tells him what Nedui told him about the tailor’s seizures. In the sociological field, crime is the breach of a rule or Law for which some governing authority or force may ultimately prescribe a Punishment “Friend, when have you ever seen me crazy?” the master asks his apprentice, to which question he receives, from Nedui, the rejoinder: “When have you ever seen me refuse to eat honey?”
The father tells the son the moral of the story: “The tailor deserved his punishment because if he had kept the precept of Moses, to love his brother as himself, this would not have happened to him. A moral is a message conveyed or a lesson to be learned from a story or event ”
By having the listener tell the narrator the moral of the story, the storyteller shows that the narrative has successfully served its purpose as an exemplum, as the listener, hearing the story, shows that he is able to ascertain the moral that the tale is intended to express.
The third exemplum, “The Cursed Dancers of Colbeck,” is a prose, rather than a poetic, narrative. Like a mini-sermon, it preaches against wrong conduct--in this case, sacrilegious behavior. This tale has an identifiable author, Robert Mannyng,” who set down the story in the early fourteenth century. The Norton Anthology’s version is translated from Middle English by Lee Patterson. Middle English is the name given by Historical linguistics to the diverse forms of the English language spoken between the Norman invasion of
To bolster his listener’s belief that “most of” his tale is “the gospel truth,” the narrator names the names of the culprits and their victims (both themselves and others) and cites no less an authority than Pope Leo as one who knows and wrote a version of the narrative and points out that the story is “known in the court at Rome” and has appeared widely in many chronicles, including those “beyond the sea. Belief is the psychological state in which an individual holds a Proposition or Premise to be true This article is about the canonical books of the New Testament The meaning of the word truth extends from Honesty, Good faith, and Sincerity in general to agreement with Fact or Reality Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 This article is about the body of water For other uses see SEA and Seas. ” However, after the telling of the tale, the storyteller admits that some doubt its veracity.
The story starts by identifying several activities that are not allowed in church or in the churchyard: “carols, wrestling, or summer games. A churchyard is a patch of land adjoining or surrounding a church which is usually owned by the relevant church or local Parish itself Wrestling is the act of physical engagement between two people in which each wrestler strives to get an advantage over or control of the opponent Summer is one of the four Temperate Seasons Summer marks the warmest time of year with the longest days ” In addition, “interludes or singing, beating the tabor [a small drum], or piping. Singing is the act of producing musical sounds with the voice, which is often contrasted with Speech. . . . while the priest is conducting mass” are “forbidden” and sacrilegious, and “good priests” will not tolerate them. A priest or priestess is a person having the authority or power to administer religious rites in particular rites of sacrifice to and propitiation of a deity or deities Mass is a fundamental concept in Physics, roughly corresponding to the Intuitive idea of how much Matter there is in an object
It is also improper to dance in church, as the story that the narrator is about to tell demonstrates.
When “twelve fools” in Colbeck (or, as the editors’ note explains, “Kolbigk, in Saxony, an area in eastern Germany, just north of the present-day Czech border) decided, one Christmas Eve, to make “a carol--madly, as a kind of challenge,” and persisted in singing and dancing in the churchyard while the priest was trying to conduct Mass, despite his entreaties to them to stop, the priest calls upon God to curse them. The Free State of Saxony (Freistaat Sachsen ˈzaksən Swobodny Stat Sakska is the easternmost federal state of Germany. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Borders define geographic boundaries of political entities or legal jurisdictions such as Governments States or subnational administrative A curse (also called execration) is any manner of Adversity thought to be inflicted by any supernatural power (such as a spell, a Prayer, an
The singers’ carol contains three lines, the last of which appears to become the basis of their curse, as they are unable to leave the churchyard or to quit singing or dancing for a year after God curses them for their sacrilegious behavior:
As a result of the curse, not only can the dancers stop singing and dancing, but they cannot let go of one another’s hands.
The priest, too late, sends his son, Ayone, to rescue his daughter, Ave, who is one of the “twelve fools” involved in the dancing. However, due to the curse, when Ayone takes his sister’s arm to separate her from the other carolers, it detaches from her body. In Anatomy, an arm is one of the Upper limbs of an animal The term arm can also be used for analogous structures such as one of the paired upper limbs With regard to living things, a body is the integral physical material of an individual Miraculously, her wound does not bleed, nor does she die from it. In Medicine, a wound is a type of Injury in which the Skin is torn cut or punctured (an open wound or where blunt force trauma
Ayone takes the arm to his father. The priest tries, three times unsuccessfully, to bury the limb, but the grave casts it back, so the priest displays it inside the church. Everyone, including the emperor, comes to see the cursed dancers, who, despite no rest, food, drink, or sleep, dance non-stop, night and day, regardless of the temperature or the weather. An emperor (from the Latin " Imperator " is a (male Monarch, usually the sovereign ruler of an Empire or another type of Food is any substance usually composed primarily of Carbohydrates Fats water and/or Proteins that can be eaten or drunk by an A drink, or beverage, is a Liquid specifically prepared for Human consumption Night or nighttime is the period of Time when the Sun is below the Horizon. A day (symbol d is a unit of Time equivalent to 24 Hours and the duration of a single Rotation of planet Earth with respect to the Temperature is a physical property of a system that underlies the common notions of hot and cold something that is hotter generally has the greater temperature The weather is a set of all the phenomena occurring in a given Atmosphere at a given Time. Several times, the emperor orders a covering to be built to protect the dancers from storms, but it is reduced to rubble overnight each time it is built or rebuilt.
After the year has ended, the curse is lifted, and the dancers fall down upon the ground, as if dead. A year (from Old English gēr) is the time between two recurrences of an event related to the Orbit of the Earth around the Sun Three days later, they arise--except for Ave, who has died. Soon after, the priest also dies. The emperor installs the container in the church as a receptacle for the dead girl’s arm, and it becomes a holy relic commemorating the miracle of the curse. A relic is an object or a personal item of religious significance carefully preserved with an air of Veneration as a tangible memorial A miracle is an event believed to be caused by interposition of Divine intervention by a Supernatural being in the Universe by which the ordinary operation
The other dancers cannot get together again, ever, and must skip, instead of walking, wherever they go. Living mementoes of God’s curse against sacrilegious behavior, they bear permanent physical changes to their clothing and their bodies: “Their clothes didn’t rot nor their nails grow; their hair didn’t lengthen nor their complexion change. Behavior or behaviour (see spelling differences) refers to the actions or Reactions of an object or Organism, usually Clothing (also called clothes, accoutrements, accouterments, or habiliments) protects the Human body from extreme Weather Hair is a keratinised protein filament that grows through the epidermis from follicles deep within the Dermis. Complexion refers to the natural color texture and appearance of the Skin, especially that of the face Nor did they ever have relief. A relief is a Sculptured Artwork where a modeled form is raised (or alternatively lowered from a flattened background without being disconnected from it . . . ”
Although some believe and others doubt the authenticity of the tale he’s told, the narrator says he recounted the story so that his listeners, taking heed, may be “afraid to carol in a church or churchyard, especially against the priest’s will,” as “jangling is a form of sacrilege. Sacrilege is the violation or injurious treatment of a sacred object ”