Exegesis (from the Greek ἐξηγεῖσθαι 'to lead out') involves an extensive and critical interpretation of an authoritative text, especially of a holy scripture, such as of the Old and New Testaments of the Bible, the Talmud, the Midrash, the Qur'an, etc. Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly In Logic an interpretation gives meaning to an artificial or Formal language or to a sentence of such a language by assigning a denotation (extension SACRED was a Cubesat built by the Student Satellite Program of the University of Arizona. In Western Christianity, the Old Testament refers to the books that form the first of the two-part Christian Biblical canon. Etymology According to the Online Etymology Dictionary, the word bible is from Latin biblia, traced from the same word through Medieval Latin and Late Latin The Talmud ( Hebrew: he תַּלְמוּד is a record of Rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs and history Midrash ( Hebrew: מדרש plural midrashim, lit "to repeat" is a Hebrew term referring to the not exact but comparative ( homiletic The Qur’an ( القرآن, literally "the recitation" also sometimes transliterated as Qur’ān, Koran, Alcoran Exegesis also is used to describe the elucidation of philosophical and legal texts. Philosophy is the study of general problems concerning matters such as existence knowledge truth beauty justice validity mind and language
One may encounter the terms exegesis and hermeneutics used interchangeably; however, there remains a distinction. Hermeneutics may be described as the development and study of Theories of the interpretation and understanding of texts An exegesis is the interpretation and understanding of a text on the basis of the text itself. A hermeneutic is a practical application of a certain method or theory of interpretation, often revolving around the contemporary relevance of the text in question. Hermeneutics may be described as the development and study of Theories of the interpretation and understanding of texts
An exegete is a practitioner of this art, and the adjectival form is exegetic. The plural of the word exegesis is exegeses.
The word exegesis can mean explanation, but as a technical term it means "to draw the meaning out of" a given text. Exegesis may be contrasted with eisegesis, which means to read one's own interpretation into a given text. Eisegesis (from the Greek root εις meaning into in among is the process of misinterpreting a text in such a way that it introduce one's own ideas reading into the text In general, exegesis presumes an attempt to view the text objectively, while eisegesis implies more subjectivity.
Traditional exegesis requires the following: analysis of significant words in the text in regard to translation; examination of the general historical and cultural context, confirmation of the limits of the passage, and lastly, examination of the context within the text. 
Although the most widely-known exegeses concern themselves with Christian, Jewish and Islamic books, analyses also exist of books of other religions. A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth PLEASE TAKE NOTE************ For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. A religion is a set of Tenets and practices often centered upon specific Supernatural and moral claims about Reality, the Cosmos
According to some forms of Christianity, two different forms of exegesis exist: revealed and rational. Biblical hermeneutics refers to methods of interpreting the Bible.
A common published form of a biblical exegesis is known as a 'bible commentary' and typically takes the form of an encyclopedia-like set of books each of which are devoted to the exposition of one or two books of the bible, in the order they appear in the Bible. Long books such as Psalms may be split over 2 or 3 volumes while short books such as 1, 2 and 3 John may be conflated into one volume. Psalms ( Hebrew: Tehilim, תהילים, or "praises" is a book of the Hebrew Bible (the Christian Old Testament) included The First Epistle of John is a book of the New Testament, and is the fourth catholic or "general" Epistles. The Second Epistle of John (often simply called 2nd John or II John) is a book in the Christian Holy Scriptures, the authorship of The New Testament Third Epistle of John (often referred to as 3 John) written in the form of an Epistle, is the 64th book of the Bible. The form of each book is identical, consisting of a background and introductory section, following by detailed commentary of the book in a verse-by-verse basis (split up either into chapters or smaller units of text). Before the 20th Century, a commentary would be written by a sole author, but today a publishing board will commission a team of scholars to write a commentary, with each volume being divided out among them. The twentieth century of the Common Era began on A single commentary will generally attempt to give a coherent and unified view on the bible as a whole, for example, from a Catholic or Reformed perspective, or a commentary that focuses on textual or historical considerations. Catholic is an Adjective derived from the Greek adjective '' / 'katholikos' meaning "whole" or "complete". The Reformed churches are a group of Christian Protestant Denominations formally characterized by a similar Calvinist system of doctrine historically However, each volume will inevitably lean toward the personal emphasis of its author, and within any commentaries there may be great variety in the depth, accuracy and critical strength of each volume.
Roman Catholic centres of biblical exegesis include:
For more than a century, German universities such as Tübingen have had reputations as centres of exegesis; in the USA, the Divinity Schools in Chicago, Harvard and Yale became famous. Modernism in the Roman Catholic Church is a theological viewpoint that usually includes a rationalist approach to the Bible, Secularism and modern The Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican, or Vatican II, was the twentieth century Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 Canonical is an Adjective derived from canon. Canon comes from the Greek word kanon, "rule" (perhaps originally from Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen ( German: Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen, sometimes called the "Eberhardina Carolina" is a public university The University of Chicago is a Private university located principally in the Hyde Park neighborhood of Chicago. Harvard Divinity School is one of the constituent schools of Harvard University, located in Cambridge Massachusetts, in the United States.
Robert A. Traina's book Methodical Bible Study has become influential in the field of Protestant Christian exegesis. Many regarded it as the standard text describing the inductive approach to interpreting the English-language Bible. Induction or inductive reasoning, sometimes called inductive logic, is the process of Reasoning in which the premises of an argument are believed
Traditional Jewish forms of exegesis appear throughout rabbinic literature, which includes the Mishnah, the two Talmuds, and the midrash literature. Midrash ( Hebrew: מדרש plural midrashim, lit "to repeat" is a Hebrew term referring to the not exact but comparative ( homiletic Rabbinic literature, in its broadest sense can mean the entire spectrum of Rabbinic writings throughout Jewish history The Mishnah or Mishna (he משנה "repetition" from the verb shanah he שנה or "to study and review" is a major work of Rabbinic Judaism The Talmud ( Hebrew: he תַּלְמוּד is a record of Rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs and history Midrash ( Hebrew: מדרש plural midrashim, lit "to repeat" is a Hebrew term referring to the not exact but comparative ( homiletic
Jewish exegetes have the title meforshim (commentators).
The Midrash is a homiletic method of exegesis and a compilation of homiletic teachings or commentaries on the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible), a Biblical exegesis of the Pentateuch and its paragraphs related to the Law or Torah, which also forms an object of analysis. Midrash ( Hebrew: מדרש plural midrashim, lit "to repeat" is a Hebrew term referring to the not exact but comparative ( homiletic See also Old testament, Septuagint, Targum, Peshitta The Tanakh (תַּנַ"ךְ (taˈnax or; also Tenakh or Tenak is term " Torah " ( Hebrew: תּוֹרָה "teaching" or "instruction" sometimes translated as "Law" most commonly refers to term " Torah " ( Hebrew: תּוֹרָה "teaching" or "instruction" sometimes translated as "Law" most commonly refers to It comprises the legal and ritual Halakha, the collective body of Jewish laws, and exegesis of the written Law; and the non-legalistic Haggadah, a compendium of Rabbinic homilies of the parts of the Pentateuch not connected with Law. Halakha ( הלכה; alternative transliterations include Halocho and Halacha) is the collective body of Jewish Religious law Aggadah ( Aramaic אגדה tales lore pl Aggadot or (Ashkenazi Aggados) refers to the homiletic and non-legalistic exegetical term " Torah " ( Hebrew: תּוֹרָה "teaching" or "instruction" sometimes translated as "Law" most commonly refers to
Biblical interpretation by the Tannaim and the Amoraim, which may be best designated as scholarly interpretations of the Midrash, was a product of natural growth and of great freedom in the treatment of the words of the Bible. word /š n/ and /t n/ --> Midrash ( Hebrew: מדרש plural midrashim, lit "to repeat" is a Hebrew term referring to the not exact but comparative ( homiletic But it proved an obstacle to further development when, endowed with the authority of a sacred tradition in the Talmud and in the Midrash (collections edited subsequently to the Talmud), it became the sole source for the interpretation of the Bible among later generations. The Talmud ( Hebrew: he תַּלְמוּד is a record of Rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs and history Midrash ( Hebrew: מדרש plural midrashim, lit "to repeat" is a Hebrew term referring to the not exact but comparative ( homiletic Traditional literature contains explanations that are in harmony with the wording and the context. It reflects evidence of linguistic sense, judgment, and an insight into the peculiarities and difficulties of the Biblical text. But side by side with these elements of a natural and simple Bible exegesis, of value even today, the traditional literature contains an even larger mass of expositions removed from the actual meaning of the text.
In the halakic as well as in the haggadic exegesis the expounder endeavored not so much to seek the original meaning of the text as to find authority in some Bible passage for concepts and ideas, rules of conduct and teachings, for which he wished to have a Biblical foundation. Halakha ( הלכה; alternative transliterations include Halocho and Halacha) is the collective body of Jewish Religious law Aggadah ( Aramaic אגדה tales lore pl Aggadot or (Ashkenazi Aggados) refers to the homiletic and non-legalistic exegetical To this were added, on the one hand, the belief that the words of the Bible had many meanings, and, on the other, the importance attached to the smallest portion, the slightest peculiarity of the text. Because of this move towards particularities the exegesis of the Midrash strayed further and further away from a natural and common-sense interpretation. Midrash ( Hebrew: מדרש plural midrashim, lit "to repeat" is a Hebrew term referring to the not exact but comparative ( homiletic Common sense (or when used attributively as an Adjective, commonsense, common-sense, or commonsensical) based on a strict construction
Midrash exegesis was largely in the nature of homiletics, expounding the Bible not in order to investigate its actual meaning and to understand the documents of the past. Homiletics ( Gr homiletikos, from homilos, to assemble together in Theology the application of the general principles of Rhetoric This was done to find religious edification, moral instruction, and sustenance for the thoughts and feelings of the present. The contrast between explanation of the literal sense and the Midrash, that did not follow the words, was recognized by the Tannaim and the Amoraim. Although their idea of the literal meaning of a Biblical passage may not be allowed by more modern standards. The above-mentioned tanna, Ishmael b. Elisha said, rejecting an exposition of Eliezer b. Hyrcanus: "Truly, you say to Scripture, 'Be silent while I am expounding!'" (Sifra on Lev. Ishmael ben Elisha (90-135 CE commonly known as Rabbi Ishmael, Hebrew: רבי ישמעאל) was a Tanna of the first and second Eliezer ben Hurcanus (אליעזר בן הורקנוס was one of the most prominent Tannaim of the 1st and 2nd centuries disciple of R Sifra ( Aramaic: סִפְרָא) is the Halakic midrash to Leviticus. xiii. 49).
Tannaitic exegesis distinguishes principally between the actual deduction of a thesis from a Bible passage as a means of proving a point, and the use of such a passage as a mere mnemonic device – a distinction that was also made in a different form later in the Babylonian schools. The Mishnah or Mishna (he משנה "repetition" from the verb shanah he שנה or "to study and review" is a major work of Rabbinic Judaism A mnemonic device (nəˈmɒnɪk is a Memory aid Commonly met mnemonics are often verbal something such as a very short poem or a special word used to help a person remember Babylonia was an Amorite state in lower Mesopotamia (modern southern Iraq) with Babylon as its capital The Babylonian Amoraim were the first to use the expression "Peshaṭ" ("simple" or face value method) to designate the primary sense, contrasting it with the "Drash," the Midrashic exegesis. Peshat Pshat is one of four classical methods used by Jewish bible scholars to understand the Hebrew bible. Midrash ( Hebrew: מדרש plural midrashim, lit "to repeat" is a Hebrew term referring to the not exact but comparative ( homiletic These two terms were later on destined to become important features in the history of Jewish Bible exegesis. PLEASE TAKE NOTE************ In Babylonia was formulated the important principle that the Midrashic exegesis could not annul the primary sense. Babylonia was an Amorite state in lower Mesopotamia (modern southern Iraq) with Babylon as its capital Midrash ( Hebrew: מדרש plural midrashim, lit "to repeat" is a Hebrew term referring to the not exact but comparative ( homiletic This principle subsequently became the watchword of commonsense Bible exegesis. How little it was known or recognized may be seen from the admission of Kahana, a Babylonian amora of the fourth century, that while at 18 years of age he had already learned the whole Mishnah, he had only heard of that principle a great many years later (Shab 63a). The Mishnah or Mishna (he משנה "repetition" from the verb shanah he שנה or "to study and review" is a major work of Rabbinic Judaism Moed ("Festivals" is the second Order of the Mishnah, the first written recording of the Oral Torah of the Jewish people (also the Tosefta and Talmud Kahana's admission is characteristic of the centuries following the final redaction of the Talmud. The primary meaning is no longer considered, but it becomes more and more the fashion to interpret the text according to the meaning given to it in traditional literature. The ability and even the desire for original investigation of the text succumbed to the overwhelming authority of the Midrash. Midrash ( Hebrew: מדרש plural midrashim, lit "to repeat" is a Hebrew term referring to the not exact but comparative ( homiletic It was, therefore, providential that, just at the time when the Midrash was paramount, the close study of the text of the Bible, at least in one direction, was pursued with rare energy and perseverance by the careful Masorites, who set themselves to preserving and transmitting the pronunciation and correct reading of the text. Midrash ( Hebrew: מדרש plural midrashim, lit "to repeat" is a Hebrew term referring to the not exact but comparative ( homiletic See also Masoretic text The Masoretes ( ba'alei hamasorah, Hebrew בעלי המסורה were groups of Scribes and Bible Scholars By introducing punctuation (vowel-points and accents) into the Biblical text, in the seventh century, they supplied that protecting hedge which, according to Rabbi Akiba's saying, the Masorah was to be for the words of the Bible. In Hebrew Orthography, niqqud or nikkud ( is the system of Diacritical signs used to represent vowels or distinguish between alternative pronunciations In Linguistics, stress is the relative emphasis that may be given to certain Syllables in a word Akiva redirects here For other people and things with this name see Akiva (disambiguation. Punctuation, on the one hand, protected the tradition from being forgotten, and, on the other, was the precursor of an independent Bible science to be developed in a later age.
The Mikra, the fundamental part of the national science, was the subject of the primary instruction. It was also divided into the three historic groups of the books of the Bible: the Pentateuch, the Prophets, and the Hagiographa. Etymology According to the Online Etymology Dictionary, the word bible is from Latin biblia, traced from the same word through Medieval Latin and Late Latin term " Torah " ( Hebrew: תּוֹרָה "teaching" or "instruction" sometimes translated as "Law" most commonly refers to The intelligent reading and comprehension of the text, arrived at by a correct division of the sentences and words, formed the course of instruction in the Bible. The scribes were also required to know the Targum, the Aramaic translation of the text. The Targum made possible an immediate comprehension of the text, but was continuously influenced by the exegesis taught in the schools. The synagogues were preeminently the centers for instruction in the Bible and its exegesis. The reading of the Biblical text, which was combined with that of the Targum, served to widen the knowledge of the scholars learned in the first division of the national science. The scribes found the material for their discourses, which formed a part of the synagogue service, in the second division of the several branches of the tradition. The Haggadah, the third of these branches, especially furnished the material for the sermon.
Jewish exegesis did not finish with the redaction of the Talmud, but continued during ancient times, the Middle Ages and the Renaissance; it remains a subject of study today. The Talmud ( Hebrew: he תַּלְמוּד is a record of Rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs and history The Renaissance (from French Renaissance, meaning "rebirth" Italian: Rinascimento, from re- "again" and nascere Jews have centres for exegetic studies around the world, in each community: they consider exegesis an important tool for the understanding of the Scriptures.
An Islamic Exegesis of the Qur'an is named Tafsir, and it constituted a large field of the Islamic studies. Tafsir ( Arabic: تفسير, tafsīr, "interpretation" is the Arabic word for Exegesis The Qur’an ( القرآن, literally "the recitation" also sometimes transliterated as Qur’ān, Koran, Alcoran This is a sub-article to Religious education, Academic discipline, and Islam.
Several universities, including the Sorbonne in Paris, Leiden University, and the Université Libre de Bruxelles (Free University of Brussels), put exegesis in a secular context, next to exegesis in a religious tradition. Leiden University (Universiteit Leiden located in the city of Leiden, is the oldest University in The Netherlands. The Université Libre de Bruxelles (or ULB) is a French -speaking University in Brussels Secular exegesis is an element of the study of religion. Religious studies, or Religious education, is the academic field of multi-disciplinary Secular study of religious beliefs behaviors and institutions
Richard Simon (Paris, 1678; second edition, Rotterdam, 1685); Carpzov, (Leipzig, 1714-21); Semler, (Halle, 1773); Eichhorn, (Leipzig, 1780-83, fourth edition, 1823); Jahn, (Vienna, 1793; second edition, 1802-03); Augusti (Leipzig, 1806); De Wette (Berlin, 1817; seventh edition, 1852; eighth edition by Schrader, 1869); Hug (Stuttgart, 1808; fourth edition, 1847); Bertholdt (Erlangen, 1812-19); Hävernick (Erlangen, 1835; second edition, 1854); Horne (London, 1818; ninth edition, 1846); Glaire (Paris, 1839 ff. Richard Simon ( 13 May 1638 - 11 April 1712) was a French biblical Critic. Johann Salomo Semler ( December 18, 1725 &ndash March 14, 1791) was a German church historian and biblical commentator Johann Gottfried Eichhorn ( October 16, 1752 - June 27, 1827) was a German Protestant theologian of Enlightenment and early Johann Jahn, ( June 18 1750, Tasswitz, Moravia - August 16 1816) was a German Orientalist Johann Christian Wilhelm Augusti (1772 - 1841 was a German theologian. Wilhelm Martin Leberecht de Wette ( January 12, 1780 - June 16, 1849) was a German theologian. Eberhard Schrader ( January 7, 1836 - July 4, 1908) was a German orientalist Johann Leonhard Hug ( June 1, 1765 in Konstanz - March 11, 1846 in Freiburg im Breisgau) was a German Roman Thomas Hartwell Horne (1780 - 1862 was a theologian and librarian ); Herbst-Welte (Freiberg, 1840-44); Hupfeld (Halle, 1859); Keil (Frankfort, 1855; third edition, 1873); Bleek (Berlin, 1860; third edition by Kamphausen, Berlin, 1870; fourth edition by Wellhausen, 1878; also sixth edition, 1893); Kuenen (Leyden 1861-65; second edition, 1887; of part iii by Matthes, 1893); Davidson (London, 1862); Lamy (Mechlin, 1866-68); Först (Leipzig 1867-70); Kaulen (Freiburg, 1876 ff. Hermann Hupfeld ( March 31, 1796 &ndash April 24, 1866) German Orientalist and Biblical commentator was born at Johann Friedrich Karl Keil or Carl Friedrich Keil ( 26 February 1807 &ndash 5 May 1888) was a conservative German Lutheran Friedrich Bleek ( July 4, 1793 - February 27, 1859) German Biblical scholar was at Ahrensbök, in Holstein a village Adolf Kamphausen (1829-1909 was a German Protestant theologian, born at Solingen and educated at Bonn. Julius Wellhausen ( May 17, 1844 - January 7, 1918) was a German biblical scholar and Orientalist. Abraham Kuenen ( September 16, 1828 - December 10, 1891) Dutch Protestant theologian, the son of an Apothecary Samuel Davidson ( 23 September 1807 - 1 April 1898) was an Irish Biblical scholar who was born near Ballymena Étienne Marie Victor Lamy ( 2 June 1845 - 9 January 1919) was a French author born in Ciza, Jura. Franz Philip Kaulen (born 20 March[[ 827]] at Düsseldorf; died at Bonn, 11 July[[ 907]] was a German Catholic scriptural scholar ; fourth edition, 1912); Ubaldi (Rome, 1877-81); Strack (Nordlingen, 1882; sixth edition, 1906); Reuss (Brunswick, 1881, 1890); Robertson Smith (Edinburgh, 1881; second edition, 1892); Vatke (edited by Preiss, Bonn, 1886); Riehm (edited by Brandt, Leipzig, 1889); Driver (Edinburgh, 1891; ninth edition, 1910); Cornill (Freiburg, 1891; eighth edition, 1914); König (Bonn, 1893); Wildeboer (Groningen, 1893); Cornely (Paris, 1894-97); Briggs (New York, 1899); Baudissin, (Leipzig, 1901); Budde (Leipzig, 1906); Gautier (Lausanne, 1906); Bennett and Adeney (London, 1908); Sellin (Leipzig, 1911, 1914); Fowler (Boston, 1913); G. F. Moore (New York, 1913). Hermann Leberecht Strack (1848-1922 was a German Protestant Theologian and Orientalist; born at Berlin May 6, 1848. Edouard Guillaume Eugène Reuss ( July 18, 1804 &ndash April 15, 1891) was a Protestant theologian. William Robertson Smith ( 8 November, 1846 – 31 March, 1894) was a Scottish orientalist, Old Testament scholar Eduard Karl August Riehm ( December 20, 1830 &ndash April 5, 1888) was a German Protestant theologian. Samuel Rolles Driver ( October 2, 1846 - February 26, 1914) was an English divine and Hebrew scholar Friedrich Eduard König (1846- ?) was a German Semitic scholar Charles Augustus Briggs ( January 15, 1841 &ndash June 8, 1913) American Presbyterian scholar and theologian, Karl Ferdinand Reinhard Budde (1850- ?) was a German theologian, born at Bensberg. Charles Lucien Gautier (1850-1924 was a Swiss theologian, born at Cologny, near Geneva, and educated at Geneva, Leipzig Ernst Sellin ( May 26 1867 in Altschwerin - January 1 1946 in Epichnellen bei Eisenach) was a German George Foot Moore ( October 15, 1851 - May 16, 1931) He graduated from Yale University in 1872 where he was a member of Skull
Richard Simon (Rotterdam, 1689); Semler, (Halle, 1767); J. D. Michaelis (Göttingen, 1788); Eichhorn (Leipzig, 1804-14; third edition, 1827); J. Richard Simon ( 13 May 1638 - 11 April 1712) was a French biblical Critic. Johann Salomo Semler ( December 18, 1725 &ndash March 14, 1791) was a German church historian and biblical commentator Johann David Michaelis ( February 27 1717 &ndash August 22 1791) a famous and eloquent German biblical scholar and teacher was a Johann Gottfried Eichhorn ( October 16, 1752 - June 27, 1827) was a German Protestant theologian of Enlightenment and early E. C. Schmidt (Giessen, 1804-05); Hug (Freiburg, 1808; fourth edition, 1847); Bertholdt (Erlangen, 1808; 1812-19); De Wette (Berlin, 1826; fifth edition, 1848); Horne (London, 1818; tenth edition by Tragelles, 1856); Credner (Halle, 1836); Reuss (Brunswick, 1842; sixth edition, 1887); Scholz (Cologne, 1845); Scholten (Leyden, 1856); Bleek (Berlin, 1862; third edition, Berlin, 1875; by Mangold, and also fourth, 1886); Davidson (London, 1868; third edition, 1894); Hilgenfeld (Halle, 1875); Kaulen (Freiburg, 1876; fourth edition, 1912); Salmon (London, 1885; eighth edition, 1897); Holtzmann (Freiburg, 1885; third edition, 1892); B. Weiss (Berlin, 1886; third edition, 1897); Rovers (Leyden, 1888); Cornely (Paris, 1894-97); Zahn (Leipzig, 1897, 1900); Bacon (New York, 1900); Jölicher (Leipzig, 1894; sixth edition, 1906); Godet (Neuchâtel, 1893); Baljon (Utrecht, 1901); Belser (Freiburg, 1902); Jacquier (Paris, 1903-08); Von Soden (Berlin, 1905); Wrede (Leipzig, 1907); Barth (Berlin, 1908); Gregory (Leipzig, 1909); Peake (London, 1909); Moffatt (New York, 1911); Feine, Leipzig, 1913). Johann Leonhard Hug ( June 1, 1765 in Konstanz - March 11, 1846 in Freiburg im Breisgau) was a German Roman Wilhelm Martin Leberecht de Wette ( January 12, 1780 - June 16, 1849) was a German theologian. Thomas Hartwell Horne (1780 - 1862 was a theologian and librarian Edouard Guillaume Eugène Reuss ( July 18, 1804 &ndash April 15, 1891) was a Protestant theologian. Jan Hendrik Scholten ( August 17, 1811 - April 10, 1885) Dutch Protestant theologian, was born at Vleuten near Friedrich Bleek ( July 4, 1793 - February 27, 1859) German Biblical scholar was at Ahrensbök, in Holstein a village Samuel Davidson ( 23 September 1807 - 1 April 1898) was an Irish Biblical scholar who was born near Ballymena Adolf Bernhard Christoph Hilgenfeld ( June 2, 1823 - January 12, 1907) was a German Protestant theologian Heinrich Julius Holtzmann ( May 7, 1832 - 1910 German Protestant theologian, son of Karl Julius Holtzmann (1804-1877 was born at Bernhard Weiss ( June 20, 1827 &ndash January 14, 1918) was a German Protestant New Testament scholar Theodor Zahn or Theodor von Zahn (1838 - 1933 was a Biblical Scholar born in Rhineland, Prussia (now Germany) Benjamin Wisner Bacon (1860-1932 was an American theologian. He was born at Litchfield, Conn Frédéric Louis Godet ( October 25 1812, Neuchatel – October 29 1900, Neuchatel was a Swiss Protestant Arthur Samuel Peake (1865-1929 was an English biblical scholar born at Leek, Staffordshire, and educated at St James Moffatt (1870-1944 was a theologian and graduate of Glasgow University.
Other works: Hody, De Bibliorum Textibus (Oxford, 1705); Wolf, Bibliotheca Hebraica (Jena, 1715-33), continued by Köcher as Nova Bibliotheca hebraica (Jena, 1783-84); Rosenmüller, Historia Interpretationis Librorum Sacrorum (Hildsburgshausen, 1795-1814); Geiger, Urschrift und Uebersetzungen (Breslau, 1857); Fürst, Bibliotheca Judaica (Leipzig, 1863); Diestel, Geschichte des Alten Testaments in der chrislichen Kirche (jena, 1869); Farrar, The History of Interpretation (London, 1886); Zöckler, Handbuch der theologischen Wissenschaften Nördlingen, 1890); Ginsburg, Introduction to the Massoretic Critical Edition of the Hebrew Bible (London, 1897); Swete, An Introduction to the Old Testament in Greek (London, 1900); Nestle, Einführung in das griechische Neue Testament (Leipzig, 1897, 1909); Pfleiderer, Das Urchristenum (Berlin, 1886, 1902); Bertholet and A. Humphrey Hody ( 1659 - January 20, 1707) was an English Monk and theologian. Abraham Geiger (1810&ndash1874 was a German Rabbi and scholar who led in the foundation of Reform Judaism, seeking to remove all nationalistic elements Frederic William Farrar (1831 - 1903 often known as Dean Farrar, was a theological writer Asher Zvi Hirsch Ginsberg (1856 - 1927 primarily known by his Hebrew name and Pen name, Ahad Ha'am, (אחד העם lit Otto Pfleiderer ( September 1, 1839 - July 28, 1908) was a German Protestant theologian. Meyer, article "Bibelwissenschaft" in Die Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart (Tübingen, 1909).