| This article contains Ethiopic text. Ge'ez (gez ግዕዝ) also called Ethiopic, is an Abugida script that was originally developed to write Ge'ez, a Semitic language |
Without rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes or other symbols instead of Ethiopic characters. Mojibake is the happenstance of incorrect unreadable characters (garbage characters shown when Computer software fails to render a text correctly according to its associated
ye-Ītyōṗṗyā Fēdēralāwī Dīmōkrāsīyāwī Rīpeblīk
Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
|Anthem: Wodefit Gesgeshi, Widd Innat Ityopp'ya|
"March Forward, Dear Mother Ethiopia"
(and largest city)
|Government||Federal Parliamentary republic1|
|-||Prime Minister||Meles Zenawi|
|Establishment||10th century BC|
|-||Traditional date||c.980 BC|
|-||Kingdom of Dʿmt||8th century BC|
|-||Kingdom of Aksum||1st century BC|
|-||Total||1,104,300 km² (27th)|
426,371 sq mi
|-||Water (%)||0. The Flag of Ethiopia was adopted on February 6, 1996. The 3 traditional colors- green yellow and red- date back to the Emperor Menelik (1889-1913 The Coat of arms of Ethiopia has been in its current form since 1996 A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history traditions and struggles of its people recognized either by a nation's Ethiopia 's population is highly diverse Most of its people speak a Semitic or Cushitic language. Addis Ababa (sometimes spelled Addis Abeba, the spelling used by the official Ethiopian Mapping Authority Amharic An official language is a Language that is given a special legal status in a particular Country, State, or other territory Amharic (አማርኛ amarəñña) is a Semitic language spoken in North Central Ethiopia by the Amhara. A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a People or the inhabitants of a place For the government of parliamentary systems see Executive (government. A federal republic is a Federation of States with a republican form of government A parliamentary republic or parliamentary constitutional republic is a form of a Republic which operates under a Parliamentary system of government The Ethiopian presidency is largely a symbolic office with little power Girma Wolde-Giorgis (born December 1924 in Addis Ababa) is the President of Ethiopia. Heads of Government (Dates in italics indicate de facto continuation of office Affiliations See also List of Presidents Meles Zenawi Asres (Ge'ez መለስ ዜናዊ አስረስ meles zēnāwī, b Ethiopia is the oldest independent country in Africa, with one of the longest recorded histories in the world Circa (often abbreviated c, ca, ca or cca and sometimes Italicized to show it is Latin) means "about" Dʿmt ( ESA: Himjar ajinPNG|10px]]Himjar ta2PNG|10px]] was a kingdom located in current region of Eritrea and northern Ethiopia that existed The Aksumite Empire or Axumite Empire (sometimes called the Kingdom of Aksum or Axum ( Ge'ez: አክሱም was an important trading Area is a Quantity expressing the two- Dimensional size of a defined part of a Surface, typically a region bounded by a closed Curve. To help compare Orders of magnitude of different surface Areas here is a list of areas between 1 million km² and 10 million km² This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by total area. The square mile is an imperial and US unit of Area equal the area of a square of one statute mile. Water is a common Chemical substance that is essential for the survival of all known forms of Life. In Mathematics, a percentage is a way of expressing a number as a Fraction of 100 ( per cent meaning "per hundred" 7|
|-||2006 estimate||75,067,000 (16th²)|
|GDP (PPP)||2005 estimate|
|-||Total||$69. In Biology a population is the collection of inter-breeding organisms of a particular Species; in Sociology List of countries by population in 2005|List of countries by population in 1907This is a list of countries ordered according to Population. Population density (in agriculture standing stock and Standing crop) is a measurement of Population per unit area or unit volume List of countries and dependencies by Population density in inhabitants/km² The purchasing power parity ( PPP) theory uses the long-term equilibrium Exchange rate of two currencies to equalize their Purchasing power. 099 billion (69th)|
|-||Per capita||$823 (175fth)|
|Gini (1999–00)||30 (medium)|
|HDI (2007)||▲ 0. There are three lists of Countries of the world sorted by their Gross domestic product (GDP (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head with Per meaning 'through' or 'by' This article includes three lists of Countries of the world sorted by their Gross domestic product (GDP at Purchasing power parity (PPP Per capita The Gini coefficient is a measure of statistical dispersion most prominently used as a measure of inequality of income distribution or inequality of wealth The Human Development Index ( HDI) is an index combining normalized measures of Life expectancy, Literacy, Educational attainment, and GDP 406 (low) (169th)|
|Time zone||EAT (UTC+3)|
|-||Summer (DST)||not observed (UTC+3)|
|1||According to The Economist in its Democracy Index, Ethiopia is a "hybrid regime", with a dominant-party system led by the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front. This is a list of countries by Human Development Index as included in the United Nations Development Program 's Human Development Report 2007 A currency is a unit of exchange, facilitating the transfer of Goods and/or services It is one form of Money, where money is The birr (ብር is the unit of Currency ISO 4217 is the International standard describing three-letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established East Africa Time, or EAT, is a time zone used in eastern Africa. Daylight saving time ( DST A country This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E The Economist is an English-language weekly news and International affairs publication owned by The Economist Newspaper Ltd and edited in London The Economist has in a study examined the state of Democracy in 167 countries and attempted to quantify this with an Economist Intelligence Unit Index of Democracy A dominant-party system, or one party dominant system, is a Party system where only one Political party can realistically become the Government Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front (የኢትዮጵያ ሕዝቦች አብዮታዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ግንባር is the ruling political coalition in|
|2||Rank based on 2005 population estimate by the United Nations.|
Ethiopia (IPA: /ˌiːθiːˈoʊpiə/) (Ge'ez: ኢትዮጵያ ʾĪtyōṗṗyā), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, is a landlocked country situated in the Horn of Africa. Ge'ez (gez ግዕዝ) also called Ethiopic, is an Abugida script that was originally developed to write Ge'ez, a Semitic language The Horn of Africa (alternatively Northeast Africa, and sometimes Somali Peninsula; shortened to HOA) is a Peninsula in East Africa Ethiopia is bordered by Eritrea to the north, Sudan to the west, Kenya to the south, Somalia to the south-east and Djibouti to the north-east. Eritrea () ( Ge'ez: ኤርትራ ʾErtrā, Arabic: إرتريا Iritriya) officially the State of Eritrea, is a country in Sudan (officially the Republic of Sudan) ( السودان al-Sūdān is a country in northeastern Africa. The Republic of Kenya is a country in East Africa. It is bordered by Ethiopia to the north Somalia to the northeast Tanzania to the south Somalia ( Soomaaliya; الصومال) officially the Somali Republic ( Jamhuuriyadda Soomaaliya, جمهورية الصومال) and formerly known Djibouti ( جيبوتي Jībūtī, Somali: Jabuuti) officially the Republic of Djibouti, is a country in the
Ethiopia is one of the oldest countries in the world and Africa's second-most populous nation.  Ethiopia has yielded some of humanity's oldest traces, making the area important in the history of human evolution. Human evolution, or anthropogenesis, is the part of biological Evolution concerning the emergence of Homo sapiens as a distinct Species Recent studies claim that the vicinity of present-day Addis Ababa was the point from which human beings migrated around the world. Addis Ababa (sometimes spelled Addis Abeba, the spelling used by the official Ethiopian Mapping Authority Amharic  Ethiopian dynastic history traditionally began with the reign of Emperor Menelik I in 1000 BC. Menelik I (originally named Ebna la-Hakim, "Son of the Wise" first Jewish Emperor of Ethiopia, is traditionally believed to be the son of King Solomon  The roots of the Ethiopian state are similarly deep, dating with unbroken continuity to at least the Aksumite Empire (which adopted the name "Ethiopia" in the 4th century) and its predecessor state, D`mt (with early 1st millennium BC roots). The Aksumite Empire or Axumite Empire (sometimes called the Kingdom of Aksum or Axum ( Ge'ez: አክሱም was an important trading Dʿmt ( ESA: Himjar ajinPNG|10px]]Himjar ta2PNG|10px]] was a kingdom located in current region of Eritrea and northern Ethiopia that existed  After a period of decentralized power in the 18th and early 19th centuries known as the Zemene Mesafint ("Era of the Judges/Princes"), the country was reunited in 1855 by Kassa Hailu, who became Emperor Tewodros II, beginning Ethiopia's modern history. The Zemene Mesafint ( Ge'ez: ዘመነ መሳፍንት zamana masāfint, modern zemene mesāfint, variously translated "Era of Judges" "Era Tewodros II ( Ge'ez ቴዎድሮስ also known as Theodore II) (c  Ethiopia's borders underwent significant territorial expansion to its modern borders for the rest of the century, especially by Emperor Menelik II and Ras Gobena, culminating in its victory over the Italians at the Battle of Adwa in 1896 with the military leadership of Ras Makonnen, and ensuring its sovereignty and freedom from colonization. Emperor Menelik II GCB, GCMG, ( Ge'ez ምኒልክ baptized as Sahle Maryam ( August 17, 1844 &ndash December 12 Ras Gobena Dachi ( Ge'ez: am ራስ፡ ጎበና 1821 - July 1889 was an ethnic Oromo member of the Shewan aristocrats of central Ethiopia in the mid 1800s The Battle of Adwa (also known as Adowa or sometimes by the Italian name Adua) was fought on 1 March, 1896 between Ethiopia Ras Mäkonnen Wäldä-Mika'él KCMG ( May 8, 1852 &ndash March 21, 1906) was a general and the governor of Harar province  It was brutally occupied by Mussolini's Italy from 1936 to 1941, ending with its liberation by British Empire and Ethiopian Patriot forces.
Having converted during the fourth century AD, it is also the second-oldest country to become officially Christian, after Armenia. As a means of recording the passage of Time, the 4th century (per the Julian calendar and Anno Domini / Common era) was that Century Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings Armenia (Հայաստան transliterated: Hayastan,) officially the Republic of Armenia (Հայաստանի Հանրապետություն Hayastani  Since 1974, it has been secular and has also had a considerable Muslim community since the earliest days of Islam. For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation.  Historically a relatively isolated mountain country, Ethiopia by the mid 20th century became a crossroads of global international cooperation. International Organization is a peer-reviewed Academic journal that covers the entire field of International affairs. It became a member of the League of Nations in 1923, signed the Declaration by United Nations in 1942, and was one of the fifty-one original members of the United Nations (UN). The League of Nations was an International organization founded as a result of the Treaty of Versailles in 1919–1920 The Declaration by United Nations was a World War II document agreed to on January 1 1942 during the Arcadia Conference by 26 governments several The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security The headquarters of United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA) is in Addis Ababa, as is the headquarters of the African Union (formerly the Organisation of African Unity), of which Ethiopia was the principal founder. The United Nations Economic Commission for Africa ( UNECA or ECA) was established in 1958 by the United Nations Economic and Social Council The African Union (abbreviated AU in English, and UA in its other working languages is a Confederation consisting of 53  African The Organisation of African Unity ( OAU) or Organisation de l'Unité Africaine ( OUA) was established on 25 May 1963. There are about forty-five Ethiopian embassies and consulates around the world. Current Ethiopian Ambassadors and Consulates
It is not certain how old the name Ethiopia is; its earliest attested use is in the Iliad , where it appears twice, and in the Odyssey, where it appears three times. The Iliad ( Greek: Ἰλιάς (Ancient Ιλιάδα (Modern is together with the Odyssey, one of two ancient The Odyssey ( Greek: Ὀδύσσεια or Odússeia) is one of two major ancient Greek epic poems attributed to Homer. The earliest attested use in the region is as a Christianized name for the Kingdom of Aksum in the 4th century, in stone inscriptions of King Ezana. The Aksumite Empire or Axumite Empire (sometimes called the Kingdom of Aksum or Axum ( Ge'ez: አክሱም was an important trading Ezana of Axum ( Ge'ez ዔዛና ʿĒzānā unvocalized ዐዘነ ʿzn.  The Ge'ez name ʾĪtyōṗṗyā and its English cognate are thought by some recent scholars to be derived from the Greek word Αἰθιοπία Aithiopia, from Αἰθίοψ Aithiops ‘an Ethiopian’, derived in turn from Greek words meaning "of burned face". Ge'ez (gez ግዕዝ) also called Ethiopic, is an Abugida script that was originally developed to write Ge'ez, a Semitic language Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly However, the Book of Aksum, a Ge'ez chronicle compiled in the 15th century, states that the name is derived from "'Ityopp'is" — a son (unmentioned in the Bible) of Cush, son of Ham who according to legend founded the city of Axum. The Book of Aksum or Mats'hafa Aksum ( Ge'ez መጽሓፈ ፡ አክሱም maṣḥāfa aksūm, meṣhāfe aksūm meṣḥāfe aksūm Liber Axumae is the Ge'ez (ግዕዝ, ɡɨʕɨz also transliterated Gi'iz, and referred to as Ethiopic) is an ancient South Semitic Language Ityopp'is is according to the 15th century Book of Aksum, a son (unmentioned in the Bible of Cush, son of Ham, who founded the city of Axum See also Kush Cush ( kuʃ) was the eldest son of Ham, brother of Canaan and the father of Nimrod, mentioned A legend ( Latin, legenda, "things to be read" is a Narrative of human actions that are perceived both by teller and listeners to Axum, or Aksum, is a City in northern Ethiopia named after the Kingdom of Aksum, a naval and trading power that ruled from the region ca Pliny the Elder similarly states the tradition that the nation took its name from someone named Aethiops. Gaius or Caius Plinius Secundus, ( AD 23 – August 25, AD 79 better known as Pliny the Elder, was an ancient Author The term aethiops can refer to a number of different things Aethiops, or æthiops or ethiops, refers to certain dark-colored compounds A third etymology, suggested by the late Ethiopian scholar and poet laureate Tsegaye Gabre-Medhin, traces the name to the "old black Egyptian [sic]" words Et (Truth or Peace) Op (high or upper) and Bia (land, country), or "land of higher peace". A Poet Laureate is a Poet officially appointed by a government and is often expected to compose poems for State occasions and other government events Tsegaye Gabre-Medhin ( 17 August 1936 — 25 February 2006) was Poet Laureate of Ethiopia, as well as a poet playwright
In English and generally outside of Ethiopia, the country was also once historically known as Abyssinia, derived from Habesh, an early Arabic form of the Ethiosemitic name "Ḥabaśāt" (unvocalized "ḤBŚT"), modern Habesha, the native name for the country's inhabitants (while the country was called "Ityopp'ya"). Geographical renaming is the act of changing the name of a geographical feature or area Arabic (ar الْعَرَبيّة (informally ar عَرَبيْ) in terms of the number of speakers is the largest living member of the Semitic language Ethiopian Semitic (also known as Ethiopian Ethiosemitic Ethiopic is a language group which together with Old South Arabian forms the Western branch of the South The term Habesha ( Ge'ez ሐበሻ ḥabaśā, Amh hābešā, Tgn In a few languages, Ethiopia is still called by names cognate with "Abyssinia," e. g. , and modern Arabic Al Habeshah, meaning land of the Habesha people. The term Habesha, strictly speaking, refers only to the Amhara and Tigray-Tigrinya people who have historically dominated the country politically, and which combined comprise about 36% of Ethiopia's population. Amhara ( Amharic: አማራ Ge'ez: አምሐራ is an Ethnic group in the central highlands of Ethiopia. The article has so much wrong statements Readers should not take it serious However, in contemporary Ethiopian politics, the word Habesha is often used to describe all Ethiopians and Eritreans. Abyssinia can strictly refer to just the North-Western Ethiopian provinces of Amhara and Tigray as well as central Eritrea, while it was historically used as another name for Ethiopia. Amhara (አማራ is one of the nine ethnic divisions ( Kililoch) of Ethiopia, containing the homeland of the Amhara people. For other uses please see Tigre (disambiguation Tigray Region (ትግራይ ክልል Tigrāy Kilil) is the northernmost of the nine Eritrea () ( Ge'ez: ኤርትራ ʾErtrā, Arabic: إرتريا Iritriya) officially the State of Eritrea, is a country in 
Human settlement in Ethiopia dates back to ancient times. Ethiopia is the oldest independent country in Africa, with one of the longest recorded histories in the world Fossilized remains of the earliest ancestors to the human species, discovered in Ethiopia, have been assigned dates as long ago as 5. 9 million years.  Together with Eritrea and the southeastern part of the Red Sea coast of Sudan (Beja lands), it is considered the most likely location of the land known to the ancient Egyptians as Punt (or "Ta Netjeru," meaning land of the Gods), whose first mention dates to the twenty-fifth century BC. Eritrea () ( Ge'ez: ኤርትራ ʾErtrā, Arabic: إرتريا Iritriya) officially the State of Eritrea, is a country in The Red Sea is a Salt water Inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. The Beja (البيجا are an ethnic group dwelling in parts of North Africa and the Horn of Africa. Ancient Egypt was an Ancient Civilization in eastern North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in what is now See also Puntland The Land of Punt, also called "Pwenet" by the Ancient Egyptians at times synonymous with Ta netjer, the 'land of 
Around the eighth century BC, a kingdom known as Dʿmt was established in northern Ethiopia and Eritrea, with its capital at Yeha in northern Ethiopia. Dʿmt ( ESA: Himjar ajinPNG|10px]]Himjar ta2PNG|10px]] was a kingdom located in current region of Eritrea and northern Ethiopia that existed Yeha ( Ge'ez ይሐ yiḥa, older ESA Himjar waPNG|12px]] ḤW) is a village in northern Ethiopia, located in the Mehakelegnaw Most modern historians consider this civilization to be a native African one, although Sabaean-influenced due to the latter's hegemony of the Red Sea, while others view Dʿmt as the result of a mixture of "culturally superior" Sabaeans and indigenous peoples. See also Ancient history of Yemen The Sabaeans ( Arabic: السبأيين were an ancient people speaking an Old South Arabian language who The Red Sea is a Salt water Inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia.  However, Ge'ez, the ancient Semitic language of Ethiopia, is now thought not to have derived from Sabaean (also South Semitic). Ge'ez (ግዕዝ, ɡɨʕɨz also transliterated Gi'iz, and referred to as Ethiopic) is an ancient South Semitic Language The Sabaean (or to be more exact rather Sabaic) language was an Old South Arabian Language spoken in Yemen from c There is evidence of a Semitic-speaking presence in Ethiopia and Eritrea at least as early as 2000 BC.  Sabaean influence is now thought to have been minor, limited to a few localities, and disappearing after a few decades or a century, perhaps representing a trading or military colony in some sort of symbiosis or military alliance with the Ethiopian civilization of Dʿmt or some other proto-Aksumite state. Dʿmt ( ESA: Himjar ajinPNG|10px]]Himjar ta2PNG|10px]] was a kingdom located in current region of Eritrea and northern Ethiopia that existed 
After the fall of Dʿmt in the fourth century BC, the plateau came to be dominated by smaller successor kingdoms, until the rise of one of these kingdoms during the first century BC, the Aksumite Kingdom, ancestor of medieval and modern Ethiopia, which was able to reunite the area. The 1st century BC started the first day of 100 BC and ended the last day of 1 BC. The Aksumite Empire or Axumite Empire (sometimes called the Kingdom of Aksum or Axum ( Ge'ez: አክሱም was an important trading  They established bases on the northern highlands of the Ethiopian Plateau and from there expanded southward. The Ethiopian Highlands are a rugged mass of mountains in Ethiopia, Eritrea (which is sometimes referred to as the Eritrean Highlands) and northern The Persian religious figure Mani listed Aksum with Rome, Persia, and China as one of the four great powers of his time. Mani (in Persian: مانی Syriac: syr-Syrc ܡܐܢܝ (c 210–276 AD was the founder of Manichaeism, an ancient Gnostic Religion Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 The Persian Empire was a series of Iranian empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the original Persian homeland and beyond in Western Asia China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National 
In 316 AD, a Christian philosopher from Tyre, Meropius, embarked on a voyage of exploration along the coast of Africa. He was accompanied by, among others, two Syro-Greeks, Frumentius and his brother Aedesius. Greece (Ελλάδα transliterated: Elláda, historically, Ellás,) officially the Hellenic Republic (Ελληνική Δημοκρατία Frumentius ( Ge'ez ፍሬምናጦስ frēmnāṭōs) (died ca Aedesius ( Greek, died 355 was a Neoplatonist philosopher born of a noble Cappadocian family The vessel was stranded on the coast, and the natives killed all the travelers except the two brothers, who were taken to the court and given positions of trust by the monarch. They both practiced the Christian faith in private, and soon converted the queen and several other members of the royal court. Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings Upon the king's death, Frumentius was appointed regent of the realm by the queen, and instructor of her young son, Prince Ezana. Ezana of Axum ( Ge'ez ዔዛና ʿĒzānā unvocalized ዐዘነ ʿzn. A few years later, upon Ezana's coming of age, Aedesius and Frumentius left the kingdom, the former returning to Tyre where he was ordained, and the latter journeying to Alexandria. Alexandria ( Egyptian Arabic: اسكندريه Eskendereyya; Standard Arabic: ar الإسكندرية Al-Iskandariyya; Ἀλεξάνδρεια Here, he consulted Athanasius, who ordained him and appointed him Bishop of Aksum. He returned to the court and baptized the King Ezana, together with many of his subjects, and in short order Christianity was proclaimed the official state religion again.  For this accomplishment, he received the title "Abba Selama" ("Father of peace").
At various times, including a fifty-year period in the sixth century, Aksum controlled most of modern-day Yemen and some of southern Saudi Arabia just across the Red Sea, as well as controlling southern Egypt, northern Sudan, northern Ethiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti, and northern Somalia. Yemen ( Arabic: اليَمَن al-Yaman officially the Republic of Yemen ( Arabic: الجمهورية اليمنية al-Jumhuuriyya The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, KSA ( المملكة العربية السعودية, al-Mamlaka al-ʻArabiyya as-Suʻūdiyya) or Suudi The Red Sea is a Salt water Inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. 
The line of rulers descended from the Aksumite kings was broken several times: first by the Jewish (unknown/or pagan) Queen Gudit around 950 (or possibly around 850, as in Ethiopian histories). Gudit (or Yodit, meaning Judith; also known as Esato) is a semi-legendary non- Christian queen (flourished c  It was then interrupted by the Zagwe dynasty; it was during this dynasty that the famous rock-hewn churches of Lalibela were carved under King Lalibela, allowed by a long period of peace and stability. The Zagwe dynasty ruled Ethiopia from the end of the Kingdom of Axum at an uncertain date in the 9th or 10th century to 1270, when Yekuno Amlak Lalibela is a town in northern Ethiopia. Lalibela is one of Ethiopia's holiest cities second only to Aksum, and is a center of Pilgrimage for much of the Gebre Mesqel Lalibela (also called simply "Lalibela" which means "the Bees recognise his sovereignty" in Old Agaw) was Negus 
Around 1270, the Solomonic dynasty came to control Ethiopia, claiming descent from the kings of Aksum. The Ethiopian Empire, also known as Abyssinia, was in what is now Ethiopia and Eritrea. The Solomonic dynasty is the traditional royal house of Ethiopia, claiming descent from King Solomon and the Queen of Sheba, who is said They called themselves Neguse Negest ("King of Kings," or Emperor), due to their direct descent from Solomon and the queen of Sheba. The Emperor ( Ge'ez: ንጉሠ ነገሥት nəgusä nägäst " King of Kings " of Ethiopia was the hereditary King Solomon ( Ge'ez: ስለሞን Arabic: ar سليمان, Sulayman, all from the Triliteral root S-L-M, "peace" Sheba ( Hebrew: שבא, Sh'va, Arabic: سبأ Sabaʼ, Ge'ez, Amharic, Tigrinya: ሳባ Saba 
In the early fifteenth century Ethiopia sought to make diplomatic contact with European kingdoms for the first time since Aksumite times. A letter from King Henry IV of England to the Emperor of Abyssinia survives. Henry IV (3 April 1367 &ndash 20 March 1413 was King of England and Lord of Ireland (1399&ndash1413  In 1428, the Emperor Yeshaq sent two emissaries to Alfons V of Aragon, who sent return emissaries that failed to complete the return trip. Yeshaq I or Isaac ( Ge'ez ይሥሓቅ yisḥāḳ, Amh yishāḳ; throne name Gabra Masqal II ገብረ መስቀል Alfonso the Magnanimous (also Alphonso; Catalan: Alfons) (1396 &ndash 27 June 1458) was the King of Aragon (as  The first continuous relations with a European country began in 1508 with Portugal under Emperor Lebna Dengel, who had just inherited the throne from his father. Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa is a country on the Iberian Peninsula. Dawit II ( Ge'ez ዳዊት dāwīt) enthroned as Emperor Anbasa Segad ( Ge'ez አንበሳ ሰገድ anbassā sagad, Amh 
This proved to be an important development, for when the Empire was subjected to the attacks of the Adal General and Imam, Ahmad ibn Ibrihim al-Ghazi (called "Grañ", or "the Left-handed"), Portugal responded to Lebna Dengel's plea for help with an army of four hundred men, who helped his son Gelawdewos defeat Ahmad and re-establish his rule. An imam (إمام plural ائمة A'immah, امام is an Islamic leader often the leader of a Mosque and/or community Ahmad ibn Ibrihim al-Ghazi (c 1506 - February 21, 1543) ("the Conqueror" was an Imam and General of Adal Gelawdewos ( Ge'ez ገላውዴዎስ galāwdēwōs, modern gelāwdēwōs, "Claudius" 1521/ 1522 - March 23, 1559  However, when Emperor Susenyos converted to Roman Catholicism in 1624, years of revolt and civil unrest followed resulting in thousands of deaths. Susenyos (also Sissinios, as in Greek, Ge'ez ሱስንዮስ sūsinyōs; throne name Malak Sagad III, Ge'ez መልአክ  The Jesuit missionaries had offended the Orthodox faith of the local Ethiopians, and on June 25, 1632 Susenyos' son, Emperor Fasilides, declared the state religion to again be Ethiopian Orthodox Christianity, and expelled the Jesuit missionaries and other Europeans. The Society of Jesus ( Latin: Societas Iesu, SJ and SI or SJ, SI) is a Catholic religious order Events 524 - Battle of Vézeronce, the Franks defeat the Burgundians The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church (in transliterated Amharic: Yäityop'ya ortodoks täwahedo bétäkrestyan) is an Oriental 
All of this contributed to Ethiopia's isolation from 1755 to 1855, called the Zemene Mesafint or "Age of Princes. The Zemene Mesafint ( Ge'ez: ዘመነ መሳፍንት zamana masāfint, modern zemene mesāfint, variously translated "Era of Judges" "Era " The Emperors became figureheads, controlled by warlords like Ras Mikael Sehul of Tigray, and by the Oromo Yejju dynasty, which later led to 17th century Oromo rule of Gondar, changing the language of the court from Amharic to Afaan Oromo. Mikael Sehul ( Tigrinya "Mikael the Astute" – his name at birth was Blatta Mikael; c Amharic (አማርኛ amarəñña) is a Semitic language spoken in North Central Ethiopia by the Amhara. Oromo, also known as Afaan borana Oromoo, Oromiffa(a ( Ethiopic: ኦሮሚኛ and sometimes in other languages by variant spellings of these names  Ethiopian isolationism ended following a British mission that concluded an alliance between the two nations; however, it was not until 1855 that Ethiopia was completely reunited and the power in the Emperor restored, beginning with the reign of Emperor Tewodros II. Tewodros II ( Ge'ez ቴዎድሮስ also known as Theodore II) (c Upon his ascent, despite still large centrifugal forces, he began modernizing Ethiopia and recentralizing power in the Emperor, and Ethiopia began to take part in world affairs once again.
By the 1880s, Sahle Selassie, as king of Shewa, and later as Emperor Menilik II, with the help of Ras Gobena's Shewan Oromo milita, began expanding his kingdom to the South and East, expanding into areas that hadn't been held since the invasion of Ahmed Gragn, and other areas that had never been under his rule, resulting in the borders of Ethiopia of today. Ras Gobena Dachi ( Ge'ez: am ራስ፡ ጎበና 1821 - July 1889 was an ethnic Oromo member of the Shewan aristocrats of central Ethiopia in the mid 1800s 
The 1880s were marked by the Scramble for Africa and modernization in Ethiopia, when the Italians began to vie with the British for influence in bordering regions. The Scramble for Africa, also known as the Race for Africa, was the proliferation of conflicting European claims to African territory during the New Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Asseb, a port near the southern entrance of the Red Sea, was bought in March 1870 from the local Afar sultan, vassal to the Ethiopian Emperor, by an Italian company, which by 1890 led to the Italian colony of Eritrea. Assab (or Aseb, anciently Avalites) is a port city in the Southern Red Sea Region of Eritrea on the west coast of the Red Sea. Afar (Afar alphabet Qafár Feera ዐፋር ʿāfār, عفار Amh Eritrea () ( Ge'ez: ኤርትራ ʾErtrā, Arabic: إرتريا Iritriya) officially the State of Eritrea, is a country in Conflicts between the two countries resulted in the Battle of Adwa in 1896, whereby the Ethiopians surprised the world by defeating Italy and remaining independent, under the rule of Menelik II. The Battle of Adwa (also known as Adowa or sometimes by the Italian name Adua) was fought on 1 March, 1896 between Ethiopia Emperor Menelik II GCB, GCMG, ( Ge'ez ምኒልክ baptized as Sahle Maryam ( August 17, 1844 &ndash December 12 Italy and Ethiopia signed a provisional treaty of peace on October 26, 1896. NOTE This intro is the result of careful NPOV work Please do not make potentially controversial edits to it without first discussing on the talk page Events 740 - An Earthquake strikes Constantinople, causing much damage and death Year 1896 ( MDCCCXCVI) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap year
The early twentieth century was marked by the reign of Emperor Haile Selassie I, who came to power after Iyasu V was deposed. Haile Selassie I ( Ge'ez: am ኃይለ፡ ሥላሴ "Power of the Trinity " 23 July 1892 &ndash 27 August 1975 born Tafari Makonnen, was Iyasu V ( Ge'ez ኢያሱ the Ethiopian version of Joshua) also known as Lij Iyasu ( Ge'ez ልጅ ኢያሱ 4 February 1895 It was he who undertook the modernization of Ethiopia, from 1916, when he was made a Ras and Regent (Inderase) for Zewditu I and became the de facto ruler of the Ethiopian Empire. Zewditu (also spelled Zawditu or Zauditu; Ge'ez ዘውዲቱ April 29, 1876 - April 2, 1930) was Following Zewditu's death he was made Emperor on 2 November 1930. Events 1570 - A Tidal wave in the North Sea devastates the coast from Holland to Jutland, killing more than 1000 Year 1930 ( MCMXXX) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
Being born from parents of the three main Ethiopian ethnicities of Oromo, Amhara and Gurage, and after having played a leading role in the formation of the African Union, Haile Selassie was known as a uniting figure both inside Ethiopia and around Africa. Gurage is an ethnic group in Ethiopia. The Gurage people inhabit a semi-fertile semi-mountainous region in southwest Ethiopia, about 150 miles southwest The African Union (abbreviated AU in English, and UA in its other working languages is a Confederation consisting of 53  African Haile Selassie I ( Ge'ez: am ኃይለ፡ ሥላሴ "Power of the Trinity " 23 July 1892 &ndash 27 August 1975 born Tafari Makonnen, was
The independence of Ethiopia was interrupted by the Second Italo-Abyssinian War and Italian occupation (1936–1941). See also First Italo-Ethiopian War. The Second Italo–Abyssinian War (also referred to as the Second Italo-Ethiopian War) was a  Some of Ethiopia's infrastructure (roads most importantly) was built by the fascist Italian occupation troops (not by corvee) between 1937 and 1940. Corvée is labour often but not always unpaid that persons in power have authority to compel their subjects to perform unless commuted in some way such as by a cash payment sometimes this was Following the entry of Italy into World War II, the British Empire forces together with patriot Ethiopian fighters liberated Ethiopia in the course of the East African Campaign (World War II) in 1941, which was followed by sovereignty on January 31, 1941 and British recognition of full sovereignty (i. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including The British Empire was the largest empire in history and for over a century was the foremost global power. The East African Campaign refers to the battles fought in East Africa during World War II. Sovereignty is the exclusive Right to control a Government, a country, a people or oneself Events 1504 - France cedes Naples to Aragon. 1606 - Gunpowder Plot: Guy Fawkes Year 1941 ( MCMXLI) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (the link will display 1941 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. e. without any special British privileges) with the signing of the Anglo-Ethiopian Agreement in December 1944. The Anglo-Ethiopian Agreement was a joint effort between Ethiopia and the United Kingdom at reestablishing Ethiopian independent Statehood following the  During 1942 and 1943 there was an Italian guerrilla war in Ethiopia. The Italian guerrilla war in Ethiopia was as an armed struggle fought - from summer 1941 to autumn 1943 - by remnants of Italian troops in Italian East Africa, following the On August 26, 1942 Haile Selassie I issued a proclamation outlawing slavery. Events 1071 - Battle of Manzikert: The Seljuk Turks defeat the Byzantine Army at Manzikert. Year 1942 ( MCMXLII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Haile Selassie I ( Ge'ez: am ኃይለ፡ ሥላሴ "Power of the Trinity " 23 July 1892 &ndash 27 August 1975 born Tafari Makonnen, was As a social-economic system slavery is a legal institution under which a Person (called "a slave" is compelled to work for another 
In 1952 Haile Selassie orchestrated the federation with Eritrea which he dissolved in 1962. This annexation sparked the Eritrean War of Independence. The Eritrean War of Independence ( 1 September 1961 - 29 May 1991) was a conflict fought between the Ethiopian government and Eritrean Although Haile Selassie was seen as a national and African hero, opinion within Ethiopia turned against him due to the worldwide oil crisis of 1973, food shortages, uncertainty regarding the succession, border wars, and discontent in the middle class created through modernization. 
Haile Selassie's reign came to an end in 1974, when a Soviet backed Marxist-Leninist military junta, the "Derg" led by Mengistu Haile Mariam, deposed him, and established a one-party communist state. A soviet (сове́т, "council" originally was a workers' local council in late Imperial Russia. Marxism-Leninism is a Communist ideological stream that emerged as the mainstream tendency amongst the Communist parties in the 1920s as it was adopted A military junta is a government ruled by a committee of military leaders The Derg or Dergue was a communist military junta that came to power in Ethiopia following the ousting of Haile Selassie I. Mengistu Haile Mariam (መንግስቱ ኃይለ ማርያም məngɨstu hi lə maryam (born 1937 a repression campaign against the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Party and Communist state is a term used by many Political scientists to describe a Form of government in which the State operates under a one-party system
The ensuing regime suffered several coups, uprisings, wide-scale drought, and a massive refugee problem. A drought is an extended period of months or years when a region notes a deficiency in its water supply According to the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, a refugee is a person who owing to a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race In 1977, there was the Ogaden War, but Ethiopia quickly defeated Somalia with a massive influx of Soviet military hardware and a Cuban military presence coupled with East Germany and South Yemen the following year. The Ogaden War was a conventional conflict between Somalia and Ethiopia in 1977 and 1978 over the Ogaden region of Ethiopia Somalia ( Soomaaliya; الصومال) officially the Somali Republic ( Jamhuuriyadda Soomaaliya, جمهورية الصومال) and formerly known
Hundreds of thousands were killed due to the red terror, forced deportations, or from using hunger as a weapon. The Ethiopian Red Terror, or Qey Shibir (also Key Shibbir, etc  In 2006, after a long trial, Mengistu was found guilty of genocide. Mengistu Haile Mariam (መንግስቱ ኃይለ ማርያም məngɨstu hi lə maryam (born 1937 a repression campaign against the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Party and 
In 1993 a referendum was held & supervised by the UN mission UNOVER, with universal suffrage and conducted both in and outside Eritrea (among Eritrean communities in the diaspora), on whether Eritreans wanted independence or unity with Ethiopia. Over 99% of the Eritrean people voted for independence which was declared on May 24, 1993. Events 1218 - The Fifth Crusade leaves Acre for Egypt. 1276 - Magnus Ladulås is crowned Year 1993 ( MCMXCIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar) In 1994, a constitution was adopted that led to Ethiopia's first multi-party elections in the following year. In May 1998, a border dispute with Eritrea led to the Eritrean-Ethiopian War that lasted until June 2000. The Eritrean-Ethiopian War took place from May 1998 to June 2000 between Ethiopia and Eritrea, forming one of the Conflicts in the Horn of Africa This has hurt the nation's economy, but strengthened the ruling coalition. On May 15, 2005, Ethiopia held another multiparty election, which was a highly disputed one with some opposition groups claiming fraud. Events 1252 - Pope Innocent IV issues the Papal bull Ad exstirpanda, which authorizes but also limits the Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Ethiopia held general elections on May 15, 2005, for seats in both its national and in four regional government councils Though the Carter Center appreciated the preelection conditions, it has expressed its dissatisfaction with postelection matters. The Carter Center is a nongovernmental not-for-profit organization founded in 1982 by former U The 2005 EU election observers continued to accuse the ruling party of vote rigging. The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in Many from the international community are divided about the issue with Irish officials accusing the 2005 EU election observers of corruption for the "inaccurate leaks from the 2005 EU election monitoring body which led the opposition to wrongly believe they had been cheated of victory. " In general, the opposition parties gained more than 200 parliament seats compared to the just 12 in the 2000 elections. Despite most opposition representatives joining the parliament, some leaders of the CUD party are in jail following the post-election violence. Amnesty International considers them "prisoners of conscience". Prisoner of conscience (POC is a term coined by the human rights group Amnesty International in the early 1960s
Politics of Ethiopia takes place in a framework of a federal parliamentary republic, whereby the Prime Minister is the head of government. Politics of Ethiopia takes place in a framework of a federal parliamentary Republic, whereby the Prime Minister is the Head of government The following is a list of rulers and heads of state of Ethiopia since the Zagwe dynasty. Like many states in Sub-Saharan Africa, Ethiopia was relatively isolated from other countries not immediately adjacent to her until well into the 19th century A federation ( Latin: foedus, covenant is a union comprising a number of partially self-governing states or regions united by a central ("federal" A parliamentary system, also known as parliamentarianism (and parliamentarism in American English) is a System of government in which A republic is a State or Country that is not led by a hereditary Monarch, but in which the people (or at least a part of its people have impact on its Heads of Government (Dates in italics indicate de facto continuation of office Affiliations See also List of Presidents This article focuses on the cases where the Head of Government is a separate office from the Head of State Executive power is exercised by the government. In Political science and Constitutional law, the executive is the branch of government responsible for the day-to-day management of the State. Federal legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament. A legislature is a type of representative Deliberative assembly with the power to create amend and change Laws The law created by a legislature is called Legislation For the government of parliamentary systems see Executive (government.
On the basis of Article 78 of the 1994 Ethiopian Constitution, the Judiciary is completely independent of the executive and the legislature. In Law, the judiciary or judicial system is the system of Courts which administer Justice in the name of the sovereign or State  The current realities of this provision are questioned in a report prepared by Freedom House (see discussion page for link). Freedom House is a United States -based international Non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on Democracy, political
According to The Economist in its Democracy Index, Ethiopia is a "hybrid regime" situated between a "flawed democracy" and an "authoritarian regime". The Economist is an English-language weekly news and International affairs publication owned by The Economist Newspaper Ltd and edited in London The Economist has in a study examined the state of Democracy in 167 countries and attempted to quantify this with an Economist Intelligence Unit Index of Democracy It ranks 106 out of 167 countries (with the larger number being less democratic). Cambodia ranks as more democratic at 105, and Burundi as less democratic at 107, than Ethiopia. The Kingdom of Cambodia ( formerly known as Kampuchea (, transliterated: Preăh Réachéanachâkr Kâmpŭchea) is a country in South East Burundi (buˈɾundi officially the Republic of Burundi, is a small country in the Great Lakes region of Eastern Africa bordered by Rwanda 
The election of Ethiopia's 547-member constituent assembly was held in June 1994. This assembly adopted the constitution of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia in December 1994. The elections for Ethiopia's first popularly-chosen national parliament and regional legislatures were held in May and June 1995 . Most opposition parties chose to boycott these elections. There was a landslide victory for the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF). Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front (የኢትዮጵያ ሕዝቦች አብዮታዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ግንባር is the ruling political coalition in International and non-governmental observers concluded that opposition parties would have been able to participate had they chosen to do so.
The current government of Ethiopia was installed in August 1995. The first President was Negasso Gidada. Dr Negasso Gidada Solon (born 1943 was the President of Ethiopia from 1995 until 2001 The EPRDF-led government of Prime Minister Meles Zenawi promoted a policy of ethnic federalism, devolving significant powers to regional, ethnically-based authorities. Meles Zenawi Asres (Ge'ez መለስ ዜናዊ አስረስ meles zēnāwī, b Ethiopia today has nine semi-autonomous administrative regions that have the power to raise and spend their own revenues. Under the present government, some fundamental freedoms, including freedom of the press, are circumscribed. Freedom Constitutional or statutory protections pertaining to freedom of the press  Citizens have little access to media other than the state-owned networks, and most private newspapers struggle to remain open and suffer periodic harassment from the government.  At least 18 journalists who had written articles critical of the government were arrested following the 2005 elections on genocide and treason charges. The government uses press laws governing libel to intimidate journalists who are critical of its policies. 
Zenawi's government was elected in 2000 in Ethiopia's first ever multiparty elections; however, the results were heavily criticized by international observers and denounced by the opposition as fraudulent. The EPRDF also won the 2005 election returning Zenawi to power. Although the opposition vote increased in the election, both the opposition and observers from the European Union and elsewhere stated that the vote did not meet international standards for fair and free elections. The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in  Ethiopian police are said to have massacred 193 protesters, mostly in the capital Addis Ababa, in the violence following the May 2005 elections in the Ethiopian police massacre. Addis Ababa (sometimes spelled Addis Abeba, the spelling used by the official Ethiopian Mapping Authority Amharic The Ethiopian police massacre refers to the violence during June and November 2005 which led to the deaths of 193 protesters mostly in the capital Addis Ababa, following  The government initiated a crackdown in the provinces as well; in Oromia state the authorities used concerns over insurgency and terrorism to use torture, imprisonment, and other repressive methods to silence critics following the election, particularly people sympathetic to the registered opposition party Oromo National Congress (ONC). The Oromo National Congress is a Political party in Ethiopia. 
Before 1996, Ethiopia was divided into 13 provinces, many derived from historical regions. Ethiopia is divided into 9 ethnically-based administrative regions ( kililoch; singular kilil) and three chartered cities ( astedader akababiwach |||} The regions of Ethiopia are divided into 68 Zones The zones are listed below by region Addis Ababa Addis Ababa |||} The zones of Ethiopia are subdivided into Districts ( Woredas ' Until 1995 Ethiopia was divided into Provinces further subdivided into awrajja s or districts Ethiopia now has a tiered government system consisting of a federal government overseeing ethnically-based regional states, zones, districts (woredas), and neighborhoods (kebele). Districts are a type of Administrative division, in some countries managed by a Local government. Woreda (also spelled wereda) is an Administrative division of Ethiopia (managed by a local government equivalent to a District. A neighbourhood or neighborhood (see spelling differences) is a geographically localised Community within a larger City, Town or A kebele is the smallest administrative unit of Ethiopia similar to ward, a neighbourhood or a localized and delimited group of people
Ethiopia is divided into nine ethnically-based administrative states (kililoch, sing. kilil) and subdivided into sixty-eight zones and two chartered cities (astedader akababiwoch, sing. astedader akababi): Addis Ababa and Dire Dawa (subdivisions 1 and 5 in the map, respectively). Addis Ababa (sometimes spelled Addis Abeba, the spelling used by the official Ethiopian Mapping Authority Amharic Dire Dawa is one of two chartered cities ( astedader akabibi) in Ethiopia (the other being the capital Addis Ababa) It is further subdivided into 550 woredas and six special woredas.
The constitution assigns extensive power to regional states that can establish their own government and democracy according to the federal government's constitution. Each region has its apex regional council where members are directly elected to represent the districts and the council has legislative and executive power to direct internal affairs of the regions. Article 39 of the Ethiopian Constitution further gives every regional state the right to secede from Ethiopia. There is debate, however, as to how much of the power guaranteed in the constitution is actually given to the states. The councils implement their mandate through an executive committee and regional sectoral bureaus. Such elaborate structure of council, executive, and sectoral public institutions is replicated to the next level (woreda).
The nine regions and two chartered cities are:
At 435,071 square miles (1,127,127 km²), Ethiopia is the world's 27th-largest country (after Colombia). Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and is bordered on the north and northeast by Eritrea, on the east by Djibouti and Somalia Colombia (kəˈlʌmbɪə officially the Republic of Colombia () is a country in northwestern South America. It is comparable in size to Bolivia, and is about two-thirds as large as the US state of Alaska. The Republic of Bolivia (República de Bolivia) named after Simón Bolívar, is a Landlocked country in central South America. Alaska ( Аляска Alyaska) is a state in the United States of America, in the northwest of the North American continent
The major portion of Ethiopia lies on the Horn of Africa, which is the eastern-most part of the African landmass. The Horn of Africa (alternatively Northeast Africa, and sometimes Somali Peninsula; shortened to HOA) is a Peninsula in East Africa Bordering Ethiopia is Sudan to the west, Djibouti and Eritrea to the north, Somalia to the east, and Kenya to the south. Sudan (officially the Republic of Sudan) ( السودان al-Sūdān is a country in northeastern Africa. Djibouti ( جيبوتي Jībūtī, Somali: Jabuuti) officially the Republic of Djibouti, is a country in the Eritrea () ( Ge'ez: ኤርትራ ʾErtrā, Arabic: إرتريا Iritriya) officially the State of Eritrea, is a country in Somalia ( Soomaaliya; الصومال) officially the Somali Republic ( Jamhuuriyadda Soomaaliya, جمهورية الصومال) and formerly known The Republic of Kenya is a country in East Africa. It is bordered by Ethiopia to the north Somalia to the northeast Tanzania to the south Within Ethiopia is a massive highland complex of mountains and dissected plateaus divided by the Great Rift Valley, which runs generally southwest to northeast and is surrounded by lowlands, steppes, or semi-desert. The Great Rift Valley is a name given in the late 19th century by English explorer John Walter Gregory to the continuous geographic trough approximately in length that runs In physical Geography, a steppe ( German, from степь - "a flat and arid land" степ - /stɛp/ тал - tal дала - /dɑlɑ/ pronounced The great diversity of terrain determines wide variations in climate, soils, natural vegetation, and settlement patterns. Terrain, or relief, is the third or vertical dimension of land surface.
Elevation and geographic location produce three climatic zones: the cool zone above 2,400 meters (7,900 ft) where temperatures range from near freezing to 16 °C (32 °–61 °F); the temperate zone at elevations of 1,500 to 2,400 meters (4,900–7,900 ft) with temperatures from 16 to 30 °C (61–86 °F); and the hot zone below 1,500 meters (4,900 ft) with both tropical and arid conditions and daytime temperatures ranging from 27 to 50 °C (81–122 °F). The Celsius Temperature scale was previously known as the centigrade scale. Fahrenheit is a temperature scale named after Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686–1736 a German Physicist who proposed it in 1724 Fahrenheit is a temperature scale named after Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686–1736 a German Physicist who proposed it in 1724 Fahrenheit is a temperature scale named after Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686–1736 a German Physicist who proposed it in 1724 The topography of Ethiopia ranges from several very high mountain ranges (the Semien Mountains and the Bale Mountains), to one of the lowest areas of land in Africa, the Danakil depression. The Semien Mountains lie in northern Ethiopia, north east of Gondar. The Bale Mountains (also known as the Urgoma Mountains) are a range of Mountains in the Oromia Region of southeast Ethiopia, south of the The Afar Depression (also called the Danakil Depression or the Afar Triangle) is a Geological depression in the Horn of Africa, where it
The normal rainy season is from mid-June to mid-September (longer in the southern highlands) preceded by intermittent showers from February or March; the remainder of the year is generally dry.
Ethiopia is an ecologically diverse country, ranging from the deserts along the eastern border to the tropical forests in the south to extensive Afromontane in the northern and southwestern parts. Afromontane is a term used to describe the plant and animal species common to the mountains of Africa and the southern Arabian Peninsula. Lake Tana in the north is the source of the Blue Nile. Lake Tana (also spelled T'ana, Amharic: ጣና ሐይቅ Ṭānā Hāyḳ,"Lake Tana" an older variant is Tsana, Ge'ez The Blue Nile ( Amharic: ዓባይ transliterated ʿ Abbai, but pronounced Abbai; Arabic: النيل الأزرق transliterated It also has a large number of endemic species, notably the Gelada Baboon, the Walia Ibex and the Ethiopian wolf (or Simien fox). Endemism is the Ecological state of being unique to a place Endemic species are not naturally found elsewhere The Gelada ( Theropithecus gelada) sometimes called the Gelada Baboon, is a Species of Old World monkey found only in the Ethiopian The walia ibex ( Capra walie, Ge'ez: ዋልያ wālyā) is a species of Ibex that is Critically endangered. | fossil_range = Pliocene - Recent| image = EthiopianWolf1jpg| image_width = 220px| status = EN| trend = up| status_system = iucn2 | fossil_range = Pliocene - Recent| image = EthiopianWolf1jpg| image_width = 220px| status = EN| trend = up| status_system = iucn2 The wide range of altitude has given the country a variety of ecologically distinct areas, this has helped to encourage the evolution of endemic species in ecological isolation.
Endangered Species in Ethiopia
Historically, throughout the African continent, wildlife populations have been rapidly declining due to logging, civil wars, hunting, pollution, poaching, and other human interference.  A 17 year long civil along with severe drought, negatively impacted Ethiopia’s environmental conditions leading to even greater habitat degradation.  Habitat destruction is a factor that leads to endangerment. When changes to a habitat occur rapidly, it doesn’t allow animals time to adjust. Human impacts threaten many species, with greater threats expected as a result of climate change induced by greenhouse gas emissions. 
Ethiopia has a large number of species listed as critically endangered, endangered and vulnerable to global extinction. To assess the current situation in Ethiopia, it is critical that the endangered species in this region are identified. The endangered species in Ethiopia can be broken down into three categories; Critically endangered, Endangered and Vulnerable. 
|African Wild Ass||Grevy’s Zebra||African Elephant|
|Bilen Gerbil||Mountain Nyala||Ammodile|
|Black Rhinoceros||Nubian Ibex||Bailey’s Shrew|
|Ethiopian Wolf||Wild Dog||Bale Shrew|
|Guramba Shrew||Beira Antelope|
|Walia Ibex||Dorcas Gazelle|
|Large-eared Free-tailed Bat|
|Lesser Horseshoe Bat|
|Mouse-tailed Bat Species|
|Natal Free-tailed Bat|
|Patrizi’s Trident Leaf-nosed Bat|
|Scott’s Mouse-eared Bat|
There are 31 endemic species, meaning that a species occurs naturally only in a certain area, in this case Ethiopia.  The Ethiopian Wolf is perhaps the most researched of all the endangered species within Ethiopia.
The Ethiopian Wolf
Ethiopian wolves are decreasing rapidly in population. Fewer than 500 remain today due to the increased pressure from agriculture, high altitude grazing, hybridization with domestic dogs, direct persecution, and diseases such as rabies.  The EWCP (Ethiopian Wolf Conservation Project) actively works on protecting this species.  Scientists working with this project have found that this species has some resistance to the effects of small population sizes and some resilience to fragmentation.  A 2003 study on the Ethiopian wolf resulted in the conclusion that the key to its survival resides in securing its habitat and isolating its population from the impacts of people, livestock and domestic dogs.  The interactions between humans and Ethiopian wolves have become increasingly threatening to their conservation as these negative interactions increase as human density increases. Human interactions include poisoning, persecution in reprisal for livestock losses, and road kills.  Mountainous areas are critical for Ethiopian wolves survival to provide a healthy habitat.  Protecting this unique creature entails securing protected status for conservation areas where ecological processes are preserved in an ecosystem, and addressing and counteracting direct threats to survival (human persecution, fragmented populations and coexistence with domestic dogs. ) Biologists also recommend the goal of preserving a minimum of 90% of the existing genetic diversity of the species for 100 years, which may require establishing a Nucleus I captive breeding population (preferably in Ethiopia). These aspirations are being pursued by a group called the Ethiopian Wolf Recovery Programme (EWRP). 
Several conservation programs are in effect to help endangered species in Ethiopia. A group was created in 1966 called The Ethiopian Wildlife and Natural History Society, which focuses on studying and promoting the natural environments of Ethiopia along with spreading the knowledge they acquire, and supporting legislation to protect environmental resources. 
There are multiple conservation organizations one can access online to make donations, one which connects directly to the Ethiopian Wolf. The WWF is the World Wildlife Fund. Anyone can access their website at www. worldwildlife. org and donate money. Funding supports the World Wildlife Fund’s global conservation efforts. The majority of the funds received (83%) goes towards conservation activities, while only 6% goes towards finance and administration. The remaining 11% of funds are allocated for fundraising, which is much needed. The WWF Chairman of the Board, Bruce Babbitt holds this organization accountable for the best practices in accountability, governance and transparency throughout all tiers within the organization. 
A critical way to help threatened animals survive would be to protect their habitat permanently through national parks, wilderness areas and nature reserves. By protecting the places where animals live, human interference is limited. Protecting farms, and any place along roadsides that harbor animals helps encourage protection. 
Deforestation is a major concern for Ethiopia as studies suggest loss of forest contributes to soil erosion, loss of nutrients in the soil, loss of animal habitats and reduction in biodiversity. As in many neighboring countries most environmental issues in Ethiopia relate to Deforestation and Endangered species. At the beginning of the Twentieth century around 420,000 km² or 35% of Ethiopia’s land was covered by trees but recent research indicates that forest cover is now approximately 11. 9% of the area.  Ethiopia is one of the seven fundamental and independent centers of origin of cultivated plants of the world.
Ethiopia loses an estimated 1,410 km² of natural forests each year. Between 1990 and 2005 the country lost approximately 21,000 km².
Current government programs to control deforestation consist of education, promoting reforestation programs and providing alternate raw material to timber. In rural areas the government also provides non-timber fuel sources and access to non-forested land to promote agriculture without destroying forest habitat.
Organizations such as SOS and Farm Africa are working with the federal government and local governments to create a system of forest management.  Working with a grant of approximately 2. 3 million Euros the Ethiopian government recently began training people on reducing erosion and using proper irrigation techniques that do not contribute to deforestation. This project is assisting more than 80 communities.
Increase in Urbanization
Population growth, migration, and urbanization are all straining both governments and ecosystems’ capacity to provide people basic services.  Urbanization has steadily been increasing in Ethiopia, with two periods of significantly rapid growth. First, in 1936-1941 during the Italian occupation of Mussolini’s fascist regime, and from 1967-1975 when the populations of urban centers tripled.  In 1936, Italy annexed Ethiopia, building infrastructure to connect major cities, and a dam providing power and water.  This along with the influx of Italians and laborers was the major cause of rapid growth during this period. The second period of growth was from 1967-1975 when rural populations migrated to urban centers seeking work and better living conditions.  This pattern slowed after to the 1975 Land Reform program instituted by the government provided incentives for people to stay in rural areas. As people moved from rural areas to the cities, there we less people to grow food for the population. The Land Reform Act was meant to increase agriculture since food production was not keeping up with population growth over the period of 1970-1983.  This program proliferated the formation of peasant associations, large villages based on agriculture.  The act did lead to an increase in food production, although there is debate over the cause; it may be related to weather conditions more than the reform act.  Urban populations have continued to grow with an 8. 1% increase from 1975-2000. 
Rural Vs. Urban Life
Migration to urban areas is usually motivated by the hope of better living conditions. In peasant associations daily life is a struggle to survive. Only 45% of rural households in Ethiopia consume the World Health Organization’s minimum standard of food per day, (2,200 kilocalories), with 42% of children under 5 years old being underweight.  Most poor families (75%) share their sleeping quarters with livestock, and 40% of children sleep on the floor, where night time temperatures average 5 degrees Celsius in the cold season.  The average family size is six or seven, living in a 30 square meter mud and thatch hut, with less than two hectares of land to cultivate.  These living conditions are deplorable, but are the daily lives of peasant associations.
The peasant associations face a cycle of poverty. Since the land holdings are so small, farmers cannot allow the land to lie fallow, which reduces soil fertility.  This land degradation reduces the production of fodder for livestock, which causes low amounts of milk production.  Since the community burns livestock manure as fuel, rather than plowing the nutrients back into the land, the crop production is reduced.  The low productivity of agriculture leads to inadequate incomes for farmers, hunger, malnutrition and disease. These unhealthy farmers have a hard time working the land and the productivity drops further. 
Although conditions are drastically better in cities, all of Ethiopia suffers from poverty, and poor sanitation. In the capital city of Addis Ababa, 85% of the population lives in slums.  Although there are some wealthy neighborhoods with mansions, most people make their houses using whatever materials are available, with walls made of mud or wood. Only 12% of homes have cement tiles or floors.  Sanitation is the most pressing need in the city, with most of the population lacking access to waste treatment facilities. This contributes to the spread of illness through unhealthy water. 
Despite the living conditions in the cities, the people of Addis Ababa are much better off than people living in the peasant associations due to their educational opportunities. Unlike rural children, 69% of urban children are enrolled in primary school, and 35% of those eligible for secondary school attend.  Addis Ababa has its own university as well as many other secondary schools. The literacy rate is 82%. 
Health is also much greater in the cities. Birth rates, infant mortality rates, and death rates are lower in the city than in rural areas, due to better access to education and hospitals.  Life expectancy is higher at 53, compared to 48 in rural areas.  Despite sanitation being a problem, use of improved water sources is also greater; 81% in cities compared to 11% in rural areas.  This encourages more people to migrate to the cities in hopes of better living conditions.
The continued urbanization and migration poses a threat to environmental sustainability in Ethiopia. As more migration occurs, there will be decreased food production to sustain the population. Rather than fixing the problems of degraded land and water resources, people move to cities in hopes of a better life. If nothing is done about the problem, the capacity to grow food will decrease as populations continue to increase, while poverty and health conditions get worse.
This is a problem many NGOs (Non-Government Organizations) are working on fixing. But there is clear evidence that most are far apart, less coordinated, and working in isolation, with no effective mechanisms for them to relate with other NGOs.  This is why a consortium is required to solve the problem. The good news is that the Sub-Saharan Africa NGO Consortium is already coordinating efforts among NGOs in Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Zambia, South Africa, Zimbabwe, Ethiopia, Sudan, Cameroon, Democratic Republic of Congo, Senegal, Ivory Coast, Mali, Ghana, and Nigeria.  By sharing information, techniques, and resources, NGOs are better equipped to help the rural farmers of Ethiopia.
Ethiopia has had a fast growing annual GDP and it was the fastest growing non-oil dependent African nation in 2007. The economy of Ethiopia is based on Agriculture, which accounts for half of Gross domestic product (GDP 60% of Exports and 80% of total employment After World War II, Ethiopia began to receive economic Development aid from the more affluent Western countries Since 1991, there have been attempts to improve the economy. This is reflected in the ten percent economic growth registered for the past six consecutive years. Yet, a daunting task of maintaining this growth and reducing urban poverty remains to be done.
Provision of telecommunications services is left to a publicly owned monopoly. It is the view of the current government that maintaining public ownership in this vital sector is essential to ensure that telecommunication infrastructures and services are extended to the rural Ethiopia, which would not be attractive to private enterprises.
There are some sectors which are reserved to Ethiopians only. The financial sector is one of them. There are now more than seven private banks in the country but none of them are owned by foreigners.
The Ethiopian constitution defines the right to own land as belonging only to "the state and the people", but citizens may only lease land (up to 99 years), and are unable to mortgage or sell. A constitution is a system for government often Codified as a written document that establishes the rules and principles of an autonomous political entity Renting of land for a maximum of twenty years is allowed and this is expected to ensure that land goes to the most productive user.
Agriculture accounts for almost 41 percent of the gross domestic product (GDP), 80 percent of exports, and 80 percent of the labour force. Many other economic activities depend on agriculture, including marketing, processing, and export of agricultural products. Production is overwhelmingly by small-scale farmers and enterprises and a large part of commodity exports are provided by the small agricultural cash-crop sector. Principal crops include coffee, pulses (e. This article discusses the coffee plant for information on the beverage see Coffee. Pulses are annual leguminous crops yielding from one to twelve Grains or Seeds of variable size shape and color within a Pod, according g. , beans), oilseeds, cereals, potatoes, sugarcane, and vegetables. Rapeseed ( Brassica napus) also known as rape, oilseed rape, rapa, rapaseed and (in the case of one particular group of Sugarcane ( Saccharum) is a genus of 6 to 37 species (depending on taxonomic interpretation of tall perennial grasses (family Poaceae tribe Andropogoneae Recently, Ethiopia has had a fast growing annual GDP and it was the fastest growing non-oil dependent African nation in 2007.  Exports are almost entirely agricultural commodities, and coffee is the largest foreign exchange earner. Ethiopia is Africa's second biggest maize producer.  Ethiopia's livestock population is believed to be the largest in Africa, and as of 1987 accounted for about 15 percent of the GDP. Livestock is the term used to refer (singularly or plurally to a Domesticated Animal intentionally reared in an agricultural setting to produce such as Food Despite recent improvements, the rapidly exploding population means that Ethiopia remains one of the poorest nations in the world. According to a recent UN report the GNP per capita of Ethiopia has reached $160. The same report indicated that the life expectancy had improved substantially in recent years. The life expectancy of men is reported to be 52 and women 54 years.
Ethiopia was the original source of the coffee bean, and coffee beans are the country's largest export commodity. 
Ethiopia is also the 10th largest producer of livestock in the world. Other main export commodities are khat, gold, leather products, and oilseeds. KHAT (1210 AM) is a Radio station broadcasting a Sports format Recent development of the floriculture sector means Ethiopia is poised to become one of the top flower and plant exporters in the world. Floriculture, or flower farming, is a discipline of Horticulture concerned with the cultivation of flowering and Ornamental plants for gardens and 
With the private sector growing slowly, designer leather products like bags are becoming a big export business making them the first luxury designer label in the country.  Additional small-scale export products include cereals, pulses, cotton, sugarcane, potatoes and hides. With the construction of various new dams and growing hydroelectric power projects around the country, it has also begun exporting electric power to its neighbors.  However, coffee remains its most important export product and with new trademark deals around the world, including recent deals with Starbucks, the country plans to increase its revenue from coffee. Starbucks Corporation ( is an international Coffee and coffeehouse chain based in Seattle Washington.  Most regard Ethiopia's large water resources and potential as its "white oil" and its coffee resources as "black gold". 
The country also has large mineral resources and oil potential in some the less inhabited regions; however, political instability in those regions has harmed progress. Ethiopian geologists were implicated in a major gold swindle in 2008. Four chemists and geologists from the Ethiopian Geological Survey were arrested in connection with a fake gold scandal, following complaints from buyers in South Africa. Gold bars from the National Bank of Ethiopia were found to be gilded metal by police, costing the state around US$17 million, according to the Science and Development Network website. 
Ethiopia's population has grown from 33. 5 million in 1983 to 75. 1 million in 2006.  The country's population is highly diverse. Most of its people speak a Semitic or Cushitic language. The Semitic languages are a Language family whose living representatives are spoken by more than 467 million people across much of the Middle East, The Cushitic languages are a branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family spoken in the Horn of Africa. The Oromo, Amhara, and Tigray make up more than three-quarters of the population, but there are more than 80 different ethnic groups within Ethiopia. Amhara ( Amharic: አማራ Ge'ez: አምሐራ is an Ethnic group in the central highlands of Ethiopia. The article has so much wrong statements Readers should not take it serious Some of these have as few as 10,000 members.
Ethiopians and Eritreans, especially Semitic-speaking ones, collectively refer to themselves as Habesha or Abesha, though others reject these names on the basis that they refer only to certain ethnicities. The term Habesha ( Ge'ez ሐበሻ ḥabaśā, Amh hābešā, Tgn  The Arabic form of this term (Al-Habasha) is the etymological basis of "Abyssinia," the former name of Ethiopia in English and other European languages. Arabic (ar الْعَرَبيّة (informally ar عَرَبيْ) in terms of the number of speakers is the largest living member of the Semitic language 
According to the Ethiopian national census of 1994, the Oromo are the largest ethnic group in Ethiopia at 32. 1%. The Amhara represent 30. Amhara ( Amharic: አማራ Ge'ez: አምሐራ is an Ethnic group in the central highlands of Ethiopia. 2%, while the Tigray people are 6. The article has so much wrong statements Readers should not take it serious 2% of the population. Other ethnic groups are as follows: Somali 6%, Gurage 4. Somalis ( Soomaaliyeed, الصوماليون are an ethnic group located in the Horn of Africa, also known as the Somali Peninsula. Gurage is an ethnic group in Ethiopia. The Gurage people inhabit a semi-fertile semi-mountainous region in southwest Ethiopia, about 150 miles southwest 3%, Sidama 3. The Sidama ( Ethiopic: ሲዳማ people of southern Ethiopia are an ethnic group whose homeland is in the Sidama Zone of the Southern Nations Nationalities 4%, Wolayta 2%, Afar 2%, Hadiya 2%, Gamo 1%. Welayta (also spelled Walaytta, Wolaita) ( Ethiopic: ወላይታ is the name of an ethnic group and a former kingdom located in southern Ethiopia Afar (Afar alphabet Qafár Feera ዐፋር ʿāfār, عفار Amh Hadiya was a powerful vassal kingdom of Ethiopia located in southwestern Ethiopia, south of the Abbay River and west of Shewa. 
There are 1. 2 million Ethiopians in the US as part of the Ethiopian diaspora. 
According to the most recent 1994 National Census, Christians make up 61. 6% of the country's population, Muslims 32. 8%, and practitioners of traditional faiths 5. 6%. This agrees with the updated CIA World Factbook, Christianity is the most widely practiced religion in Ethiopia.  but the US State department has contradictory figures, putting Islam as being about equal or a slight majority, so a review of the figures might be needed (Sunnis Islam=45%-50%, Orthodoxy= 40%, Protestant 5% and the rest traditional).  Orthodox Christianity has a dominant presence in central and northern Ethiopia, while both Orthodox & Protestant Christianity has large representations in the South and Western Ethiopia. A small ancient group of Jews, the Beta Israel, live in northwestern Ethiopia, though most have emigrated to Israel in the last decades of the twentieth century as part of the rescue missions undertaken by the Israeli government, Operation Moses and Operation Solomon. PLEASE TAKE NOTE************ The Beta Israel (ביתא ישראל Beta Israel, "House of Israel" Ge'ez: ቤተ እስራኤል Bēta 'Isrā'ēl, modern Bēte 'Isrā'ēl For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Israel topics. Operation Moses, (מבצע משה Mivtza Moshe) named after the biblical figure Moses, was the covert removal of Ethiopian Jews (known Operation Solomon was a 1991 covert Israeli military operation to take Ethiopian Jews to Israel  Some Israeli and Jewish scholars consider these Ethiopian Jews as the historical "Lost Tribe of Israel". The phrase Ten Lost Tribes of Israel refers to the ancient Tribes of Israel that disappeared from the Biblical account after the Kingdom of Israel was destroyed Sometimes Christianity in Africa is thought of as a European import that arrived with colonialism, but this is not the case with Ethiopia. The Kingdom of Aksum was one of the first nations to officially adopt Christianity, when St. The Aksumite Empire or Axumite Empire (sometimes called the Kingdom of Aksum or Axum ( Ge'ez: አክሱም was an important trading Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings Frumentius of Tyre, called Fremnatos or Abba Selama ("Father of Peace") in Ethiopia, converted King Ezana during the fourth century AD. Frumentius ( Ge'ez ፍሬምናጦስ frēmnāṭōs) (died ca Tyre ( Arabic صور Ṣūr, Phoenician Phoenician wawsvg|12px|ו]] Ṣur, Hebrew Ezana of Axum ( Ge'ez ዔዛና ʿĒzānā unvocalized ዐዘነ ʿzn. As a means of recording the passage of Time, the 4th century (per the Julian calendar and Anno Domini / Common era) was that Century Many believe that the Gospel had entered Ethiopia even earlier, with the royal official described as being baptised by Philip the Evangelist in chapter eight of the Acts of the Apostles. Philip the Evangelist appears several times in the Acts of the Apostles. The Acts of the Apostles is a book of the Bible, which now stands fifth in the New Testament. (Acts 8:26-39) Today, the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church, part of Oriental Orthodoxy, is by far the largest denomination, though a number of Protestant (Pentay) churches and the Ethiopian Orthodox Tehadeso Church have recently gained ground. The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church (in transliterated Amharic: Yäityop'ya ortodoks täwahedo bétäkrestyan) is an Oriental Oriental Orthodoxy is the communion of Eastern Christian Churches that recognize only three Ecumenical councils — the First Council of Nicaea, the Protestantism refers to the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated in the 16th century Protestant Reformation. P'ent'ay or Pentay (Amharic- ፔንጤ is a Slang term widely used in modern Ethiopia, and among Ethiopians living abroad to describe Ethiopian Christians According to its followers the Ethiopian Orthodox Tehadeso Church (Amharic የኢትዮጵያ ኦርቶዶክስ ተሃድሶ ቤተክርስትያን stands to preserve the country's Since the eighteenth century there has existed a relatively small Uniate Ethiopian Catholic Church in full communion with Rome, with adherents making up less than 1% of the total population. The 18th century lasted from 1701 to 1800 in the Gregorian calendar, in accordance with the Anno Domini / Common Era numbering system This article refers to Eastern Churches in full communion with the Holy See The Ethiopian Catholic Church is a Metropolitan Sui iuris Eastern Particular Church within the Catholic Church and uses Full communion is a term used in Christian Ecclesiology to describe the relationship of communion, with mutually recognized sharing of the same essential Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 
The name "Ethiopia" (Hebrew Kush) is mentioned in the Bible numerous times (thirty-seven times in the King James version). Abyssinia is also mentioned in the Qur'an and Hadith. The Qur’an ( القرآن, literally "the recitation" also sometimes transliterated as Qur’ān, Koran, Alcoran Hadith ( ar الحديث, pl aḥadīth; lit. "narrative" are oral Traditions relating to the words and deeds of the Islamic While many Ethiopians claim that the Bible references of Kush apply to their own ancient civilization, pointing out that the Gihon river, a name for the Nile, is said to flow through the land, most non-Ethiopian scholars believe that the use of the term referred to the Kingdom of Kush in particular or Africa outside of Egypt in general. For the Okinawan king see Gihon (Ryukyu. For the Gihon Spring in Jerusalem see Gihon Spring. The Nile (النيل, Ancient Egyptian iteru or Ḥ'pī, Coptic piaro or phiaro) is a major north-flowing River Kush civilization centered in the confluence of the Blue Nile and the White Nile, and the confluence of the River Atbara and Nile in what Some have argued that biblical Kush was a large part of land that included Northern Ethiopia, Eritrea and most of present day Sudan. Kush civilization centered in the confluence of the Blue Nile and the White Nile, and the confluence of the River Atbara and Nile in what Eritrea () ( Ge'ez: ኤርትራ ʾErtrā, Arabic: إرتريا Iritriya) officially the State of Eritrea, is a country in Sudan (officially the Republic of Sudan) ( السودان al-Sūdān is a country in northeastern Africa. The capital cities of biblical Kush were in Northern Sudan.
Islam in Ethiopia dates back to the founding of the religion; in 615, when a group of Muslims were counseled by Muhammad to escape persecution in Mecca and travel to Ethiopia, which was ruled by Ashama ibn Abjar, a pious Christian king. According to the latest 1994 national census Islam is the second most widely practiced religion in Ethiopia after Christianity, with approximately one third (32 Mecca ˈmɛkə also spelled Makkah ˈmækə (in full Makkah Al-Mukarramah (Arabic mækːæ(t ælmʊkarˑamæ مكّة المكرمة, literally Honored This is a sub-article to Muhammad before Medina and Muhammad in Medina According to Islamic tradition twelve male and twelve female According to Arabic sources Aṣḥama ibn Abjar was Emperor or al-Najashi ( Arabic النجاشي) of Aksum at the time of Muhammad Moreover, Bilal, the first muezzin, the person chosen to call the faithful to prayer, and one of the foremost companions of Muhammad, was from Ethiopia. Bilal ibn Rabah (بلال بن رباح or Bilal al-Habeshi was an Ethiopian born in Mecca in the late 6th century sometime between 578 and 582 The muezzin (via Turkish müezzin from Arabic: مؤذن mu’aḏḏin) is a chosen person at the
There are numerous indigenous African religions in Ethiopia, mainly located in the far southwest and western borderlands. Religion in Africa is multifaceted Most Africans adhere to either Christianity or Islam. In general, most of the (largely members of the non-Chalcedonian Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church) Christians generally live in the highlands, while Muslims and adherents of traditional African religions tend to inhabit more lowland regions in the east and south of the country. Oriental Orthodoxy is the communion of Eastern Christian Churches that recognize only three Ecumenical councils — the First Council of Nicaea, the The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church (in transliterated Amharic: Yäityop'ya ortodoks täwahedo bétäkrestyan) is an Oriental Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation.
Ethiopia is also the spiritual homeland of the Rastafari movement, whose adherents believe Ethiopia is Zion. The Rastafari movement (also known as Rastafari, Rastafarianism or simply Rasta) is a monotheistic, Abrahamic, New Testament Zion ( Hebrew: צִיּוֹן ( Persian: صهیون tziyyon; Tiberian vocalization: tsiyyôn; transliterated Zion The Rastafari view Emperor Haile Selassie I as Jesus, the human incarnation of God, a view apparently not shared by Haile Selassie I himself, who was staunchly Ethiopian Orthodox Christian. Haile Selassie I ( Ge'ez: am ኃይለ፡ ሥላሴ "Power of the Trinity " 23 July 1892 &ndash 27 August 1975 born Tafari Makonnen, was Jesus of Nazareth (7–2 BC / BCE —26–36 AD / CE) The concept of Zion is also prevalent among Ethiopian Orthodox Christians, though it represents a separate and complex concept, referring figuratively to St. Mary, but also to Ethiopia as a bastion of Christianity surrounded by Muslims and other religions, much like Mount Zion in the Bible. This ecumenical article is about general Christian views on and veneration of the Virgin Mary Mount Zion (הר צִיּוֹן Har Tzion) is a hill just outside the walls of the Old City of Jerusalem. It is also used to refer to Axum, the ancient capital and religious centre of Ethiopian Orthodox Christians, or to its primary church, called Church of Our Lady Mary of Zion. Axum, or Aksum, is a City in northern Ethiopia named after the Kingdom of Aksum, a naval and trading power that ruled from the region ca The Church of Our Lady Mary of Zion ( Amharic Re-ese Adbarat Kidiste Kidusan Dingel Maryam Ts’iyon) of the Ethiopian Orthodox Church is the most important  The Bahá'í Faith has been established in Ethiopia since the 1950s, and today is concentrated primarily in Addis Ababa, but also in the suburbs of Yeka, Kirkos and Nefas Silk Lafto. The Bahá'í Faith is a Religion founded by Bahá'u'lláh in nineteenth-century Persia, emphasizing the spiritual unity of all humankind 
According to the head of the World Bank's Global HIV/AIDS Program, Ethiopia has only 1 medical doctor per 100,000 people. Metrics of Health in Ethiopia are among the world's worst Throughout the 1990s the government as part of its reconstruction program devoted ever-increasing The World Bank is an internationally supported Bank that provides financial and technical assistance to developing countries for development programs (e  However, the World Health Organization in its 2006 World Health Report gives a figure of 1936 physicians (for 2003), which comes to about 2. 6 per 100,000. Globalization is said to affect the country, with many educated professionals leaving Ethiopia for a better economic opportunity in the West. The term Western world, the West or the Occident ( Latin: occidens -sunset -west as distinct from the Orient) can have multiple meanings
Ethiopia's main health problems are said to be communicable diseases caused by poor sanitation and malnutrition. These problems are exacerbated by the shortage of trained manpower and health facilities. 
There are 119 hospitals (12 in Addis Ababa alone) and 412 health centers in Ethiopia. 
Ethiopia has an incredibly low life expectancy at birth with the current average age being 45 years old.  In America the average life expectancy is over three decades longer at the age of 77.  In addition to the life expectancy rate being so low, there is also a very high infant mortality rate with over 10 percent of babies dying after or shortly after birth. Currently Ethiopia only has 3 doctors per 100,000 people. These numbers are dangerously low compared to America, which has 550 available for every one hundred thousand Americans.  Currently Ethiopia, as a whole is fighting a losing battle against the AIDS epidemic. 
The low proportion of doctors with western medical expertise leaves the door wide open for potentially less reliable traditional healers that use home-based therapies to heal common ailments. High rates of unemployment leave many Ethiopian citizens unable to support their families. In Ethiopia an increasing number of “false healers” using home based medicines have grown with the rising population.  The differences between real and false healers are almost impossible to distinguish. However, only about ten percent of practicing healers are true Ethiopian healers.  Much of the false practice can be attributed to commercialization of medicine and the high demand for healing.  Both men and women are known to practice medicine from their homes.  It is most commonly the men that dispense herbal medicine similar to an out of home pharmacy. 
Ethiopian healers are more commonly known as traditional medical practitioners. Before the onset of Christian missionaries and westernized medicine, traditional medicine was the only form of treatment available.  Traditional healers extract healing ingredients from wild plants, animals and rare minerals.  Among the leading number of disease that leads to death include aids, malaria, tuberculosis and dysentery.  Largely because of the costs, traditional medicine continues to be the most common form of medicine practiced. Many Ethiopians are unemployed which makes it difficult to pay for most medicinal treatments.  Ethiopian medicine is heavily reliant on magical and supernatural beliefs that have little or no relation to the actual disease itself.  Many physical ailments are believed to be caused by the spiritual realm which is the reason healers are most likely to integrate spiritual and magical healing techniques.  Traditional medicinal practice is strongly related to the rich cultural beliefs of Ethiopia, which explains the emphasis of its use. 
In Ethiopian culture there are two main theories of the cause of disease. The first is attributed to God or other supernatural forces, while the other is attributed to external factors such as unclean drinking water and unsanitary food.  Most genetic diseases or deaths are viewed as the will of God. Miscarriages are thought to be the result of demonic spirits. 
One medical practice that is commonly practiced irrespective of religion or economic status is female genital mutilation.  Nearly four out of five Ethiopian women are circumcised.  There are three levels of circumcision that involve different degrees of cutting the clitoris and vaginal area.  Many of these practices are done with an unsanitary blade with little or no anesthetics.  It can result in heavy bleeding, high pain, and sometimes death. 
It was not until Christian missionaries traveled to Ethiopia bringing new religious beliefs and education that westernized medicine was infused into Ethiopian medicine.  Today there are three medical schools in Ethiopia that began training students in 1965 two of which are linked to Addis Ababa University.  There is only one psychiatric facility treatment in the whole country because Ethiopian culture is resistant to psychiatric treatment.  Although there have been huge leaps and bounds in medical technology there is still a large problem in the distribution of medicine and doctors in Ethiopia. 
Education in Ethiopia has been dominated by the Orthodox Church for many centuries until secular education was adopted in the early 1900s. Education in Ethiopia has been dominated by the Ethiopian Orthodox Church for many centuries until secular education was adopted in the early 1900s A number of public and private universities and colleges exist in Ethiopia. The elites, mostly Christians and central ethnic Amhara population, had the most privilege until 1974, when the government tried to reach the rural areas. In fact, until right now, it is only the elite Christians who have better chance to higher education. Languages other than Amharic are supressed. Oromo, for example wasn't allowed in the educational institutions. The current system follows very similar school expansion schemes to the rural areas as the previous 1980s system with an addition of deeper regionalisation giving rural education in their own languages starting at the elementary level and with more budget allocated to the Education Sector. A language is a dynamic set of visual auditory or tactile Symbols of Communication and the elements used to manipulate them The sequence of general education in Ethiopia is six years of primary school, four years of lower secondary school and two years of higher secondary school. 
The best known Ethiopian cuisine consists of various vegetable or meat side dishes and entrees, usually a wat, or thick stew, served atop injera, a large sourdough flatbread. ( Can't see the fonts? Ethiopian cuisine characteristically consists of spicy vegetable and meat dishes usually in the form of wot (With a hard 't' noise, a thick ( Can't see the fonts? Ethiopian cuisine characteristically consists of spicy vegetable and meat dishes usually in the form of wot (With a hard 't' noise, a thick The term " vegetable " generally means the edible parts of Plants The definition of the word is traditional rather than Scientific, however In modern English usage meat most often refers to Animal tissue used as food mostly Skeletal muscle and associated Fat, but it may also refer Wat or wet, known as tsebhi in Tigrinya (also wot; Amharic ወጥ weṭ, Tigrinya ጸብሒ ṣebḥī A stew is a combination of Solid Food Ingredients that have been Cooked in Water or other water-based liquid typically by Simmering Injera ( Ge'ez እንጀራ ɨndʒǝra sometimes transliterated enjera) or taita is a Pancake -like Bread made out of Teff Sourdough (or more formally natural leaven or Levain) refers to the process of leavening Bread by capturing wild Yeasts A flatbread is a simple Bread made from flattened Dough. Many flatbreads are unleavened&mdashmade without Yeast or Sourdough culture One does not eat with utensils, but instead uses injera to scoop up the entrees and side dishes. Tihlo prepared from roasted barley flour is very popular in Amhara, Agame, and Awlaelo (Tigrai). Traditional Ethiopian cuisine employs no pork or shellfish of any kind, as they are forbidden in the Islamic, Jewish, and Ethiopian Orthodox Christian faiths. Pork' is the Culinary name for Meat from the domestic Pig ( Sus scrofa) often specifically the fresh meat but can be used as an all-inclusive Shellfish is a Culinary and Fisheries term for those aquatic Invertebrate animals that are used as Food: various species of molluscs For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. PLEASE TAKE NOTE************ The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church (in transliterated Amharic: Yäityop'ya ortodoks täwahedo bétäkrestyan) is an Oriental It is also very common to eat from the same big dish in the center of the table with a group of people.
The Music of Ethiopia is extremely diverse, with each of the country's 80 ethnic groups being associated with unique sounds. The music of Ethiopia is extremely diverse with each of Ethiopia 's ethnic groups being associated with unique sounds The music of Ethiopia is extremely diverse with each of Ethiopia 's ethnic groups being associated with unique sounds Ethiopian music uses a unique modal system that is pentatonic, with characteristically long intervals between some notes. In Music, a scale is an ordered series of Musical intervals which along with the key or tonic, define the pitches However mode A pentatonic scale is a musical scale with five pitches per Octave in contrast to an heptatonic (seven note scale such as the Major scale Influences include ancient Christian elements and Muslim and folk music from elsewhere in the Horn of Africa, especially Sudan and Somalia. A Muslim (مسلم pronounced Muslim, not Muzlim) is an adherent of the Religion Folk music can have a number of different meanings including Traditional music: The original meaning of the term "folk music" was synonymous The Horn of Africa (alternatively Northeast Africa, and sometimes Somali Peninsula; shortened to HOA) is a Peninsula in East Africa Sudan (officially the Republic of Sudan) ( السودان al-Sūdān is a country in northeastern Africa. Somalia ( Soomaaliya; الصومال) officially the Somali Republic ( Jamhuuriyadda Soomaaliya, جمهورية الصومال) and formerly known Popular musicians include teddy Afro, Tilahun Gessesse, Aster Aweke, Hamelmal Abate, Tewodros Tadesse, Ephrem Tamiru, Muluken Melesse, Bizunesh Bekele, Mahmoud Ahmed, Tadesse Alemu, Alemayehu Eshete, Neway Debebe, Asnaketch Worku, Ali Birra, Gigi, Dawit (Messay) Mellesse, and Mulatu Astatke. Teddy Afro (in Amharic: ቴዲ አፍሮ real name Tewodros Kassahun, in Amharic ቴዎድሮስ ካሳሁን is a popular Ethiopian singer Tilahun Gessesse (also spelled Tilahun Gesesse or Tlahoun Gèssèssè) is an Ethiopian singer born on September 29, 1940, in Muluken Melesse (born 1954 was an Ethiopian Singer and drummer who later abandoned his music career to involve himself in the Pentecostal Church. Mahmoud Ahmed (born May 8, 1941) is an Ethiopian Singer of Gurage ancestry Tadesse Alemu was an Ethiopian singer from Wollega who sang traditional Ethiopian songs sometimes Christian-based in an upbeat pop-music style with the modern-day electronic Alemayehu Eshete (also written Alèmayèhu Eshèté in French) is an Ethiopian Ethio-jazz singer active since the 1960s who primarily sings in Amharic Asnaketch Worku, also known by the French spelling of her name Asnatqèch Wèrqu Ali Birra (born 1950 is a famous Oromo Singer, Composer, Poet and nationalist Ejigayehu Shibabaw, or Gigi as she is popularly known is one of the most successful contemporary Ethiopian singers worldwide Mulatu Astatke (surname also spelled Astatqé) is an Ethiopian musician and arranger
Ethiopia has some of the best middle-distance and long-distance runners in the world. Middle distance track events are track races longer than sprints up to (and arguably including 3000 Metres. Long distance in Telecommunications, refers to Telephone calls made outside a certain area usually characterized by an Area code outside of a Local Kenya and Morocco are often its opponents in World Championships and Olympic middle and long-distance events. The Republic of Kenya is a country in East Africa. It is bordered by Ethiopia to the north Somalia to the northeast Tanzania to the south Morocco (المغرب "al-Maghrib" officially the Kingdom of Morocco (المملكة المغربية is a country located in North Africa A world championship(s is the top achievement for any sport or Contest. The Olympic Games is an international Multi-sport event established for both summer and winter games As of March 2006, two Ethiopians dominate the long-distance running scene, mainly: Haile Gebreselassie (World champion and Olympic champion) who has set over twenty new world records and currently holds the 20 km, half-marathon, 25 km, and marathon world record, and Kenenisa Bekele (World champion, World cross country champion, and Olympic champion), who holds the 5,000 m and 10,000 m world records. Haile Gebrselassie ( Ge'ez: ኃይሌ ገብረ ሥላሴ haylē gebre silassē; born April 18 1973 is an Ethiopian long distance track A world record is the best performance in a certain discipline usually a Sports event A half marathon is a Road running event of 210975 meters or miles about 13 The marathon is a long-distance foot race with an official distance of 42 Kenenisa Bekele (born 13 June 1982 Ethiopia) is an Ethiopian distance runner who holds the world records in the 5000 metres and 10000 metres Ethiopia has also had various successful sweeps by taking all three medals in various world races including during the Olympics. The last few years Ethiopian women runners have joined the men in dominating athletics, particularly the multi-gold medalists Meseret Defar and Tirunesh Dibaba.  Ethiopia has added more events to the list of its preeminence in athletics, including the steeplechase which Legese Lamiso recently took the top honors. 
Ethiopian distance-runners include Derartu Tulu, Abebe Bikila, Mamo Wolde, Miruts Yifter, Addis Abebe, Gebregziabher Gebremariam, Belayneh Densamo, Werknesh Kidane, Tirunesh Dibaba, Meseret Defar, Million Woldie, Assefa Mezgebu, etc. Derartu Tulu (born March 21, 1972 in Bekoji, Arsi Province, Ethiopia) is an Ethiopian long distance track Abebe Bikila ( August 7, 1932 &ndash October 25, 1973) was a two-time Olympic marathon champion from Ethiopia. Degaga ("Mamo" Wolde ( June 12, 1932 &ndash May 26, 2002) was an Ethiopian long distance track and Road Miruts Yifter (born January 1, 1938 or May 15, 1944) is a former Ethiopian athlete, winner of two gold medals at the Addis Abebe (born September 5, 1970) is a former long-distance runner from Ethiopia, best known for winning a bronze medal in the infamous 10000 meters Gebre-egziabher Gebremariam (born September 10, 1984 in Tigray) is an Ethiopian long-distance runner. Belayneh Densamo (born June 28, 1965 in Diramo Afarrara, Sidamo) is a long distance track and road running athlete from Ethiopia. Derartu Tulu was the first woman from Africa to win an Olympic gold medal, doing so over 10,000 metres at Barcelona. Abebe Bikila, the first Olympic champion Θ representing an African nation, won the Olympic marathon in 1960 and 1964, setting world records both times. He is well-known to this day for winning the 1960 marathon in Rome while running barefoot. Miruts Yifter, the first in a tradition of Ethiopians known for their brilliant finishing speed, won gold at 5,000 and 10,000 metres at the Moscow Olympics. He is the last man to achieve this feat.
Ethiopia offers a greater richness in archaeological finds and historical buildings than any other country in Sub-Saharan Africa (including Sudan). In April 2005 , the Obelisk of Axum, one of Ethiopia's religious and historical treasures, was returned to Ethiopia by Italy. The Obelisk of Axum is a 1700-year-old 24- Meters (78- foot) tall Granite Obelisk, weighing 160  Tonnes It is decorated with Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest  Under the orders of dictator Benito Mussolini, Italian troops seized the obelisk in 1937 and took it to Rome. Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 Italy agreed to return the obelisk in 1947 in a UN agreement, and it was finally returned in 2005 . The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security As of January 2007 the obelisk has not been erected in Ethiopia. The monument was returned to Ethiopia in three or four large segments to facilitate easier transport. The pieces are so large that the Ethiopian government has been unable to erect it or even devise a way it could feasibly be done. The original site of the obelisk is an unexcavated area that would be damaged by heavy machinery, if that were determined to be an appropriate method of erection. There have been plenty of significant discoveries including the oldest known, complete fossilized human skeleton, Lucy. Lucy (also given a second ( Amharic) name dinqineš, or “Dinkenesh” meaning “You are beautiful” or "you are wonderful" is the common name of AL Other discoveries are still being made.  Recently, archeologists uncovered the ruins of the legendary ancient Islamic kingdom of Shoa, that included evidence of a large urban settlement as well as a large mosque. For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. Shewa ( Ge'ez ሽዋ šawā, modern šewā also spelled Shoa) is a historical region of Ethiopia 
Ethiopia has eighty-four indigenous languages. This is a list of articles that are related to African and black people History The first telegraph line in Ethiopia was constructed in the years 1897 - 1899 between the cities of Harar and the capital Addis Ababa. The Ethiopia Scout Association ( Amharic: የኢትዮጵያ እስካውት ማህበር is the national Scouting association of Ethiopia The Ethiopian calendar ( Amharic: የኢትዮጵያ ዘመን አቆጣጠር ye'Ītyōṗṗyā zemen āḳoṭaṭer) also called the Ge'ez calendar, Like many states in Sub-Saharan Africa, Ethiopia was relatively isolated from other countries not immediately adjacent to her until well into the 19th century Articles (arranged alphabetically related to Ethiopia include 0 This is a list of Ethiopian companies. Addis Insurance Brokers Africa Insurance Company Awash Insurance Company The following is a list of some famous Ethiopians. See also:CategoryEthiopian people. This is a list of Monarchies that existed throughout the History of Ethiopia. Ethiopia is home to several National parks Abijatta-Shalla National Park Awash National Park Bale Mountains Railways total 681 km ( Ethiopian segment of the Addis Ababa - Djibouti Railway) all 1000mm narrow gauge note A number of public and private universities and colleges exist in Ethiopia. Access According to the 2000 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey (DHS access to improved water and sanitation was as follows 22% for improved water supply The Agaw ( Ge'ez አገው Agaw, modern Agew) are a people of Ethiopia. The Agaw ( Ge'ez አገው Agaw, modern Agew) are a people of Ethiopia. Alaba is one of the 77 Woredas in the Southern Nations Nationalities and Peoples' Region of Ethiopia. Argobba is an Ethiopian Semitic spoken in an area north-east of Addis Ababa by the Argobba people. Basketo is one of the 77 Woredas in the Southern Nations Nationalities and Peoples' Region of Ethiopia. Benishangul-Gumuz, also known as Benshangul/Gumaz, is one of the nine ethnic divisions ( kililoch) of Ethiopia. Chaha (in Chaha and Amharic: ቸሃ čehā or čexā) is a Semitic language spoken in central Ethiopia, mainly within the The dizi ( is a Chinese Transverse flute. It is also sometimes known as the di ( 笛) or hengdi ( 橫[[wiktionary Arbore is a commune located in Suceava County, Romania. Church of Arbore Arbore is best known for its church dedicated to Saint Gamo is an Airgun manufacturer The company is based in Spain and is the largest producer in Europe. Gumuz (also spelled Gumaz) is an Ethnic group living in the Benishangul-Gumuz Region and the Qwara woreda of Ethiopia, as well Gurage is an ethnic group in Ethiopia. The Gurage people inhabit a semi-fertile semi-mountainous region in southwest Ethiopia, about 150 miles southwest Hadiya was a powerful vassal kingdom of Ethiopia located in southwestern Ethiopia, south of the Abbay River and west of Shewa. Kambaata is the name of the people who speak the Kambaata language. Konso (also known as Karati) is a town on the Sagan River in southwestern Ethiopia. KORE (1050 AM) is a Radio station broadcasting a Christian radio format The Kunama are a Nilotic ethnic group living in Eritrea and Ethiopia, making up only 2 percent of the population of Eritrea where they are one of the smallest Majangir is used as the label for both the people and the language they speak Mao Zedong ( 26 December 1893 – 9 September 1976) was a Chinese Military and political leader who led Mareko is a Rapper of Samoan descent from South Auckland New Zealand. Meinit is one of the 77 Woredas in the Southern Nations Nationalities and Peoples' Region of Ethiopia. The Mursi (or Murzu) are a Nomadic cattle herder ethnic group located in the Debub Omo Zone of the Southern Nations Nationalities and People's The Nuer are a confederation of tribes located in Southern Sudan and western Ethiopia. The Shinasha, also known as Bworo or Boro are an ethnic group of Ethiopia. The Sidama ( Ethiopic: ሲዳማ people of southern Ethiopia are an ethnic group whose homeland is in the Sidama Zone of the Southern Nations Nationalities Ethiopia has many indigenous languages (some 84 according to the Ethnologue, 77 according to the 1994 census most of them Afro-Asiatic ( Semitic Some of these are:
English is the most widely spoken foreign language and is the medium of instruction in secondary schools. Afar (aa ''Qafár af'' is a Lowland East Cushitic language spoken in Ethiopia, Eritrea and Djibouti. Amharic (አማርኛ amarəñña) is a Semitic language spoken in North Central Ethiopia by the Amhara. Anfillo (also known as Southern Mao is a Northern Omotic language spoken in western Ethiopia by a few hundred people The Awngi language is a Central Cushitic language spoken by the Awi people, living in Central Gojjam in northwestern Ethiopia. The Berta language is spoken by the group of the same name (Bertha or Berta people) in Sudan and Ethiopia, and is generally classified as a branch Bussa (also known as Muusiye Dobase D'oopace D'opaasunte Lohu Mashile Mashelle Masholle Mosiye Musiye Gobeze Gowase Goraze Orase is an East Cushitic language Burji language (alternate names Bembala Bambala Daashi) is an Afro-Asiatic language spoken by the Burji people who reside in Ethiopia Gamu-Gofa was a province in the southern part of Ethiopia, named after two of the Ethnic groups living within its boundaries the Gamo and the Goffa Gurage is an ethnic group in Ethiopia. The Gurage people inhabit a semi-fertile semi-mountainous region in southwest Ethiopia, about 150 miles southwest Hadiya (sometimes Hadiyigna or Adiya) is the Afro-Asiatic language of the Hadiya people of Ethiopia. Harari (sometimes (Haderi or (Hadere) is the language of the Harari people of Ethiopia. Kambata is a Highland East Cushitic language part of the larger Afro-Asiatic family The Konso language (also Komso or Conso) is an East Cushitic language spoken in southwest Ethiopia. Ongota (also known as Birale 639-3 Birayle is a moribund language of southwest Ethiopia. Oromo, also known as Afaan borana Oromoo, Oromiffa(a ( Ethiopic: ኦሮሚኛ and sometimes in other languages by variant spellings of these names The Saho language is a Cushitic language of Eritrea, spoken in the middle of the country Sidamo is an Afro-Asiatic language, belonging to the Cushitic branch part of the Highland East Cushitic group Silt'e (ስልጥኘ or የስልጤ አፍ af is a Semitic language spoken in central Ethiopia, mainly within the Silt'e Zone in the Southern Nations Soddo (autonym kəstane "Christian" formerly called Aymälläl in Western sources after a particular dialect of it is a Gurage language spoken by about Somali ( Af Soomaali, الصوماليه is a member of the East Cushitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family spoken by ethnic Somalis Tigrinya ( Ge'ez: ትግርኛ tigriññā) also spelled Tigrigna, Tigrina, less commonly Tigrinian, Tigrinyan, is Xamtanga or Khamtanga is a Central Cushitic language spoken in Ethiopia by the Xamir people. The Zay language is one of the Ethiopic languages. It is spoken by about 4880 members of the Zay people on the islands and shores of Lake Zway in English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States Amharic was the language of primary school instruction, but has been replaced in many areas by local languages such as Oromifa and Tigrinya. Amharic (አማርኛ amarəñña) is a Semitic language spoken in North Central Ethiopia by the Amhara. Oromo, also known as Afaan borana Oromoo, Oromiffa(a ( Ethiopic: ኦሮሚኛ and sometimes in other languages by variant spellings of these names Tigrinya ( Ge'ez: ትግርኛ tigriññā) also spelled Tigrigna, Tigrina, less commonly Tigrinian, Tigrinyan, is Ethiopia has its own alphabet, called Ge'ez or Ethiopic (ግዕዝ), and calendar. Ge'ez (gez ግዕዝ) also called Ethiopic, is an Abugida script that was originally developed to write Ge'ez, a Semitic language Ge'ez (ግዕዝ, ɡɨʕɨz also transliterated Gi'iz, and referred to as Ethiopic) is an ancient South Semitic Language The Ethiopian calendar ( Amharic: የኢትዮጵያ ዘመን አቆጣጠር ye'Ītyōṗṗyā zemen āḳoṭaṭer) also called the Ge'ez calendar,
This article contains material from the Library of Congress Country Studies, which are United States government publications in the public domain. The Country Studies are works published by the Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress ( USA) freely available for use by researchers The federal government of the United States is the central United States Governmental body established by the United States Constitution. The public domain is a range of abstract materials &ndash commonly referred to as Intellectual property &ndash which are not owned or controlled by anyone This article contains material from the CIA World Factbook which, as a U. The World Factbook ( ISSN; also known as the CIA World Factbook) is an annual publication of the Central Intelligence Agency of the S. government publication, is in the public domain. The public domain is a range of abstract materials &ndash commonly referred to as Intellectual property &ndash which are not owned or controlled by anyone
Independent Ethiopian Web sites