Ethanol
IUPAC nameEthanol
Other namesEthyl alcohol; grain alcohol; hydroxyethane; drinking alcohol; ethyl hydrate
Identifiers
CAS number[64-17-5]
RTECS numberKQ6300000
SMILESCCO
Properties
Molecular formulaCH3CH2OH

MolarMass = 46. IUPAC Nomenclature is a system of naming Chemical compounds and of describing the science of Chemistry in general CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for Chemical compounds Polymers biological sequences mixtures and Alloys They are also referred to Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances ( RTECS) is a Database of Toxicity information compiled from the open scientific literature without reference A chemical formula is a way of expressing information about the Atoms that constitute a particular Chemical compound, and how the relationship between those atoms changes 06844(232) g/mol

Appearancecolorless clear liquid
Density0. The density of a material is defined as its Mass per unit Volume: \rho = \frac{m}{V} Different materials usually have different 789 g/cm³, liquid
Melting point

−114. The melting point of a solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to Liquid. 3 °C (158. 8 K)

Boiling point

78. The boiling point of a liquid is the temperature at which the Vapor pressure of the liquid equals the environmental pressure surrounding the liquid 4 °C (351. 6 K)

Solubility in waterFully miscible
Acidity (pKa)15. Solubility is the characteristic Physical property referring to the ability of a given substance the Solute, to dissolve in a Solvent. Water is a common Chemical substance that is essential for the survival of all known forms of Life. Miscibility is a term commonly used in Chemistry that refers to the property of Liquids to mix in all proportions forming a Homogeneous Solution 9
Viscosity1. Viscosity is a measure of the resistance of a Fluid which is being deformed by either Shear stress or Extensional stress. 200 mPa·s (cP) at 20. The poise (symbol P pwɑːz is the unit of dynamic Viscosity in the Centimetre gram second system of units. 0 °C
Dipole moment5. In physics there are two kinds of dipoles ( Hellènic: di(s- = two- and pòla = pivot hinge An electric dipole is a 64 fC·fm (1. 69 D) (gas)
Hazards
MSDSExternal MSDS
EU classificationFlammable (F)
NFPA 704
4
0
0

R-phrasesR11
S-phrases(S2), S7, S16
Flash point286. The debye (symbol D) is a non- SI, CGS unit of electrical dipole moment. A material safety data sheet ( MSDS) is a form containing data regarding the properties of a particular substance &lbrace&lbracechembox supplement&rbrace&rbrace and save the page -->This page provides supplementary chemical data on Ethanol Council Directive 67/548/EEC of 27 June 1967 on the approximation of laws regulations and administrative provisions relating to the classification packaging and labelling Symbolism The four divisions are typically color-coded with blue indicating level of Health Hazard, red indicating R-phrases (short for Risk Phrases) are defined in Annex III of European Union Directive 67/548/EEC: Nature of special risks attributed to dangerous R-phrases (short for Risk Phrases) are defined in Annex III of European Union Directive 67/548/EEC: Nature of special risks attributed to dangerous S-phrases are defined in Annex IV of European Union Directive 67/548/EEC: Safety advice concerning dangerous substances and preparations. S-phrases are defined in Annex IV of European Union Directive 67/548/EEC: Safety advice concerning dangerous substances and preparations. S-phrases are defined in Annex IV of European Union Directive 67/548/EEC: Safety advice concerning dangerous substances and preparations. S-phrases are defined in Annex IV of European Union Directive 67/548/EEC: Safety advice concerning dangerous substances and preparations. The flash point of a flammable liquid is the lowest Temperature at which it can form an ignitable mixture in air 15 K (13 °C or 55. 4 °F)
Related compounds
Supplementary data page
Structure and
properties
n, εr, etc. &lbrace&lbracechembox supplement&rbrace&rbrace and save the page -->This page provides supplementary chemical data on Ethanol &lbrace&lbracechembox supplement&rbrace&rbrace and save the page -->This page provides supplementary chemical data on Ethanol The refractive index (or index of Refraction) of a medium is a measure for how much the speed of light (or other waves such as sound waves is reduced inside the medium Measurement The relative static permittivity εr can be measured for static Electric fields as follows first the Capacitance of a test
Thermodynamic
data
Phase behaviour
Solid, liquid, gas
Spectral dataUV, IR, NMR, MS
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for
materials in their standard state
(at 25 °C, 100 kPa)

Infobox disclaimer and references

Ethanol, also called ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, or drinking alcohol, is a volatile, flammable, colorless liquid. &lbrace&lbracechembox supplement&rbrace&rbrace and save the page -->This page provides supplementary chemical data on Ethanol &lbrace&lbracechembox supplement&rbrace&rbrace and save the page -->This page provides supplementary chemical data on Ethanol Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy or ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry ( UV/ VIS) involves the Spectroscopy of Photons in the UV-visible Infrared spectroscopy (IR spectroscopy is the subset of Spectroscopy that deals with the Infrared region of the Electromagnetic spectrum. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, most commonly known as NMR spectroscopy, is the name given to a technique which exploits the magnetic properties of certain nuclei Mass spectrometry is an analytical technique that identifies the chemical composition of a compound or sample based on the Mass-to-charge ratio of charged particles In Chemistry, the standard state of a material is its state at 1 bar (100 Kilopascals exactly Flammability is the ease with which a substance will ignite causing Fire or Combustion. It is best known as the type of alcohol found in alcoholic beverages and in thermometers. In Chemistry, an alcohol is any Organic compound in which a Hydroxyl group ( - O[[hydrogen H]]) is bound to a Carbon In common usage, it is often referred to simply as alcohol.

Ethanol is also known as EtOH, using the common organic chemistry notation of representing the ethyl group (C2H5) with Et. The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism maintains an EtOH database. The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA as part of the U [1]

Ethanol is a straight-chain alcohol, and its molecular formula is C2H5OH. A chemical formula is a way of expressing information about the Atoms that constitute a particular Chemical compound, and how the relationship between those atoms changes An alternative notation is CH3-CH2-OH, which indicates that the carbon of a methyl group (CH3-) is attached to the carbon of a methylene group (-CH2-), which is attached to the oxygen of a hydroxyl group (-OH). Hydroxyl in Chemistry stands for a molecule consisting of an Oxygen atom and a Hydrogen atom connected by a Covalent bond.

Its empirical formula is C2H6O, a formula that it shares with dimethyl ether. Use in chemistry In Chemistry, the empirical formula of a Chemical compound is a simple expression of the relative number of each type of Atom Carbon (kɑɹbən is a Chemical element with the symbol C and its Atomic number is 6 Hydrogen (ˈhaɪdrədʒən is the Chemical element with Atomic number 1 Oxygen (from the Greek roots ὀξύς (oxys (acid literally "sharp" from the taste of acids and -γενής (-genēs (producer literally begetteris the Dimethyl ether is the organic compound with the formula CH3OCH3

Except for the use of fire, the fermentation of sugar into ethanol is very likely the earliest organic reaction known to humanity, and the intoxicating effects of ethanol consumption have been known since ancient times. Organic reactions are Chemical reactions involving Organic compounds The basic Organic chemistry reaction types are Addition reactions Elimination In modern times, ethanol intended for industrial use is also produced from byproducts of petroleum refining.

Ethanol has widespread use as a solvent of substances intended for human contact or consumption, including scents, flavorings, colorings, and medicines. In chemistry, it is both an essential solvent and a feedstock for the synthesis of other products. It has a long history as a fuel for heat and light and also as a fuel for internal combustion engines. The internal combustion engine is an engine in which the Combustion of Fuel and an Oxidizer (typically air occurs in a confined space called a

## History

Ethanol has been used by humans since prehistory as the intoxicating ingredient of alcoholic beverages. Dried residues on 9000-year-old pottery found in China imply that alcoholic beverages were used even among Neolithic people. The Neolithic (from Greek νεολιθικός — neolithikos from νέος neos, "new" + λίθος lithos [2] Its isolation as a relatively pure compound was first achieved by Muslim chemists who developed the art of distillation during the Abbasid caliphate, the most notable of whom were Jabir ibn Hayyan (Geber), Al-Kindi (Alkindus), and al-Razi (Rhazes, 865–925). Distillation is a method of separating Mixtures based on differences in their volatilities in a boiling liquid mixture A caliphate (from the Arabic خلافة or khilāfa) is the political leadership of the Muslim community in classical and medieval Islamic history For the 12th century astronomer see Jabir ibn Aflah. For the anonymous 14th century Spanish alchemist see Pseudo-Geber. ( أبو يوسف يعقوب إبن إسحاق الكندي) (c

Writings attributed to Jabir ibn Hayyan (721–815) mention the flammable vapors of boiled wine. Al-Kindi (801–873) unambiguously described the distillation of wine. [3]

In 1796, Johann Tobias Lowitz obtained pure ethanol by filtering distilled ethanol through activated charcoal. Activated carbon, also called activated charcoal or activated coal, is a form of Carbon that has been processed to make it extremely porous and thus to

Antoine Lavoisier described ethanol as a compound of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, and in 1808 Nicolas-Théodore de Saussure determined ethanol's chemical formula. Nicolas-Théodore de Saussure ( 14 October 1767 - 18 April 1845) was a Swiss Chemist and student of Plant physiology [4] Fifty years later, Archibald Scott Couper published the structural formula of ethanol, which placed ethanol among the first chemical compounds to have their chemical structure determined. Archibald Scott Couper (31 March 1831 &ndash 11 March 1892 was a Scottish chemist who proposed an early theory of chemical structure and bonding [5]

Ethanol was first prepared synthetically in 1826 through the independent efforts of Henry Hennel in Great Britain and S. G. Sérullas in France. In 1828, Michael Faraday prepared ethanol by acid-catalyzed hydration of ethylene, a process similar to that which is used today for industrial ethanol synthesis. Michael Faraday, FRS ( September 22 1791 – August 25 1867) was an English In acid catalysis and base catalysis a Chemical reaction is catalyzed by an Acid or a base. Structure This Hydrocarbon has four Hydrogen Atoms bound to a pair of Carbon atoms that are connected by a Double bond. [6]

Ethanol was used as lamp fuel in the United States as early as 1840, but a tax levied on industrial alcohol during the Civil War made this use uneconomical. Causes of the war See also Origins of the American Civil War, Timeline of events leading to the American Civil War The coexistence of a slave-owning South This tax was repealed in 1906, [7] and from 1908 onward Ford Model T automobiles could be adapted to run on ethanol. The Ford Model T (colloquially known as the Tin Lizzie and also the Flivver) was an Automobile produced by Henry Ford 's Ford [8] With the advent of Prohibition in 1920 though, sellers of ethanol fuel were accused of being allied with moonshiners,[7] and ethanol fuel again fell into disuse until late in the 20th century. Prohibition of alcohol, often referred to simply as prohibition, also known as Noble Experiment, refers to a Sumptuary law which prohibits Alcohol Production Uses Usually large scale distillation is practiced for the purpose of making ethanol for drinking, yet it may also practiced for creating Biofuel

## Physical properties

Ethanol burning in a shallow dish.

Ethanol is a volatile, flammable, colorless liquid that has a strong characteristic odor. Flammability is the ease with which a substance will ignite causing Fire or Combustion. It burns with a smokeless blue flame that is not always visible in normal light.

The physical properties of ethanol stem primarily from the presence of its hydroxyl group and the shortness of its carbon chain. Hydroxyl in Chemistry stands for a molecule consisting of an Oxygen atom and a Hydrogen atom connected by a Covalent bond. Ethanol’s hydroxyl group is able to participate in hydrogen bonding, rendering it more viscous and less volatile than less polar organic compounds of similar molecular weight. Hydroxyl in Chemistry stands for a molecule consisting of an Oxygen atom and a Hydrogen atom connected by a Covalent bond.

Ethanol is a versatile solvent, miscible with water and with many organic solvents, including acetic acid, acetone, benzene, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, diethyl ether, ethylene glycol, glycerol, nitromethane, pyridine, and toluene. Miscibility is a term commonly used in Chemistry that refers to the property of Liquids to mix in all proportions forming a Homogeneous Solution Acetic acid, also known as ethanoic acid, is an organic chemical compound, giving Vinegar its sour taste Acetone (also known as propanone, dimethyl ketone, 2-propanone, propan-2-one and β-ketopropane) is a colorless mobile flammable Benzene, or benzol, is an organic Chemical compound and a known Carcinogen with the molecular formula C 6 H 6 Carbon tetrachloride, also known by many other names (see Table is the Organic compound with the formula CCl4 Chloroform, also known as trichloromethane and methyl trichloride, is a Chemical compound with formula C[[Hydrogen H]] Cl Diethyl ether, also known as ether and ethoxyethane, is a clear colorless and highly Flammable liquid with a low Boiling point and a Ethylene glycol ( monoethylene glycol ( MEG) 12-ethanediol, IUPAC name: ethane-12-diol) is an Alcohol with two -OH Nitromethane is an Organic compound with the chemical formula CH3NO2 Pyridine is a Chemical compound with the formula C5[[Hydrogen H5]] N. Toluene, also known as methylbenzene or phenylmethane, is a clear water -insoluble liquid with the typical smell of Paint thinners redolent of [9][10] It is also miscible with light aliphatic hydrocarbons, such as pentane and hexane, and with aliphatic chlorides such as trichloroethane and tetrachloroethylene. Pentane is any or one of the Organic compounds with the formula C5H12 Hexane is an Alkane Hydrocarbon with the Chemical formula CH3(CH24CH3 or C6H14 Tetrachloroethylene, also known under its systematic name tetrachloroethene and as perchloroethylene, perchloroethene, perc, and PCE [10]

Ethanol’s miscibility with water contrasts with that of longer-chain alcohols (five or more carbon atoms), whose water miscibility decreases sharply as the number of carbons increases. [11]

Hydrogen bonding causes pure ethanol to be hygroscopic to the extent that it readily absorbs water from the air. Hygroscopy is the ability of a substance to attract Water Molecules from the surrounding environment through either absorption or Adsorption The polar nature of the hydroxyl group causes ethanol to dissolve many ionic compounds, notably sodium and potassium hydroxides, magnesium chloride, calcium chloride, ammonium chloride, ammonium bromide, and sodium bromide. Sodium hydroxide ( Na[[hydroxide OH]]) also known as Lye, caustic soda and (incorrectly according to IUPAC nomenclature Potassium hydroxide is the Inorganic compound with the formula K[[hydroxide OH]] Magnesium chloride is the name for the Chemical compounds with the formulas MgCl2 and its various hydrates MgCl2(H2Ox Calcium chloride (CaCl2 is an ionic compound of Calcium and Chlorine. Ammonium chloride ( N[[Hydrogen H]]4 Cl) (also Sal Ammoniac, salmiac, nushadir salt, zalmiak, sal armagnac Ammonium bromide, NH4Br is a substance used in manufacturing photographic chemicals and emulsion Sodium bromide, also known as sedoneural is a Salt with the formula Na[[bromine Br]] widely used as an Anticonvulsant and a Sedative [10] Sodium and potassium chlorides are slightly soluble in ethanol. For sodium chloride in the diet see Salt. Sodium chloride, also known as common salt, table salt, or Halite, is a The Chemical compound potassium chloride (KCl is a Metal Halide salt composed of Potassium and Chlorine. [10] Because the ethanol molecule also has a nonpolar end, it will also dissolve nonpolar substances, including most essential oils [12] and numerous flavoring, coloring, and medicinal agents. An essential oil is a concentrated Hydrophobic Liquid containing volatile Aroma compounds from Plants They are also known as volatile

Two unusual phenomena are associated with mixtures of ethanol and water. Ethanol-water mixtures have less volume than the sum of their individual components. Mixing equal volumes of ethanol and water results in only 1. 92 volumes of mixture. [13] [9] The addition of even a few percent of ethanol to water sharply reduces the surface tension of water. For the work of fiction see Surface Tension (short story. Surface tension is a property of the surface of a Liquid that causes it to This property partially explains the “tears of wine” phenomenon. The phenomenon called tears of wine is manifested as a ring of clear liquid near the top of a glass of Wine, from which droplets form and flow back into the wine When wine is swirled in a glass, ethanol evaporates quickly from the thin film of wine on the wall of the glass. As the wine’s ethanol content decreases, its surface tension increases and the thin film “beads up” and runs down the glass in channels rather than as a smooth sheet.

Mixtures of ethanol and water that contain more than about 50% ethanol are flammable and easily ignited. Flammability is the ease with which a substance will ignite causing Fire or Combustion. Alcoholic proof is a widely used measure of how much ethanol (i. e. , alcohol) such a mixture contains. In the 18th century, proof was determined by adding a liquor (such as rum) to gunpowder. Rum is a Distilled beverage made from Sugarcane by-products such as Molasses and sugarcane Juice by a process of fermentation If the gunpowder burned, that was considered to be “100% proof” that it was “good” liquor — hence it was called “100 proof. ”

Ethanol-water solutions that contain less than 50% ethanol may also be flammable if the solution is first heated. Some cooking methods call for wine to be added to a hot pan, causing it to flash boil into a vapor, which is then ignited to burn off excess alcohol. Wine is an Alcoholic beverage made from the fermentation of Grape juice

Ethanol is slightly more refractive than water, having a refractive index of 1. The refractive index (or index of Refraction) of a medium is a measure for how much the speed of light (or other waves such as sound waves is reduced inside the medium 36242 (at λ=589. 3 nm and 18. 35 °C). [9]

## Chemical properties

Chemical structure of ethanol
For more details on this topic, see Alcohol. In Chemistry, an alcohol is any Organic compound in which a Hydroxyl group ( - O[[hydrogen H]]) is bound to a Carbon

Ethanol is classified as a primary alcohol, meaning that the carbon to which its hydroxyl group is attached has at least two hydrogen atoms attached to it as well.

The chemistry of ethanol is largely that of its hydroxyl group. Hydroxyl in Chemistry stands for a molecule consisting of an Oxygen atom and a Hydrogen atom connected by a Covalent bond.

### Acid-base chemistry

Ethanol's hydroxyl casues the molecule to be slightly basic. It is however,so very slightly basic it is almost neutral, like pure water. The pH of 100% ethanol is 7. pH is the measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a Solution. 33, compared to 7. 00 for pure water. Ethanol can be quantitatively converted to its conjugate base, the ethoxide ion (CH3CH2O), by reaction with an alkali metal such as sodium:[11]

2CH3CH2OH + 2Na → 2CH3CH2ONa + H2

or a very strong base such as sodium hydride:

CH3CH2OH + NaH → CH3CH2ONa + H2

### Halogenation

Ethanol reacts with hydrogen halides to produce ethyl halides such as ethyl chloride and ethyl bromide:

CH3CH2OH + HClCH3CH2Cl + H2O

HCl reaction requires a catalyst such as zinc chloride. Within the Brønsted - Lowry ( protonic) theory of acids and bases, a conjugate acid is the acid member HX of a pair of two compounds that transform An alkoxide is the Conjugate base of an Alcohol and therefore consists of an organic group bonded to a negatively charged Oxygen atom Trends The alkali metals show a number of trends when moving down the group - for instance decreasing electronegativity increasing reactivity and decreasing melting and boiling Sodium (ˈsoʊdiəm is an element which has the symbol Na( Latin natrium, from Arabic natrun) atomic number 11 atomic mass 22 Sodium (ˈsoʊdiəm is an element which has the symbol Na( Latin natrium, from Arabic natrun) atomic number 11 atomic mass 22 Hydrogen (ˈhaɪdrədʒən is the Chemical element with Atomic number 1 Hydrogen (ˈhaɪdrədʒən is the Chemical element with Atomic number 1 Hydrogen halides (or hydrohalic acids) are acids resulting from the chemical reaction of Hydrogen with one of the Halogen elements ( Fluorine, The haloalkanes (also known as halogenoalkanes or alkyl halides) are a group of Chemical compounds consisting of Alkanes such as Methane Chloroethane or monochloroethane, commonly known by its old name ethyl chloride, is a Chemical compound once widely used in producing Tetra-ethyl lead Bromoethane, also known as ethyl bromide is a Chemical compound of the Haloalkanes group Hydrochloric acid is the Solution of Hydrogen chloride ( H[[Chlorine Cl]] in water Chloroethane or monochloroethane, commonly known by its old name ethyl chloride, is a Chemical compound once widely used in producing Tetra-ethyl lead Water is a common Chemical substance that is essential for the survival of all known forms of Life. Zinc chloride is the name of Chemical compound with the formula Zn[[chlorine Cl]]2 and its hydrates [14] Hydrogen chloride in the presence of their respective zinc chloride is known as Lucas reagent. Lucas' reagent is a solution of Zinc chloride in concentrated Hydrochloric acid, used to classify Alcohols of low molecular weight [11][14]

CH3CH2OH + HBrCH3CH2Br + H2O

HBr requires refluxing with a sulfuric acid catalyst. Hydrobromic Acid is formed by dissolving the diatomic molecule Hydrogen bromide in water Bromoethane, also known as ethyl bromide is a Chemical compound of the Haloalkanes group Water is a common Chemical substance that is essential for the survival of all known forms of Life. This article is about using reflux in chemical engineering and chemistry Sulfuric (or sulphuric acid, H 2 S[[oxygen O]]4 is a strong Mineral acid. [14]

Ethyl halides can also be produced by reacting ethanol with more specialized halogenating agents, such as thionyl chloride for preparing ethyl chloride, or phosphorus tribromide for preparing ethyl bromide. "Fluorination" redirects here For the addition of fluoride to drinking water see Water fluoridation. Thionyl chloride (or thionyl dichloride) is an Inorganic compound with the formula S[[Oxygen O]] Cl 2 Phosphorus tribromide is a colourless liquid with the formula P[[Bromine Br]]3 [11][14]

CH3CH2OH + SOCl2 → CH3CH2Cl + SO2 + HCl

### Ester formation

Under acid-catalyzed conditions, ethanol reacts with carboxylic acids to produce ethyl esters and water:

RCOOH + HOCH2CH3RCOOCH2CH3 + H2O

For this reaction to produce useful yields it is necessary to remove water from the reaction mixture as it is formed. Carboxylic acids are Organic acids characterized by the presence of a Carboxyl group, which has the formula -C(=OOH usually written -COOH or -CO2H Esters are a class of Chemical compounds and Functional groups Esters consist of an inorganic or organic Acid in which at least Carboxylic acids are Organic acids characterized by the presence of a Carboxyl group, which has the formula -C(=OOH usually written -COOH or -CO2H Esters are a class of Chemical compounds and Functional groups Esters consist of an inorganic or organic Acid in which at least Water is a common Chemical substance that is essential for the survival of all known forms of Life.

Ethanol can also form esters with inorganic acids. Diethyl sulfate and triethyl phosphate, prepared by reacting ethanol with sulfuric and phosphoric acid respectively, are both useful ethylating agents in organic synthesis. Diethyl sulfate is a highly Toxic and likely Carcinogenic {Fact|date=May 2008}} Chemical compound with formula (2524 The compound triethyl phosphate has formula (C2H53PO4 It is a colorless liquid Sulfuric (or sulphuric acid, H 2 S[[oxygen O]]4 is a strong Mineral acid. Phosphoric acid, also known as orthophosphoric acid or phosphoric(V acid, is a mineral (inorganic acid having the Chemical formula Organic synthesis is a special branch of Chemical synthesis and is concerned with the construction of Organic compounds via Organic reactions Organic Ethyl nitrite, prepared from the reaction of ethanol with sodium nitrite and sulfuric acid, was formerly a widely-used diuretic. Chemistry Other Synonyms Include Ethyl Alcohol Nitrite Nitrous acid ethyl ester nitrethyl Sodium nitrite, with Chemical formula Na[[Nitrogen N]] O 2 is used as a Color fixative and Preservative in meats and Sulfuric (or sulphuric acid, H 2 S[[oxygen O]]4 is a strong Mineral acid. A diuretic is any Drug that elevates the rate of urination ( Diuresis)

### Dehydration

Strong acid desiccants, such as sulfuric acid, cause ethanol's dehydration to form either diethyl ether or ethylene:

2 CH3CH2OH → CH3CH2OCH2CH3 + H2O
CH3CH2OH → H2C=CH2 + H2O

Which product, diethyl ether or ethylene, predominates depends on the precise reaction conditions. Diethyl ether, also known as ether and ethoxyethane, is a clear colorless and highly Flammable liquid with a low Boiling point and a Structure This Hydrocarbon has four Hydrogen Atoms bound to a pair of Carbon atoms that are connected by a Double bond. Diethyl ether, also known as ether and ethoxyethane, is a clear colorless and highly Flammable liquid with a low Boiling point and a Water is a common Chemical substance that is essential for the survival of all known forms of Life. Structure This Hydrocarbon has four Hydrogen Atoms bound to a pair of Carbon atoms that are connected by a Double bond. Water is a common Chemical substance that is essential for the survival of all known forms of Life.

### Oxidation

Ethanol can be oxidized to acetaldehyde, and further oxidized to acetic acid. Acetaldehyde, sometimes known as ethanal, is an organic chemical compound with the formula C[[Hydrogen H]]3CH O or MeCHO Acetic acid, also known as ethanoic acid, is an organic chemical compound, giving Vinegar its sour taste In the human body, these oxidation reactions are catalyzed by enzymes. Enzymes are Biomolecules that catalyze ( ie increase the rates of Chemical reactions Almost all enzymes are Proteins In the laboratory, aqueous solutions of strong oxidizing agents, such as chromic acid or potassium permanganate, oxidize ethanol to acetic acid, and it is difficult to stop the reaction at acetaldehyde at high yield. Chromic acid generally refers to a collection of compounds generated by the acidification of solutions containing Chromate and Dichromate anions or the Potassium permanganate is the Chemical compound K[[manganese Mn]] O 4 Ethanol can be oxidized to acetaldehyde, without over oxidation to acetic acid, by reacting it with pyridinium chromic chloride. Pyridinium chlorochromate is a reddish orange solid reagent used to Oxidize primary Alcohols to Aldehydes and secondary Alcohols to Ketones [14]

The direct oxidation of ethanol to acetic acid using chromic acid is given below.

C2H5OH + 2[O] → CH3COOH + H2O

The oxidation product of ethanol, acetic acid, is spent as nutrient by the human body as acetyl CoA, where the acetyl group can be spent as energy or used for biosynthesis. Acetyl-CoA is an important molecule in metabolism used in many biochemical reactions

### Chlorination

When exposed to chlorine, ethanol is both oxidized and its alpha carbon chlorinated to form the compound, chloral. Chlorine (ˈklɔriːn from the Greek word 'χλωρóς' ( khlôros, meaning 'pale green' is the Chemical element with Atomic number 17 and The alpha carbon in Organic chemistry refers to the first carbon that attaches to a Functional group (the carbon is attached at the first or alpha position Chloral, also known as trichloroacetaldehyde is the Organic compound with the formula Cl3CCHO

4Cl2 + C2H5OH → CCl3CHO + 5HCl

### Combustion

Combustion of ethanol forms carbon dioxide and water:

C2H5OH(g) + 3 O2(g) → 2 CO2(g) + 3 H2O(l) (ΔHr = −1409 kJ/mol[15])

## Production

94% denatured ethanol sold in a bottle for household use. Combustion or burning is a complex sequence of Exothermic chemical reactions between a Fuel and an Oxidant accompanied by the production of Carbon dioxide ( Chemical formula:) is a Chemical compound composed of two Oxygen Atoms covalently bonded to a single Water is a common Chemical substance that is essential for the survival of all known forms of Life.

Ethanol is produced both as a petrochemical, through the hydration of ethylene, and biologically, by fermenting sugars with yeast. Petrochemicals are chemical products made from raw materials of Petroleum or other Hydrocarbon origin Structure This Hydrocarbon has four Hydrogen Atoms bound to a pair of Carbon atoms that are connected by a Double bond. Fermentation is the process of deriving energy from the oxidation of organic compounds such as carbohydrates using an endogenous electron acceptor which is Yeasts are a growth form of eukaryotic Microorganisms classified in the kingdom Fungi, with about 1500 Species currently described [16] Which process is more economical is dependent upon the prevailing prices of petroleum and of grain feed stocks.

### Ethylene hydration

Ethanol for use as industrial feedstock is most often made from petrochemical feed stocks, typically by the acid-catalyzed hydration of ethylene, represented by the chemical equation

C2H4(g) + H2O(g) → CH3CH2OH(l)

The catalyst is most commonly phosphoric acid,[17] adsorbed onto a porous support such as diatomaceous earth or charcoal. Petrochemicals are chemical products made from raw materials of Petroleum or other Hydrocarbon origin In Computer science, ACID ( Atomicity Consistency Isolation Durability) is a set of properties that guarantee that Database transactions are Catalysis is the process in which the rate of a Chemical reaction is increased by means of a Chemical substance known as a catalyst Structure This Hydrocarbon has four Hydrogen Atoms bound to a pair of Carbon atoms that are connected by a Double bond. A chemical equation is a symbolic representation of a Chemical reaction. Structure This Hydrocarbon has four Hydrogen Atoms bound to a pair of Carbon atoms that are connected by a Double bond. Water is a common Chemical substance that is essential for the survival of all known forms of Life. Phosphoric acid, also known as orthophosphoric acid or phosphoric(V acid, is a mineral (inorganic acid having the Chemical formula Adsorption is a process that occurs when a gas or liquid Solute accumulates on the surface of a solid or a liquid (adsorbent forming a film of molecules or atoms (the Diatomaceous earth (ˌdaɪətəˈmeɪʃəs ˈɝθ also known as DE, TSS, diatomite, diahydro, kieselguhr, kieselgur and Charcoal' is the blackish residue consisting of impure Carbon obtained by removing water and other volatile constituents from Animal and Vegetation This catalyst was first used for large-scale ethanol production by the Shell Oil Company in 1947. Shell Oil Company is the United States -based affiliate of Royal Dutch Shell, a multinational oil company (" Oil major " of Anglo [18] The reaction is carried out at with an excess of high pressure steam at 300 °C.

In an older process, first practiced on the industrial scale in 1930 by Union Carbide,[19] but now almost entirely obsolete, ethylene was hydrated indirectly by reacting it with concentrated sulfuric acid to produce ethyl sulfate, which was then hydrolyzed to yield ethanol and regenerate the sulfuric acid:[14]

C2H4 + H2SO4CH3CH2SO4H
CH3CH2SO4H + H2O → CH3CH2OH + H2SO4

### Fermentation

For more details on this topic, see Ethanol fermentation. Union Carbide Corporation ( Union Carbide) is one of the oldest chemical and polymers companies in the United States, currently employing more than 3800 people Sulfuric (or sulphuric acid, H 2 S[[oxygen O]]4 is a strong Mineral acid. Ethyl sulfate, also known as sulfovinic acid, is an organic chemical compound used as intermediate in the production of Ethanol from Ethylene Hydrolysis is a Chemical reaction during which one or more water molecules are split into hydrogen and hydroxide ions which may go on to participate in further reactions Structure This Hydrocarbon has four Hydrogen Atoms bound to a pair of Carbon atoms that are connected by a Double bond. Sulfuric (or sulphuric acid, H 2 S[[oxygen O]]4 is a strong Mineral acid. Ethyl sulfate, also known as sulfovinic acid, is an organic chemical compound used as intermediate in the production of Ethanol from Ethylene Ethyl sulfate, also known as sulfovinic acid, is an organic chemical compound used as intermediate in the production of Ethanol from Ethylene Water is a common Chemical substance that is essential for the survival of all known forms of Life. Sulfuric (or sulphuric acid, H 2 S[[oxygen O]]4 is a strong Mineral acid. See also Fermentation (biochemistry Ethanol fermentation is the biological process by which sugars such as Glucose, Fructose, and Sucrose

Ethanol for use in alcoholic beverages, and the vast majority of ethanol for use as fuel, is produced by fermentation. When certain species of yeast, most importantly, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, metabolize sugar in the absence of oxygen, they produce ethanol and carbon dioxide. Yeasts are a growth form of eukaryotic Microorganisms classified in the kingdom Fungi, with about 1500 Species currently described Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a Species of Budding Yeast. It is perhaps the most useful Yeast owing to its use since ancient times Metabolism is the set of Chemical reactions that occur in living Organisms in order to maintain Life. Polysaccharides are relatively complex Carbohydrates They are Polymers made up of many Monosaccharides joined together by Glycosidic bonds Oxygen (from the Greek roots ὀξύς (oxys (acid literally "sharp" from the taste of acids and -γενής (-genēs (producer literally begetteris the Carbon dioxide ( Chemical formula:) is a Chemical compound composed of two Oxygen Atoms covalently bonded to a single The chemical equation below summarizes the conversion:

C6H12O6 → 2 CH3CH2OH + 2 CO2

The process of culturing yeast under conditions to produce alcohol is called fermentation. Glucose (Glc a Monosaccharide (or simple Sugar) also known as grape sugar, is an important Carbohydrate in Biology. Carbon dioxide ( Chemical formula:) is a Chemical compound composed of two Oxygen Atoms covalently bonded to a single Ethanol's toxicity to yeast limits the ethanol concentration obtainable by brewing. The most ethanol-tolerant strains of yeast can survive up to approximately 15% ethanol by volume. [20]

The fermentation process must exclude oxygen. If oxygen is present, yeast undergo aerobic respiration which produces carbon dioxide and water rather than ethanol. Cellular respiration is the set of the metabolic reactions and processes that take place in Organisms cells to convert biochemical energy from Carbon dioxide ( Chemical formula:) is a Chemical compound composed of two Oxygen Atoms covalently bonded to a single

In order to produce ethanol from starchy materials such as cereal grains, the starch must first be converted into sugars. Starch, CAS # 9005-25-8 Chemical formula (C6H10O5n is a Polysaccharide In brewing beer, this has traditionally been accomplished by allowing the grain to germinate, or malt, which produces the enzyme, amylase. Beer is the world's oldest and most widely consumed Alcoholic beverage and the third most popular drink overall after water and tea Malting is a process applied to Cereal grains in which the grains are made to Germinate by soaking in water and are then quickly halted from germinating further Enzymes are Biomolecules that catalyze ( ie increase the rates of Chemical reactions Almost all enzymes are Proteins Amylase is an Enzyme that breaks Starch down into Sugar. Amylase is present in human Saliva, where it begins the chemical process When the malted grain is mashed, the amylase converts the remaining starches into sugars. In Brewing and Distilling, mashing is the process of combining a mix of milled Grain (typically Malted Barley with supplementary For fuel ethanol, the hydrolysis of starch into glucose can be accomplished more rapidly by treatment with dilute sulfuric acid, fungally produced amylase, or some combination of the two. A fungus (ˈfʌŋgəs is a eukaryotic Organism that is a member of the kingdom Fungi (ˈfʌndʒaɪ [21]

### Cellulosic ethanol

Main article: Cellulosic ethanol

Sugars for ethanol fermentation can be obtained from cellulose. Cellulosic ethanol also know by the name Ceetol, is a Biofuel produced from wood grasses or the non-edible parts of plants See also Fermentation (biochemistry Ethanol fermentation is the biological process by which sugars such as Glucose, Fructose, and Sucrose Cellulose is an Organic compound with the formula, a Polysaccharide consisting of a linear chain of several hundred to over ten thousand β(1→4 [22][23] Until recently, however, the cost of the cellulase enzymes capable of hydrolyzing cellulose has been prohibitive. Cellulase refers to a class of Enzymes produced chiefly by Fungi, Bacteria, and Protozoans that Catalyze the cellulolysis (or The Canadian firm Iogen brought the first cellulose-based ethanol plant on-stream in 2004. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page Iogen Corporation is a Canadian company based in Ottawa, Ontario that was founded by Patrick Foody. [24] Its primary consumer so far has been the Canadian government, which, along with the United States Department of Energy, has invested heavily in the commercialization of cellulosic ethanol. The United States Department of Energy ( DOE) is a Cabinet -level department of the United States government responsible for energy policy Deployment of this technology could turn a number of cellulose-containing agricultural byproducts, such as corncobs, straw, and sawdust, into renewable energy resources. A corncob is the central core of a Maize (Zea mays ssp mays L Straw is an agricultural By-product, the dry stalk of a Cereal plant after the Grain or Seed has been removed Sawdust is composed of fine particles of Wood. This material is produced from cutting with a Saw, hence its name Other enzyme companies are developing genetically engineered fungi that produce large volumes of cellulase, xylanase, and hemicellulase enzymes. These would convert agricultural residues such as corn stover, wheat straw, and sugar cane bagasse and energy crops such as switchgrass into fermentable sugars. Panicum virgatum, commonly known as switchgrass, is a warm season Grass and is one of the dominant Species of the central North American [25]

Cellulose-bearing materials typically also contain other polysaccharides, including hemicellulose. Polysaccharides are relatively complex Carbohydrates They are Polymers made up of many Monosaccharides joined together by Glycosidic bonds A hemicellulose can be any of several Heteropolymers (matrix polysaccharides present in almost all plant cell walls along with Cellulose. When hydrolyzed, hemicellulose decomposes into mostly five-carbon sugars such as xylose. Hydrolysis is a Chemical reaction during which one or more water molecules are split into hydrogen and hydroxide ions which may go on to participate in further reactions Xylose or wood sugar is an Aldopentose &mdash a Monosaccharide containing five Carbon Atoms and including an Aldehyde Functional S. cerevisiae, the yeast most commonly used for ethanol production, cannot metabolize xylose. Other yeasts and bacteria are under investigation to ferment xylose and other pentoses into ethanol. A pentose is a Monosaccharide with five Carbon Atoms They either have an Aldehyde Functional group in position 1 ( aldopentoses [26]

On January 14, 2008, General Motors announced a partnership with Coskata, Inc. Events 1129 - Formal approval of the Order of the Templar at the Council of Troyes. 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common General Motors Corporation ( GM) ( is a multinational automobile manufacturer founded in 1908 and headquartered in the United States. The goal is to produce cellulosic ethanol cheaply, with an eventual goal of US$1 per U. S. gallon ($0. 30/L) for the fuel. The partnership plans to begin producing the fuel in large quantity by the end of 2008. By 2011 a full-scale plant will come on line, capable of producing 50 to 100 million gallons of ethanol a year (200–400 ML/a). The litre or liter (see spelling differences) is a unit of Volume. A year (from Old English gēr) is the time between two recurrences of an event related to the Orbit of the Earth around the Sun [27]

### Prospective technologies

The anaerobic bacterium Clostridium ljungdahlii, recently discovered in commercial chicken wastes, can produce ethanol from single-carbon sources including synthesis gas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen that can be generated from the partial combustion of either fossil fuels or biomass. An anaerobic organism is any Organism that does not require Oxygen for growth and may even die in its presence Clostridium is a Genus of Gram-positive bacteria belonging to the Firmicutes. Syngas (from syn thesis gas) is the name given to a gas mixture that contains varying amounts of Carbon monoxide and Hydrogen. Carbon monoxide, with the chemical formula CO is a colorless odorless tasteless yet highly toxic Gas. Hydrogen (ˈhaɪdrədʒən is the Chemical element with Atomic number 1 Combustion or burning is a complex sequence of Exothermic chemical reactions between a Fuel and an Oxidant accompanied by the production of Fossil fuels or mineral fuels are fossil source Fuels that is Hydrocarbons found within the top layer of the Earth’s crust. Biomass refers to living and recently dead Biological material that can be used as fuel or for industrial production Use of these bacteria to produce ethanol from synthesis gas has progressed to the pilot plant stage at the BRI Energy facility in Fayetteville, Arkansas. Fayetteville is a city in Washington County, Arkansas, United States, and is home to the University of Arkansas. [28]

Another prospective technology is the closed-loop ethanol plant. [29] Ethanol produced from corn has a number of critics who suggest that it is primarily just recycled fossil fuels because of the energy required to grow the grain and convert it into ethanol. There is also the issue of competition with use of corn for food production. However, the closed-loop ethanol plant attempts to address this criticism. In a closed-loop plant, the energy for the distillation comes from fermented manure, produced from cattle that have been fed the by-products from the distillation. The leftover manure is then used to fertilize the soil used to grow the grain. Such a process is expected to have a much lower fossil fuel requirement. [30]

Though in an early stage of research, there is some development of alternative production methods that use feed stocks such as municipal waste or recycled products, rice hulls, sugarcane bagasse, small diameter trees, wood chips, and switchgrass. [31]

### Testing

Near infrared spectrum of liquid ethanol. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS is a Spectroscopic method utilising the near Infrared region of the Electromagnetic spectrum (from about 800 nm to 2500

Breweries and biofuel plants employ two methods for measuring ethanol concentration. Infrared ethanol sensors measure the vibrational frequency of dissolved ethanol using the CH band at 2900 cm−1. This method uses a relatively inexpensive solid state sensor that compares the CH band with a reference band to calculate the ethanol content. The calculation makes use of the Beer-Lambert law. In Alternatively, by measuring the density of the starting material and the density of the product, using a hydrometer, the change in specific gravity during fermentation indicates the alcohol content. A hydrometer is an instrument used to measure the Specific gravity (or Relative density) of Liquids that is the ratio This inexpensive and indirect method has a long history in the beer brewing industry.

### Purification

Main article: Ethanol purification

Ethylene hydration or brewing produces an ethanol–water mixture. The product of either ethylene hydration or brewing is an ethanol-water mixture For most industrial and fuel uses, the ethanol must be purified. Fractional distillation can concentrate ethanol to 95. Fractional distillation is the separation of a mixture into its component parts or fractions such as in separating Chemical compounds by their Boiling point by heating 6% by weight (89. 5 mole%). This mixture is an azeotrope with a boiling point of 78. An azeotrope (pronounced 1 °C, and cannot be further purified by distillation.

In one common industrial method to obtain absolute alcohol, a small quantity of benzene is added to rectified spirit and the mixture is then distilled. Benzene, or benzol, is an organic Chemical compound and a known Carcinogen with the molecular formula C 6 H 6 A rectified spirit or rectified alcohol is highly concentrated Ethanol (drinking alcohol which has been purified by means of rectification (repeated distillation Absolute alcohol is obtained in the third fraction, which distills over at 78. 3 °C (351. 4 K). [11] Because a small amount of the benzene used remains in the solution, absolute alcohol produced by this method is not suitable for consumption, as benzene is carcinogenic. The term carcinogen refers to any substance Radionuclide or radiation that is an agent directly involved in the promotion of Cancer or in the fatation of its propagation [32]

There is also an absolute alcohol production process by desiccation using glycerol. Desiccation is the state of extreme dryness or the process of extreme drying Alcohol produced by this method is known as spectroscopic alcohol — so called because the absence of benzene makes it suitable as a solvent in spectroscopy. Spectroscopy was originally the study of the interaction between Radiation and Matter as a function of Wavelength (λ

Other methods for obtaining absolute ethanol include desiccation using adsorbents such as starch or zeolites, which adsorb water preferentially, as well as azeotropic distillation and extractive distillation. Zeolites (Greek zein, "to boil" lithos, "a stone" are hydrated Aluminosilicate Minerals and have a micro-porous structure In Chemistry, azeotropic distillation is any of a range of techniques used to break an Azeotrope in Distillation. Extractive distillation is defined as Distillation in the presence of a Miscible, high boiling relatively Non-volatile component the Solvent

### Denatured alcohol

Main article: Denatured alcohol

Pure ethanol and alcoholic beverages are heavily taxed, but ethanol has many uses that do not involve consumption by humans. Denatured alcohol is Ethanol which has been rendered toxic or otherwise undrinkable and in some cases dyed To relieve the tax burden on these uses, most jurisdictions waive the tax when an agent has been added to the ethanol to render it unfit to drink. These include bittering agents such as denatonium benzoate and toxins such as methanol, naphtha, and pyridine. Denatonium, usually available as denatonium benzoate (under Trade names such as Bitrex or Aversion) and as denatonium Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol, carbinol, wood alcohol, wood naphtha or wood spirits, is a Chemical compound Naphtha normally refers to a number of different flammable liquid mixtures of hydrocarbons i Pyridine is a Chemical compound with the formula C5[[Hydrogen H5]] N. Products of this kind are called denatured alcohol. [33][34]

### Absolute ethanol

Absolute or anhydrous alcohol generally refers to purified ethanol, containing no more than one percent water. Water is a common Chemical substance that is essential for the survival of all known forms of Life. Absolute alcohol not intended for human consumption often contains trace amounts of toxic benzene (used to remove water by azeotropic distillation). Generally this kind of ethanol is used as solvents for lab and industrial settings where water will disrupt a desired reaction.

Pure ethanol is classed as 200 proof in the USA, equivalent to 175 degrees proof in the UK system.

## Use

### As a fuel

Fuel type     MJ/L     MJ/kgResearch
octane
number
Ethanol23. The octane rating is a measure of the resistance of Gasoline and other Fuels to Detonation ( Engine knocking) in spark-ignition Ethanol fuel is Ethanol (ethyl alcohol the same type of Alcohol found in Alcoholic beverages. 531. 1[35]129
Methanol17. Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol, carbinol, wood alcohol, wood naphtha or wood spirits, is a Chemical compound 919. 9123
Regular Gasoline34. 844. 4[36]Min 91
Aviation gasoline
(high octane gasoline, not Jet fuel)
33. Avgas is a high-octane Aviation fuel used for Aircraft and Racing cars Avgas is a Portmanteau for aviation gasoline 546. 8
Gasohol
(90% gasoline + 10% ethanol)
33. Although Fossil fuels have become the dominant Energy resource for the modern world Alcohol has been used as a fuel throughout history 793/94
Autogas (LPG)
(60% Propane + 40% Butane)
26. Autogas is the common name for Liquified petroleum gas (LPG when it is used as a Fuel in Internal combustion engines in Vehicles. Liquefied petroleum gas (also called LPG, GPL, LP Gas, or Autogas) is a mixture of Hydrocarbon Gases used as a Fuel Propane is a three- Carbon Alkane, normally a gas but compressible to a liquid that is transportable Butane, also called n -butane, is the unbranched Alkane with four Carbon Atoms CH3CH2CH2CH3 8
Liquefied natural gas25. Not to be confused with Natural Gas Liquids (NGL Liquefied natural gas or LNG is Natural gas (primarily Methane, CH4 3~55
Diesel38. Diesel or Diesel fuel (ˈdiːzəl in general is any Fuel used in Diesel engines The most common is a specific fractional distillate of petroleum 6045. 4125
Volumetric energy density of some fuels compared with ethanol:[37]
Main article: Ethanol fuel

The largest single use of ethanol is as a motor fuel and fuel additive. Energy density is the amount of Energy stored in a given system or region of space per unit Volume, or per unit Mass, depending on the context although Ethanol fuel is Ethanol (ethyl alcohol the same type of Alcohol found in Alcoholic beverages. Fuel is any material that is burned or altered in order to obtain energy Gasoline additives increase Gasoline 's Octane rating or act as Corrosion inhibitors or lubricators, thus allowing the use of higher Compression The largest national fuel ethanol industries exist in Brazil (gasoline sold in Brazil contains at least 25% ethanol and anhydrous ethanol is also used as fuel in more than 90% of new cars sold in the country). |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld The Brazilian production of ethanol is praised for the high carbon sequestration capabilities of the sugar cane plantations, thus making it a real option to combat climate change. Sugarcane ( Saccharum) is a genus of 6 to 37 species (depending on taxonomic interpretation of tall perennial grasses (family Poaceae tribe Andropogoneae Fundamentally a plantation is usually a large Farm or estate, especially in a tropical or semitropical country on which Cotton, Tobacco Climate change is any long-term significant change in the “average weather” that a given region experiences [38]

Henry Ford designed the first mass-produced automobile, the famed Model T Ford, to run on pure anhydrous (ethanol) alcohol -- he said it was "the fuel of the future". Henry Ford ( July 30, 1863 &ndash April 7, 1947) was the American founder of the Ford Motor Company and father of Today, however, 100% pure ethanol is not approved as a motor vehicle fuel in the US. Added to gasoline, ethanol reduces ground-level ozone formation by lowering volatile organic compound and hydrocarbon emissions, decreasing carcinogenic benzene, and butadiene, emissions, and particulate matter emissions from gasoline combustion. [39]

Prior to the development of electronic fuel injection (EFI) and computerized engine management, the lower energy content of ethanol required that the engine carburetor be rejetted to permit a larger volume of fuel to mix with the intake air. Fuel injection is a system for mixing fuel with air in an Internal combustion engine. A carburetor (North American spelling or carburettor ( Commonwealth spelling) is a device that blends air and Fuel for an Internal EFI is able to actively compensate for varying fuel energy densities by monitoring the oxygen content of exhaust gases. An oxygen sensor, or lambda sensor is an electronic device that measures the proportion of Oxygen (O2 in the gas or liquid being analyzed However, a standard EFI gasoline engine can typically only tolerate up to 10% ethanol and 90% gasoline. Higher ethanol ratios require either larger-volume fuel injectors or an increase in fuel rail pressure to deliver the greater liquid volume needed to equal the energy content of pure gasoline. Fuel injection is a system for mixing fuel with air in an Internal combustion engine. A fuel rail is essentially a pipe (usually resembling a rail used to deliver Fuel to individual Fuel injectors on Internal combustion engines.

Today, more than 20% of the Brazilian fleet of cars on the streets[40] are able to use 100% ethanol as fuel, which includes ethanol-only engines and flex-fuel engines. A flexible-fuel vehicle (FFV or dual-fuel vehicle ( Colloquially called a flex-fuel vehicle) is an alternative fuel Automobile or Flex-fuel engines in Brazil are able to work with all ethanol, all gasoline or any mixture of both. In the US flex-fuel vehicles can run on 0% to 85% ethanol (15% gasoline) since higher ethanol blends are not yet allowed. Brazil supports this population of ethanol-burning automobiles with large national infrastructure that produces ethanol from domestically grown sugar cane. Sugarcane ( Saccharum) is a genus of 6 to 37 species (depending on taxonomic interpretation of tall perennial grasses (family Poaceae tribe Andropogoneae Sugar cane not only has a greater concentration of sucrose than corn (by about 30%), but is also much easier to extract. Sugarcane ( Saccharum) is a genus of 6 to 37 species (depending on taxonomic interpretation of tall perennial grasses (family Poaceae tribe Andropogoneae The bagasse generated by the process is not wasted, but is utilized in power plants as a surprisingly efficient fuel to produce electricity. Bagasse (sometimes spelled bagass) is the Biomass remaining after Sugarcane or Sorghum stalks are crushed to extract their juice and is

World production of ethanol in 2006 was 51 gigalitres (13,000,000,000 US gal), with 69% of the world supply coming from Brazil and the United States. [41]

The United States fuel ethanol industry is based largely on corn. Maize (ˈmeɪz ( Zea mays L. ssp mays) known as corn in some countries is a cereal grain domesticated in Mesoamerica According to the Renewable Fuels Association, as of October 30, 2007, 131 grain ethanol bio-refineries in the United States have the capacity to produce 7. 0 billion US gallons (26 GL) of ethanol per year. An additional 72 construction projects underway (in the U. S. ) can add 6. 4 billion gallons of new capacity in the next 18 months. Over time, it is believed that a material portion of the ~150 billion gallon per year market for gasoline will begin to be replaced with fuel ethanol. [42]

The Energy Policy Act of 2005 requires that 4 billion gallons of "renewable fuel" be used in 2006 and this requirement will grow to a yearly production of 7. The Energy Policy Act of 2005 ( is a statute that was passed by the United States Congress on July 29 2005 and signed into law by President George W 5 billion gallons by 2012. [43]

A Ford Taurus "fueled by clean burning ethanol" owned by New York City. The Ford Taurus is an Automobile manufactured by the Ford Motor Company in the United States. The City of New York

In the United States, ethanol is most commonly blended with gasoline as a 10% ethanol blend nicknamed "gasohol". This blend is widely sold throughout the U. S. Midwest, and in cities required by the 1990 Clean Air Act to oxygenate their gasoline during the winter. The 1990 Clean Air Act is a piece of United States environmental policy relating to the reduction of Smog and Air pollution.

#### Controversy

Further information: Food vs fuel

It is disputed whether ethanol as an automotive fuel results in a net energy gain or loss. Food vs fuel is the dilemma regarding the risk of diverting farmland or crops for Biofuels production in detriment of the Food As reported in "The Energy Balance of Corn Ethanol: an Update,"[44] the energy returned on energy invested (EROEI) for ethanol made from corn in the U. In Physics, Energy economics and ecological energetics, EROEI (Energy Returned on Energy Invested ERoEI, EROI (Energy Return On S. is 1. 34 (it yields 34% more energy than it takes to produce it). Input energy includes natural gas based fertilizers, farm equipment, transformation from corn or other materials, and transportation. However, other researchers report that the production of ethanol consumes more energy than it yields. [45][46] In comparison, sugar cane ethanol EROEI is at around 8 (it yields 8 joules for each joule used to produce it). Recent research suggests that cellulosic crops such as switchgrass provide a much better net energy production than corn, producing over five times as much energy as the total used to produce the crop and convert it to fuel. Panicum virgatum, commonly known as switchgrass, is a warm season Grass and is one of the dominant Species of the central North American [47] If this research is confirmed, cellulosic crops will most likely displace corn as the main fuel crop for producing bioethanol.

Michael Grunwald reports that one person could be fed 365 days "on the corn needed to fill an ethanol-fueled SUV". [48] He further reports that though "hyped as an eco-friendly fuel, ethanol increases global warming, destroys forests and inflates food prices. " Environmentalists, livestock farmers, and opponents of subsidies say that increased ethanol production won't meet energy goals and may damage the environment, while at the same time causing worldwide food prices to soar. Some of the controversial subsidies in the past have included more than $10 billion to Archer-Daniels-Midland since 1980. The Archer Daniels Midland Company ( is a conglomerate based in Decatur Illinois. [49] Critics also speculate that as ethanol is more widely used, changing irrigation practices could greatly increase pressure on water resources. In October 2007, 28 environmental groups decried the Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS), a legislative effort intended to increase ethanol production, and said that the measure will "lead to substantial environmental damage and a system of biofuels production that will not benefit family farmers. . . will not promote sustainable agriculture and will not mitigate global climate change. "[50][51] Recent articles have also blamed subsidized ethanol production for the nearly 200% increase in milk prices since 2004,[52] although that is disputed by some. Ethanol production uses the starch portion of corn, but the leftover protein can be used to create a high-nutrient, low-cost animal feed. [53] In 2007 the United Nations' independent expert on the right to food, called for a five-year moratorium on biofuel production from food crops, to allow time for development of non-food sources. He called recent increases in food costs because of fuel production, such as the quadrupling of world corn price in one year, a growing "catastrophe" for the poor. [54] In February 2007, riots occurred in Mexico because of the skyrocketing price of tortillas. The years 2007–2008 saw dramatic rises in world food prices creating a global crisis and causing political and economical instability and social unrest in Ethanol has been credited as the reason for this increase in food prices [1]. The demand for corn has had a rippling effect on many corn-based products, like tortillas. The effects of ethanol and the increasing cost of food have also been felt in Pakistan, Indonesia, and Egypt [2]. Oil has historically had a much higher EROEI than corn produced ethanol, according to some. In Physics, Energy economics and ecological energetics, EROEI (Energy Returned on Energy Invested ERoEI, EROI (Energy Return On However, oil must be refined into gasoline before it can be used for automobile fuel. Refining, as well as exploration and drilling, consumes energy. The difference between the energy in the fuel (output energy) and the energy needed to produce it (input energy) is often expressed as a percent of the input energy and called net energy gain (or loss). Several studies released in 2002 estimated that the net energy gain for corn ethanol is between 21 and 34 percent. Corn ethanol is Ethanol produced from Corn as a Biomass through industrial fermentation chemical processing and distillation The net energy loss for MTBE is about 33 percent. Methyl tert -butyl ether, also known as methyl tertiary butyl ether and MTBE, is a Chemical compound with molecular formula C5H12O When added to gasoline, ethanol can replace MTBE as an anti-knock agent without poisoning drinking water as MTBE does. In Brazil, where the broadest and longest ethanol producing experiment took place, improvements in agricultural practices and ethanol production improvements led to an increase in ethanol net energy gain from 300% to over 800% in recent years. Consuming known oil reserves is increasing oil exploration and drilling energy consumption which is reducing oil EROEI (and energy balance) further. In Physics, Energy economics and ecological energetics, EROEI (Energy Returned on Energy Invested ERoEI, EROI (Energy Return On [55] Opponents claim that corn ethanol production does not result in a net energy gain or that the consequences of large scale ethanol production to the food industry and environment offset any potential gains from ethanol. It has been estimated that "if every bushel of U. S. corn, wheat, rice and soybean were used to produce ethanol, it would only cover about 4% of U.S. energy needs on a net basis. Maize (ˈmeɪz ( Zea mays L. ssp mays) known as corn in some countries is a cereal grain domesticated in Mesoamerica Wheat ( Triticum spp is a worldwide cultivated grass from the Levant area of the Middle East. Rice is a Cereal foodstuff which forms an important part of the diet of many people worldwide and as such it is a staple food for many The energy policy of the United States is determined by federal state and local public entities in the United States, which address issues of energy production distribution "[56] Many of the issues raised could likely be fixed by techniques now in development that produce ethanol from agricultural waste, such as paper waste, switchgrass, and other materials, but EIA Forecasts Significant Shortfall in Cellulosic Biofuel Production Compared to Target Set by Renewable Fuel Standard. An energy crop is a Plant grown as a low cost and low maintenance Harvest used to make Biofuels or directly exploited for its energy content [57] Proponents cite the potential gains to the U. S. economy both from domestic fuel production and increased demand for corn. Optimistic calculations project that the United States is capable of producing enough ethanol to completely replace gasoline consumption. In comparison, Brazil's ethanol consumption today covers more than 50% of all energy used by vehicles in that country. In the United States, preferential regulatory and tax treatment of ethanol automotive fuels introduces complexities beyond its energy economics alone. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the North American automakers have in 2006 and 2007 promoted a blend of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline, marketed as E85, and their flex-fuel vehicles, e. E85 is an Alcohol fuel mixture that typically contains a mixture of up to 85% denatured fuel ethanol and Gasoline or other hydrocarbon (HC by A flexible-fuel vehicle (FFV or dual-fuel vehicle ( Colloquially called a flex-fuel vehicle) is an alternative fuel Automobile or g. GM's "Live Green, Go Yellow" campaign. General Motors Corporation ( GM) ( is a multinational automobile manufacturer founded in 1908 and headquartered in the United States. [58] The apparent motivation is the nature of U. S. Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards, which give an effective 54% fuel efficiency bonus to vehicles capable of running on 85% alcohol blends over vehicles not adapted to run on 85% alcohol blends. [59] In addition to this auto manufacturer-driven impetus for 85% alcohol blends, the United States Environmental Protection Agency had authority to mandate that minimum proportions of oxygenates be added to automotive gasoline on regional and seasonal bases from 1992 until 2006 in an attempt to reduce air pollution, in particular ground-level ozone and smog. Ozone (O3 is a key constituent of the Troposphere (it is also an important constituent of certain regions of the Stratosphere Smog is a kind of Air pollution; the word "smog" is a Portmanteau of Smoke and Fog. [60] In the United States, incidents of methyl tert(iary)-butyl ether (MTBE) groundwater contamination have been recorded in the majority of the 50 states,[61] and the State of California's ban on the use of MTBE as a gasoline additive has further driven the more widespread use of ethanol as the most common fuel oxygenate. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Methyl tert -butyl ether, also known as methyl tertiary butyl ether and MTBE, is a Chemical compound with molecular formula C5H12O California ( is a US state on the West Coast of the United States, along the Pacific Ocean. [62] A February 7, 2008 Associated Press article stated, "The widespread use of ethanol from corn could result in nearly twice the greenhouse gas emissions as the gasoline it would replace because of expected land-use changes, researchers concluded Thursday. Events 457 - Leo I becomes emperor of the Byzantine Empire. 1074 - Battle of Montesarchio in which the Prince The Associated Press ( AP) is an American News agency. The AP is a Cooperative owned by its contributing Newspapers radio The study challenges the rush to biofuels as a response to global warming. " [63] One acre of land can yield about 7,110 pounds (3,225 kg) of corn, which can be processed into 328 gallons (1240. 61 liters) of ethanol. That is about 26. 1 pounds (11. 84 kg) of corn per gallon. ### Ethanol Fuel Cells Ethanol may be used as a fuel to power Direct-ethanol fuel cells (DEFC) in order to produce electricity and the by-products of water (H20) and carbon dioxide (CO2)[64]. Direct-ethanol fuel cells or DEFCs are a subcategory of Proton-exchange fuel cells where the fuel Ethanol, is not reformed but fed directly to the Direct-ethanol fuel cells or DEFCs are a subcategory of Proton-exchange fuel cells where the fuel Ethanol, is not reformed but fed directly to the Direct-ethanol fuel cells or DEFCs are a subcategory of Proton-exchange fuel cells where the fuel Ethanol, is not reformed but fed directly to the Water is a common Chemical substance that is essential for the survival of all known forms of Life. Water ( H2[[oxygen O]] H OH) is the most abundant Molecule on Earth 's surface composing of about 70% of the Earth's surface as Carbon dioxide ( Chemical formula:) is a Chemical compound composed of two Oxygen Atoms covalently bonded to a single Carbon dioxide ( Chemical formula:) is a Chemical compound composed of two Oxygen Atoms covalently bonded to a single Platinum is commonly used as an anode in such fuel cells in order to achieve a power density that is comparable to competing technologies. Platinum (ˈplætɪnəm is a Chemical element with the Atomic symbol Pt and an Atomic number of 78 An anode is an Electrode through which Electric current flows into a polarized electrical device In Engineering, the term specific power can refer to power either per unit of Mass, Volume or Area, although power per unit of Until recently the high price of platinum has been cost prohibitive. A company called Acta Nanotech has created platinum free nanostructured anodes using more common and therefore less expensive metals[65]. A nanostructure is an object of intermediate size between Molecular and Microscopic ( micrometer -sized Structures In describing nanostructures An anode is an Electrode through which Electric current flows into a polarized electrical device A vehicle using a DEFC and non-platinum nanostructured anodes was used in the Shell Eco-Marathon 2007 by a team from Offenburg Germany which achieved an efficiency of 2716 kilometers per liter (6388 miles per gallon)[66]. Direct-ethanol fuel cells or DEFCs are a subcategory of Proton-exchange fuel cells where the fuel Ethanol, is not reformed but fed directly to the Royal Dutch Shell plc, commonly known simply as Shell, is a multinational oil company of Dutch and British origins The Eco-Marathon is an annual competition sponsored by Shell, in which participants build special vehicles to achieve the highest possible Fuel efficiency. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Offenburg is also the German name of Baia de Arieş in Romania Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Miles per gallon ( MPG) is a metric term that measures how many miles a vehicle can travel on one gallon of fuel ### Rocket fuel Ethanol was commonly used as fuel in early bipropellant rocket vehicles, in conjunction with an oxidizer such as liquid oxygen. A bipropellant rocket engine is a Rocket engine that uses two propellants (very often liquid propellants) which are kept separately prior to reacting to form a hot A rocket or rocket vehicle is a Missile, Aircraft or other Vehicle which obtains Thrust by the reaction of the An oxidizing agent or oxidising agent (also called an oxidant, oxidizer or oxidiser) can be defined as either a Chemical compound The German V-2 rocket of World War II, credited with beginning the space age, used ethanol, mixed with water to reduce the combustion chamber temperature. See also Vergeltungswaffe The V-2 rocket ( Vergeltungswaffe 2 was the first Ballistic missile and first man-made object to achieve World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including [67][68] The V-2's design team helped develop U. S. rockets following World War II, including the ethanol-fueled Redstone rocket, which launched the first U. First launched in 1953 the American Redstone Rocket (Redstone missile was a direct descendant of the German V-2. S. satellite. [69] Alcohols fell into general disuse as more efficient rocket fuels were developed. [68] ### Alcoholic beverages Main article: Alcoholic beverage Ethanol is the principal psychoactive constituent in alcoholic beverages, with depressant effects to the central nervous system. Depressant is a chemical agent that diminishes the function or activity of a specific part of the body (see also Sedative) In Vertebrates the central nervous system ( CNS) is the part of the Nervous system which is enclosed in the Meninges. It has a complex mode of action and affects multiple systems in the brain, most notably ethanol acts as an agonist to the GABA receptors. The GABA receptors are a class of receptors that respond to the Neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in [70] Similar psychoactives include those which also interact with GABA receptors, such as gamma-hydroxybutyric acid. The GABA receptors are a class of receptors that respond to the Neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in gamma -Hydroxybutyric acid, 4-hydroxybutanoic acid, GHB, or fantasy is a naturally-occurring substance found in the Central nervous [71] Ethanol is metabolized by the body as an energy-providing carbohydrate nutrient, as it metabolizes into acetyl CoA, an intermediate common with glucose metabolism, that can be used for energy in the citric acid cycle or for biosynthesis. Acetyl-CoA is an important molecule in metabolism used in many biochemical reactions Glucose (Glc a Monosaccharide (or simple Sugar) also known as grape sugar, is an important Carbohydrate in Biology. The citric acid cycle, also known as the tricarboxylic acid cycle ( TCA cycle) or the Krebs cycle, (or rarely the Szent-Györgyi–Krebs cycle Alcoholic beverages vary considerably in their ethanol content and in the foodstuffs from which they are produced. Most alcoholic beverages can be broadly classified as fermented beverages, beverages made by the action of yeast on sugary foodstuffs, or as distilled beverages, beverages whose preparation involves concentrating the ethanol in fermented beverages by distillation. Distillation is a method of separating Mixtures based on differences in their volatilities in a boiling liquid mixture The ethanol content of a beverage is usually measured in terms of the volume fraction of ethanol in the beverage, expressed either as a percentage or in alcoholic proof units. Fermented beverages can be broadly classified by the foodstuff from which they are fermented. Beers are made from cereal grains or other starchy materials, wines and ciders from fruit juices, and meads from honey. Beer is the world's oldest and most widely consumed Alcoholic beverage and the third most popular drink overall after water and tea Starch, CAS # 9005-25-8 Chemical formula (C6H10O5n is a Polysaccharide Wine is an Alcoholic beverage made from the fermentation of Grape juice For the non-alcoholic beverage commonly known in the US as "cider" see Apple cider. JUICE is a widely used non-commercial Software package for editing and analysing phytosociological data Mead (ˈmiːd is a fermented Alcoholic beverage made of Honey, Water, and Yeast. Honey is a sweet and Viscous fluid produced by Honey bees (and some other species and derived from the nectar of Flowers According to the Cultures around the world have made fermented beverages from numerous other foodstuffs, and local and national names for various fermented beverages abound. Distilled beverages are made by distilling fermented beverages. Broad categories of distilled beverages include whiskeys, distilled from fermented cereal grains; brandies, distilled from fermented fruit juices, and rum, distilled from fermented molasses or sugarcane juice. Whisky (uisge-beatha or whiskey (uisce beatha or fuisce) refers to a broad category of Alcoholic beverages that are distilled from fermented Brandy (from brandywine, derived from Dutch brandewijn — “burnt wine” is a spirit produced by distilling Wine Rum is a Distilled beverage made from Sugarcane by-products such as Molasses and sugarcane Juice by a process of fermentation Molasses or Treacle is a thick Syrup by-product from the processing of the Sugarcane or Sugar beet into Sugar. Sugarcane ( Saccharum) is a genus of 6 to 37 species (depending on taxonomic interpretation of tall perennial grasses (family Poaceae tribe Andropogoneae Vodka and similar neutral grain spirits can be distilled from any fermented material (grain or potatoes are most common); these spirits are so thoroughly distilled that no tastes from the particular starting material remain. Vodka is one of the world's most popular Distilled beverages It is a clear liquid which consists of mostly Water and Ethanol purified by Distillation Neutral grain spirit (aka grain neutral spirit ( GNS) pure grain alcohol, or corn liquor) is a clear colorless flammable liquid that The potato is a Starchy Tuberous crop Vegetable from the perennial Solanum tuberosum of the Solanaceae Numerous other spirits and liqueurs are prepared by infusing flavors from fruits, herbs, and spices into distilled spirits. The term fruit has different meanings dependent on context and the term is not synonymous in Food preparation and Biology. A(n herb (ˈhɝb or /ˈɝb/ see pronunciation differences) is a plant that is valued for qualities such as medicinal properties flavor scent or the like A spice is a dried Seed, Fruit, Root, Bark or vegetative substance used in Nutritionally insignificant quantities as a Food additive A traditional example is gin, which is created by infusing juniper berries into a neutral grain alcohol. Gin is a spirit flavoured with Juniper berries. Distilled gin is made by redistilling white grain spirit which has been flavoured with juniper Junipers are Coniferous plants in the genus Juniperus of the cypress family Cupressaceae. In a few beverages, ethanol is concentrated by means other than distillation. Applejack is traditionally made by freeze distillation, by which water is frozen out of fermented apple cider, leaving a more ethanol-rich liquid behind. Applejack is a strong Alcoholic beverage produced from apples originating from the American colonial period Fractional freezing is a process used in Process engineering and Chemistry to separate two liquids with different melting points For the alcoholic beverage known in the US as hard apple cider see Cider. Eisbier (more commonly, eisbock) is also freeze-distilled, with beer as the base beverage. Bock is a strong Lager which has origins in the Hanseatic town Einbeck, Germany. Beer is the world's oldest and most widely consumed Alcoholic beverage and the third most popular drink overall after water and tea Fortified wines are prepared by adding brandy or some other distilled spirit to partially-fermented wine. Fortified wine is Wine to which alcohol (usually Brandy) has been added This kills the yeast and conserves some of the sugar in grape juice; such beverages are not only more ethanol-rich, but are often sweeter than other wines. Sugar is a class of edible Crystalline substances mainly Sucrose, Lactose, and Fructose. Alcoholic beverages are sometimes used in cooking, not only for their inherent flavors, but also because the alcohol dissolves hydrophobic flavor compounds which water cannot. ### Feedstock Ethanol is an important industrial ingredient and has widespread use as a base chemical for other organic compounds. Ethanol is a common chemical with widespread industrial use The following are some common derivatives of ethanol These include ethyl halides, ethyl esters, diethyl ether, acetic acid, butadiene, and ethyl amines. A halide is a Binary compound, of which one part is a Halogen Atom and the other part is an element or radical that is less Esters are a class of Chemical compounds and Functional groups Esters consist of an inorganic or organic Acid in which at least Diethyl ether, also known as ether and ethoxyethane, is a clear colorless and highly Flammable liquid with a low Boiling point and a Acetic acid, also known as ethanoic acid, is an organic chemical compound, giving Vinegar its sour taste Amines are Organic compounds and Functional groups that contain a basic Nitrogen Atom with a Lone pair. ### Antiseptic use Ethanol is used in medical wipes and in most common antibacterial hand sanitizer gels at a concentration of about 62% (percentage by weight, not volume) as an antiseptic. An alcohol rub, also known as a hand sanitizer or healthcare personnel hand wash or a hand antiseptic according to the latest FDA definition is used as In Mathematics, a percentage is a way of expressing a number as a Fraction of 100 ( per cent meaning "per hundred" Antiseptics (from Greek αντί - anti, '"against" + σηπτικός - septikos, "putrefactive" are antimicrobial Ethanol kills organisms by denaturing their proteins and dissolving their lipids and is effective against most bacteria and fungi, and many viruses, but is ineffective against bacterial spores. Proteins are large Organic compounds made of Amino acids arranged in a linear chain and joined together by Peptide bonds between the Carboxyl Lipids are broadly defined as any fat- Soluble ( lipophilic) naturally-occurring Molecule, such as fats oils waxes cholesterol sterols fat-soluble The Bacteria ( singular: bacterium) are a large group of unicellular Microorganisms Typically a few Micrometres in length bacteria have A fungus (ˈfʌŋgəs is a eukaryotic Organism that is a member of the kingdom Fungi (ˈfʌndʒaɪ A virus (from the Latin virus meaning Toxin or Poison) is a sub-microscopic infectious agent that is unable In Biology, a spore is a reproductive structure that is adapted for dispersal and surviving for extended periods of time in unfavorable conditions [72] ### Antidote use Ethanol can be used as an antidote for poisoning by other toxic alcohols, in particular methanol[73] and ethylene glycol. Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol, carbinol, wood alcohol, wood naphtha or wood spirits, is a Chemical compound Ethylene glycol ( monoethylene glycol ( MEG) 12-ethanediol, IUPAC name: ethane-12-diol) is an Alcohol with two -OH Ethanol competes with other alcohols for the alcohol dehydrogenase enzyme, preventing metabolism into toxic aldehyde and carboxylic acid derivatives. Competitive inhibition is a form of enzyme inhibition where binding of the inhibitor to the Enzyme prevents binding of the substrate and vice versa Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH is an enzyme discovered in the mid-1960s in Drosophila melanogaster. An aldehyde is an organic compound containing a terminal Carbonyl group. Carboxylic acids are Organic acids characterized by the presence of a Carboxyl group, which has the formula -C(=OOH usually written -COOH or -CO2H [74] ### Other uses • Ethanol is easily miscible in water and is a good solvent. Miscibility is a term commonly used in Chemistry that refers to the property of Liquids to mix in all proportions forming a Homogeneous Solution Water ( H2[[oxygen O]] H OH) is the most abundant Molecule on Earth 's surface composing of about 70% of the Earth's surface as A solvent is a liquid or gas that dissolves a solid liquid or gaseous Solute, resulting in a Solution. Ethanol is less polar than water and used in perfumes, paints and tinctures. Perfume is a mixture of fragrant Essential oils and Aroma compounds Fixatives and Solvents used to give the human body animals objects and living Paint is any Liquid, liquifiable or mastic composition which after application to a substrate in a thin layer is converted to an opaque Solid In Medicine, a tincture is an Alcoholic Extract (eg of leaves or other plant material or Solution of a non- volatile substance • Ethanol is also used in design and sketch art markers, such as Copic, and Tria. is a brand of marker made in Japan by Too and distributed in the United States and Canada by Imagination International Letraset is a company which manufactures sheets of artwork elements which can be transferred to artwork being prepared see the article on Screentone for details ## Effects on humans BAC (mg/dL)Symptoms[75] 50Euphoria, talkativeness, relaxation 100Central nervous system depression, impaired motor and sensory function, impaired cognition > 140Decreased blood flow to brain 300Stupefaction, possible unconsciousness 400Possible death > 550Death ### Effects on the central nervous system Ethanol is a central nervous system depressant and has significant psychoactive effects in sublethal doses; for specifics, see effects of alcohol on the body by dose. The short-term effects of alcohol on the human body can take several forms The short-term effects of alcohol on the human body can take several forms Based on its abilities to change the human consciousness, ethanol is considered a drug. Consciousness has been defined loosely as a constellation of attributes of Mind such as Subjectivity, Self-awareness, Sentience, and the A drug, broadly speaking is any chemical substance that when absorbed into the body [76] Death from ethyl alcohol consumption is possible when blood alcohol level reaches 0. 4%. A blood level of 0. 5% or more is commonly fatal. Levels of even less than 0. 1% can cause intoxication, with unconsciousness often occurring at 0. Intoxication is the state of being affected by one or more psychoactive drugs. 3–0. 4%. [77] The amount of ethanol in the body is typically quantified by blood alcohol content (BAC), the milligrams of ethanol per 100 milliliters of blood. Blood alcohol content or blood alcohol concentration (abbreviated BAC) is the concentration of alcohol in a person's Blood. For other uses of the words gram or gramme see Gram (disambiguation. The litre or liter (see spelling differences) is a unit of Volume. The table at right summarizes the symptoms of ethanol consumption. Small doses of ethanol generally produce euphoria and relaxation; people experiencing these symptoms tend to become talkative and less inhibited, and may exhibit poor judgment. At higher dosages (BAC > 100 mg/dl), ethanol acts as a central nervous system depressant, producing at progressively higher dosages, impaired sensory and motor function, slowed cognition, stupefaction, unconsciousness, and possible death. In Vertebrates the central nervous system ( CNS) is the part of the Nervous system which is enclosed in the Meninges. Depressant is a chemical agent that diminishes the function or activity of a specific part of the body (see also Sedative) In America, about half of the deaths in car accidents occur in alcohol-related crashes. [78] There is no completely safe level of alcohol for driving; the risk of a fatal car accident rises with the level of alcohol in the driver's blood. [79] However, most drunk driving laws governing the acceptable levels in the blood while driving or operating heavy machinery set typical upper limits of blood alcohol content (BAC) between 0. Driving under the influence of alcohol ( driving while intoxicated, drunk driving, drinking and driving, drink-driving) or other drugs 05% to 0. 08%. ### Effects on metabolism Main article: Alcohol metabolism Ethanol within the human body is converted into acetaldehyde by alcohol dehydrogenase and then into acetic acid by acetaldehyde dehydrogenase. Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH is an enzyme discovered in the mid-1960s in Drosophila melanogaster. Acetaldehyde, sometimes known as ethanal, is an organic chemical compound with the formula C[[Hydrogen H]]3CH O or MeCHO Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH is an enzyme discovered in the mid-1960s in Drosophila melanogaster. Acetic acid, also known as ethanoic acid, is an organic chemical compound, giving Vinegar its sour taste Acetaldehyde dehydrogenase s ( are Dehydrogenase Enzymes which catalyze the conversion of Acetaldehyde into Acetic acid. The product of the first step of this breakdown, acetaldehyde,[80] is more toxic than ethanol. Acetaldehyde is linked to most of the clinical effects of alcohol. It has been shown to increase the risk of developing cirrhosis of the liver,[71] multiple forms of cancer, and alcoholism. ### Drug interactions Ethanol can interact in harmful ways with a number of other drugs, including barbiturates, benzodiazepines, opioids, and phenothiazines[77] ### Magnitude of effects Some individuals have less effective forms of one or both of the metabolizing enzymes, and can experience more severe symptoms from ethanol consumption than others. Barbiturates are drugs that act as central nervous system Depressants and by virtue of this they produce a wide spectrum of effects from mild Sedation The benzodiazepines (pronounced, often abbreviated to "benzos") are a class of Psychoactive drugs with varying Hypnotic An opioid is a chemical Substance that has a Morphine -like action in the body Phenothiazine is the Organic compound with the formula S(C6H42NH Conversely, those who have acquired ethanol tolerance have a greater quantity of these enzymes, and metabolize ethanol more rapidly. Drug tolerance occurs when a subject's reaction to a Psychoactive drug (such as a painkiller or intoxicant decreases so that larger doses are required to achieve the same effect [81] ### Other effects Frequent drinking of alcoholic beverages has been shown to be a major contributing factor in cases of elevated blood levels of triglycerides. (more properly known as, TAG or triacylglyceride) is Glyceride in which the Glycerol is Esterified with three Fatty acids It is the [82] Ethanol is not a carcinogen, [83][84] but its effect on the liver can contribute to immune suppression. The term carcinogen refers to any substance Radionuclide or radiation that is an agent directly involved in the promotion of Cancer or in the fatation of its propagation The liver is a vital organ in the human body and is present in Vertebrates and some other animals Immunosuppression involves an act that reduces the activation or Efficacy of the Immune system. Consequently, consumption of alcoholic beverages can be an aggravating factor in cancers. ## See also ## References 1. ^ ETOH Archival Database (1972–2003). 222-Trichloroethanol is an Organic compound related to Ethanol, except the hydrogen atoms at position 2 are replaced with chlorine atoms Butanol may be used as a Fuel in an Internal combustion engine. Biodiesel refers to a non-petroleum-based Diesel fuel consisting of short chain Alkyl ( Methyl or ethyl) Esters made by A breathalyzer is a (breath analyser device for estimating Blood alcohol content (BAC from a breath sample Cellulosic ethanol also know by the name Ceetol, is a Biofuel produced from wood grasses or the non-edible parts of plants Cellulosic ethanol commercialization can contribute to a successful renewable fuels future Corn ethanol is Ethanol produced from Corn as a Biomass through industrial fermentation chemical processing and distillation Neutral grain spirit (aka grain neutral spirit ( GNS) pure grain alcohol, or corn liquor) is a clear colorless flammable liquid that Denatured alcohol is Ethanol which has been rendered toxic or otherwise undrinkable and in some cases dyed &lbrace&lbracechembox supplement&rbrace&rbrace and save the page -->This page provides supplementary chemical data on Ethanol Ethanol fuel is Ethanol (ethyl alcohol the same type of Alcohol found in Alcoholic beverages. Brazil is the world's second largest producer of Ethanol and the world's largest exporter and it is considered to have the world's first Sustainable Isopropyl alcohol (also isopropanol, iso, isopro, Rubbing alcohol, or the abbreviation IPA) is a common name for This is a list of energy topics which identifies articles and categories that relate to energy in general Rubbing alcohol USP / BP is a liquid prepared and used primarily for Topical application Ethanol, an Alcohol fuel, is an important fuel for the operation of Internal combustion engines that are used in cars trucks and other kinds of machinery Alcohol and Alcohol Problems Science Database. NIAAA. The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA as part of the U Retrieved on 2008-03-31. 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Events 307 - After divorcing his wife Minervina, Constantine marries Fausta, the daughter of the retired Roman Emperor 2. ^ Roach, J. (July 18, 2005). "9,000-Year-Old Beer Re-Created From Chinese Recipe.". National Geographic News. 3. ^ Hassan, Ahmad Y. Ahmad Y Hassan أحمد يوسف الحسن(born 1925 is a chevalier of the Légion d'honneur and a historian of Arabic and Islamic science and technology Alcohol and the Distillation of Wine in Arabic Sources. History of Science and Technology in Islam. Retrieved on 2008-03-29. 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Events 1461 - Wars of the Roses: Battle of Towton - Edward of York defeats Queen Margaret to become King 4. ^ Alcohol in the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition 5. ^ Couper, A. The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911 is a 29-volume reference work that marked the beginning of the Encyclopædia Britannica S. (1858). "On a new chemical theory" (online reprint). Philosophical magazine 16 (104–116). 6. ^ Hennell, H. (1828). "On the mutual action of sulfuric acid and alcohol, and on the nature of the process by which ether is formed. ". Philosophical Transactions 118 (365–371). 7. ^ a b Robert Siegel. "Ethanol, Once Bypassed, Now Surging Ahead", NPR, February 15, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-09-22. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Events 66 - Emperor Nero creates the Legion I Italica. 1236 - The Lithuanians 8. ^ Joseph DiPardo. Outlook for Biomass Ethanol Production and Demand. United States Department of Energy. Retrieved on 2007-09-22. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Events 66 - Emperor Nero creates the Legion I Italica. 1236 - The Lithuanians 9. ^ a b c CRC Handbook of Chemistry, 44th ed. 10. ^ a b c d Merck Index of Chemicals and Drugs, 9th ed. 11. ^ a b c d e Morrison, Robert Thornton; Boyd, Robert Neilson (1972). Organic Chemistry, 2nd ed. . Allyn and Bacon, inc. . 12. ^ Merck Index of Chemicals and Drugs, 9th ed. ; monographs 6575 through 6669 13. ^ Kroschwitz and Howe-Grant, editors, Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, 4th ed. , (New York: John Wiley & Sons), vol. 9, 813. 14. ^ a b c d e f Streitweiser, Andrew Jr. ; Heathcock, Clayton H. (1976). Introduction to Organic Chemistry. MacMillan. ISBN 0-02-418010-6. 15. ^ Frederick D. Rossini (1937). "Heats of Formation of Simple Organic Molecules". Ind. Eng. Chem. 29 (12): 1424–1430. doi:10.1021/ie50336a024. A digital object identifier ( DOI) is a permanent identifier given to an Electronic document. 16. ^ Mills, G. A. ; Ecklund, E. E. "Alcohols as Components of Transportation Fuels. " Annual Review of Energy. November 1987. Vol. 12, 47–80. Retrieved on September 2, 2007. Events 44 BC - Pharaoh Cleopatra VII of Egypt declares her son co-ruler as Ptolemy XV Caesarion. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. 17. ^ Roberts, John D. ; Caserio, Marjorie C. (1977). Basic Principles of Organic Chemistry. W. A. Benjamin, Inc. ISBN 0-8053-8329-8. 18. ^ Lodgsdon, J. E. (1994). "Ethanol. " In J. I. Kroschwitz (Ed. ) Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, 4th ed. vol. 9, p. 820. New York: John Wiley & Sons. 19. ^ Lodgsdon, J. E. (1994). p. 817 20. ^ Morais, P. B. ; Rosa, C. A. ; Linardi, V. R. ; Carazza, F. ; Nonato, E. A. "Production of fuel alcohol by Saccharomyces strains from tropical habitats. " Biotechnology Letters. November 1996. Vol. 18, No. 11, 1351–1356. Retrieved on September 2, 2007. Events 44 BC - Pharaoh Cleopatra VII of Egypt declares her son co-ruler as Ptolemy XV Caesarion. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. 21. ^ Badger, P. C. "Ethanol From Cellulose: A General Review. " p. 17–21. In: J. Janick and A. Whipkey (eds. ), Trends in new crops and new uses. ASHS Press, 2002, Alexandria, VA. Retrieved on September 2, 2007. Events 44 BC - Pharaoh Cleopatra VII of Egypt declares her son co-ruler as Ptolemy XV Caesarion. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. 22. ^ Taherzadeh M. J. , Karimi K. (2007): Acid-based hydrolysis processes for ethanol from lignocellulosic materials: A review, BioResources, 2(3): 472-499 23. ^ Taherzadeh M. J. , Karimi K. (2007): Enzymatic-based hydrolysis processes for ethanol from lignocellulosic materials: A review, BioResources, 2(4): 707-738 24. ^ Ritter, S. K. (May 31, 2004). Events 1279 BC - Rameses II (The Great (19th dynasty becomes pharaoh of Ancient Egypt. "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again " "Biomass or Bust. " Chemical & Engineering News 82(22), 31–34. 25. ^ Clines, Tom (July 2006). Brew Better Ethanol. Popular Science Online. 26. ^ Dhinakar S. Kompala. Maximizing Ethanol Production by Engineered Pentose-Fermenting Zymononas mobilis. Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Colorado at Boulder. Retrieved on 21 May 2007. 27. ^ Mick, Jason (2008-01-14). 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Events 1129 - Formal approval of the Order of the Templar at the Council of Troyes. Cellulosic Ethanol Promises$1 per Gallon Fuel From Waste. DailyTech. com. Retrieved on 2008-01-15. 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Events 588 BC - Nebuchadrezzar II of Babylon lays siege to Jerusalem under Zedekiah 's reign
28. ^ Providing for a Sustainable Energy Future. Bioengineering Resources, inc. Retrieved on 21 May 2007.
29. ^ "Closed-Loop Ethanol Plant to Start Production" (November 2, 2006). www. renewableenergyaccess. com.
30. ^ Rapier, R. (June 26, 2006) "E3 Biofuels: Responsible Ethanol" R-Squared Energy Blog
31. ^ Air Pollution Rules Relaxed for US Ethanol Producers. Events 363 - Roman Emperor Julian is killed during the retreat from the Sassanid Empire. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Truthout (12 April 2007). Retrieved on 21 May 2007.
32. ^ Snyder R, Kalf GF (1994). "A perspective on benzene leukemogenesis". Crit. Rev. Toxicol. 24 (3): 177–209. PMID 7945890.
33. ^ U-M Program to Reduce the Consumption of Tax-free Alcohol; Denatured Alcohol a Safer, Less Expensive Alternative. University of Michigan. Retrieved on 2007-09-29. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Events 522 BC - Darius I of Persia kills the Magian usurper Gaumâta securing his hold as king of the Persian Empire.
34. ^ Great Britain (2005). The Denatured Alcohol Regulations 2005. Statutory Instrument 2005 No. 1524.
35. ^ Calculated from heats of formation. Does not correspond exactly to the figure for MJ/l divided by density.
36. ^ George. Overview of Storage Development DOE Hydrogen Program [pdf. Livermore, CA. Sandia National Laboratories. 2000. ]
37. ^ Appendix B, Transportation Energy Data Book from the Center for Transportation Analysis of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory
38. ^ Reel, M. Oak Ridge National Laboratory ( ORNL) is a multiprogram science and technology National laboratory managed for the United States Department of Energy by Oak Ridge National Laboratory ( ORNL) is a multiprogram science and technology National laboratory managed for the United States Department of Energy by (August 19, 2006) "Brazil's Road to Energy Independence" The Washington Post. Events 43 BC - Octavian, later known as Augustus compels the Roman Senate to elect him Consul. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar.
39. ^ Etnanol Fuel.
40. ^ Tecnologia flex atrai estrangeiros.
41. ^ Renewable Fuels Association Industry Statistics.
42. ^ First Commercial U.S. Cellulosic Ethanol Biorefinery Announced. Renewable Fuels Association (November 20, 2006). Retrieved on 21 May 2006.
43. ^ Renewable Fuel Standard Program. United States Environmental Protection Agency (April 10, 2007). Retrieved on 21 May 2007.
44. ^ Hosein Shapouri, James A. Duffield, and Michael Wang. The Energy Balance of Corn Ethanol: an Update. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved on 21 May 2007.
45. ^ Pimentel D, Patzek TW (2005). "Ethanol Production Using Corn, Switchgrass, and Wood; Biodiesel Production Using Soybean and Sunflower". Natural Resources Research 14 (1): 65–76. doi:10.1007/s11053-005-4679-8. A digital object identifier ( DOI) is a permanent identifier given to an Electronic document.
46. ^ Lang, Susan S. . Cornell ecologist's study finds that producing ethanol and biodiesel from corn and other crops is not worth the energy. Cornell University. Retrieved on 5 July 2005.
47. ^ M. R. Schmer, K. P. Vogel, R. B. Mitchell, R. K. Perrin (November 21, 2007). Net energy of cellulosic ethanol from switchgrass. U. S. Dept. of Agrigulture. Retrieved on 2008-01-13. 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Events 532 - Nika riots in Constantinople. 888 - Odo Count of Paris becomes King of the Franks
48. ^ The Clean Energy Scam, TIME, April 7, 2008, pages 40–41.
49. ^ Doug Bandow (October 2, 1997). Ethanol Keeps ADM Drunk On Tax Dollars.. CATO Institute. Retrieved on 2007-09-03. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Events 36 BC - In the Battle of Naulochus, Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, Admiral of Octavian, defeats Sextus Pompeius
50. ^ The Politics of Ethanol Outshine its Costs
51. ^ Moira Herbst (March 19, 2007). "Ethanol's Growing List of Enemies". Business Week.
52. ^ Jeff Cox (June 19, 2007). "Corn and milk: A 1-2 inflation combo". CNNMoney. com.
53. ^ Fuel, Food Demand Raise Corn, Soybean Prices
54. ^ Edith M. Lederer, Associated Press. "UN Expert Calls Biofuel 'Crime Against Humanity'", 27 October 2007.
55. ^ David Andress & Associates (November, 2002). Ethanol Energy Balances.
56. ^ "Forget the Ethanol Myth -- Avoid Biofuel Bubble: John F. Wasik", Bloomberg. com, July 23, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-07-25. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Events 285 - Diocletian appoints Maximian as Caesar, co-ruler
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61. ^ MTBE Contamination from Underground Storage Tanks. United States General Accounting Office (May 21, 2002). Retrieved on 2007-10-09. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Events 768 - Carloman I and Charlemagne are crowned Kings of The Franks.
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63. ^ Study: Ethanol May Add to Global Warming Associated Press, February 7, 2008
64. ^ Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFC) FCTec.
65. ^ Offenburg students test world's first ethanol powered fuel cell vehicle Acta.
66. ^ Willkommen beim Projekt "Schluckspecht" der Hochschule Offenburg .
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82. ^ Triglycerides. American Heart Association. Retrieved on 2007-09-04. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Events 476 - Romulus Augustus, last emperor of the Western Roman Empire, is deposed when Odoacer proclaims himself
83. ^ Material Data Safety Sheet. Burdick and Jackson. Retrieved on 2007-10-25. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Events 1147 - The Portuguese, under Afonso I, and Crusaders from England and Flanders conquer Lisbon after a
84. ^ Pollyanna R. Chavez, Xiang-Dong Wang, Jean Meyer. Animal Models for Carcinogenesis and Chemoprevention, abstract #C42: Effects of Chronic Ethanol Intake on Cyclin D1 Levels and Altered Foci in Diethylnitrosamine-initiated Rats. USDA. Retrieved on 2007-10-24. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Events 69 - Second Battle of Bedriacum, forces under Antonius Primus the commander of the Danube armies loyal to Vespasian, defeat