|Estonian War of Independence|
|Part of Wars of Independence|
| Estonia, Finnish, Swedish and Danish volunteers|
Russian White Movement
|Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic|| Baltische Landeswehr|
Russian White Movement
| Johan Laidoner|
| Jukums Vācietis|
| Rüdiger von der Goltz|
|74,500 (Estonian Army),|
ca 4000 Finnish volunteers,
3000 White Russians,
about 200-400 Swedish and Danish
|Casualties and losses|
| ? killed|
The Estonian War of Independence (Estonian: Vabadussõda, literally "freedom war"), which occurred in 1918-1920, took place during the Russian Civil War, was the Republic of Estonia's struggle for sovereignty in the aftermath of World War I and the Russian Revolution. Northern Europe is a term for the northern part of Europe. The United Nations defines Northern Europe as (Finland Tartu Peace Treaty ( Estonian: Tartu rahu, literally "Tartu peace" or Treaty of Tartu was a peace treaty between Estonia and Russian Estonia, officially the Republic of Estonia ( Eesti or Eesti Vabariik) is a Country in Northern Europe in the Baltic region The White movement (Beloie Dvijenie Белое движение whose military arm is known as the White Army (Belaia Armia Белая Армия or White Guard The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore known as the Senior Service) Baltische Landeswehr ("Baltic Land Defence" was the name of the unified Armed forces of The United Baltic Duchy from November 1918 to July 3 The White movement (Beloie Dvijenie Белое движение whose military arm is known as the White Army (Belaia Armia Белая Армия or White Guard Johan Laidoner Born in Viiratsi Parish Viljandi County, Estonia on February 12, 1884. Admiral Sir Walter Henry Cowan 1st Baronet, KCB, DSO*, MVO ( 11 June 1871 &ndash 14 February 1956) known as Jukums Vācietis ( November 11, 1873 – July 28, 1938) (Иоаким Иоакимович Вацетис Ioakim Ioakimovich Vatsetis Sergei Sergeyevich Kamenev ( Russian: Сергей Сергеевич Каменев) ( April 4 (16 1881 Kiev - August 25, 1936 Count Gustav Adolf Joachim Rüdiger von der Goltz ( December 8, 1865 &ndash November 4, 1946) was German Army general during WWI Pavel Rafalovich Bermondt-Avalov (Avalishvili (Павел Рафалович Бермонт-Авалов Pāvels Bermonts-Avalovs ( 4 March 1877 - 27 January Estonian (; ˈeːsti ˈkeːl is the official language of Estonia, spoken by about 1 The Russian Civil War (1917–1923 was a multi-party war that occurred within the former Russian Empire after the Russian provisional government collapsed Estonia, officially the Republic of Estonia ( Eesti or Eesti Vabariik) is a Country in Northern Europe in the Baltic region World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All See also Russian Revolution (1905 The Russian Revolution of 1916 refers to a series of popular revolutions in Russia, and the events surrounding them
In November 1917, upon the disintegration of the Russian Empire, a diet of the Autonomous Governorate of Estonia, the Estonian National Council (Maapäev), which had been elected in the spring of that year, proclaimed itself the highest authority in Estonia. The Russian Empire ( Pre-reform Russian: Pоссійская Имперія Modern Russian: Российская Империя translit: Rossiyskaya In Politics, a diet is a formal Deliberative assembly. The term is derived from Medieval Latin dietas, and ultimately comes from Estonia, officially the Republic of Estonia ( Eesti or Eesti Vabariik) is a Country in Northern Europe in the Baltic region Soon thereafter, the Bolsheviks dissolved the Maapäev and temporarily forced the pro-independence Estonians underground in the capital Tallinn. The Bolsheviks, originally also Bolshevists ( Большевик Большевист (singular, derived from bolshe, "more" were a faction Tallinn (historically known by the German, Swedish and Danish name Reval or the Polish name Rewal, among other names A few months later, using a moment between the Red Army's retreat and the arrival of Imperial German Army, the Salvation Committee of the Estonian National Council Maapäev issued the Estonian Declaration of Independence  in Tallinn on February 24, 1918 and formed the Estonian Provisional Government. Imperial Germans is the common translation of the German word Reichsdeutsche (adj The Estonian Declaration of Independence, also known as the Manifesto to the Peoples of Estonia (Manifest Eestimaa rahwastele is the founding act of the Republic of Estonia Events 303 - Galerius, Roman Emperor, publishes his edict that begins the persecution of Christians in his portion of the Year 1918 ( MCMXVIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common This first period of independence was extremely short-lived, as German troops entered Tallinn on the following day. The German authorities recognized neither the provisional government, nor its claim for Estonia's independence, counting them as a self-styled group usurping sovereign rights of Baltic chivalries. The Baltic Germans (Deutschbalten or Baltendeutsche) were mostly ethnically German inhabitants of the eastern shore of the Baltic Sea, which today
After the German Revolution with the capitulation of imperial Germany, between 11 and 14 November 1918, the representatives of Germany formally handed over political power to the Estonian Provisional Government. On November 16, the provisional government called for voluntary mobilization and started to organize the Estonian army, with Konstantin Päts as minister of War, Major General Andres Larka as the chief of staff, and Major General Aleksander Tõnisson as commander of the Estonian army, initially consisting of one division. Konstantin Päts VR I/1 and III/1 ( February 23 1874 &ndash January 18 1956) was a Politician and the first President Major General or Major-General is a Military rank used in many countries Andres Larka VR I/1 ( March 5 1879 Pilistvere, Kabala Parish, Estonia - January 8 1943 Malmõz Major General or Major-General is a Military rank used in many countries Aleksander Tõnisson VR I/1 ( April 17 1875 Härjanurme Parish, Estonia - June 30 1941 Tallinn,
On November 22, 1918, the Red Army attacked Narva, marking the beginning of the Estonian War of Independence. The Red Army ( Russian: Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия R aboche- K rest'yanskaya K rasnaya A rmiya Narva is the third largest City in Estonia. It is located at the eastern extreme point of Estonia, by the Russian border on the Narva The first Bolshevist attacks at Narva were met by both German forces and Estonian defenders, but the Germans thereafter withdrew westwards. On November 28, the Red Army's 7th Army conducted an attack to capture the city with 7,000 infantry, 22 field guns, 111 machine guns, an armored train, 2 armored vehicles, 2 airplanes, and Bogatyr class cruiser Oleg supported by 2 destroyers. The Red Army ( Russian: Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия R aboche- K rest'yanskaya K rasnaya A rmiya The Infantry is the oldest and most numerous of the Combat Arms in the Armed forces, and consists A field gun is an Artillery piece Originally the term referred to smaller Guns that could accompany a field army on the march and when in combat could be For other uses of the phrase see Machine Gun (disambiguation. An armoured train is a Train protected with armour. Usually they are equipped with Railroad cars armed with Artillery and Machine guns An armoured fighting vehicle ( AFV) is a military Vehicle, protected by armour and armed with Weapons Most AFVs are equipped for driving in rugged Ships Bogatyr - built by Vulkan yard Stettin, Germany. Laid down 1898 launched January 1901 completed 1902 scrapped 1922 The second front was opened south of Lake Peipus around Pechory where the Bolshevik army had deployed the 2nd Novgorod Division with 7000 infantry, 12 field guns, 50 machine guns, 2 armored trains, and 3 armored vehicles. Lake Peipus (Peipsi-Pihkva järv Чудско-Псковское озеро (Chud Lake Peipussee is a large fresh water lake on the border between Estonia and Russia Pechory (Печоры Estonian and Seto: Petseri) is a town in Pskov Oblast, Russia. An armoured fighting vehicle ( AFV) is a military Vehicle, protected by armour and armed with Weapons Most AFVs are equipped for driving in rugged The Estonian military forces at the time were 2000 men with light weapons and about 14,500 similarly armed men in the Estonian Defence League (Home Guard). The Estonian Defence League (Kaitseliit is the name of the unified paramilitary armed forces of the Republic of Estonia.
On November 29, the Red Army captured Narva and Narva-Jõesuu. Narva is the third largest City in Estonia. It is located at the eastern extreme point of Estonia, by the Russian border on the Narva Estonian Bolsheviks declared a regional local government in Narva under the name of the Estonian Workers' Commune (Eesti Töörahva Kommuun). The Commune of the Working People of Estonia (Eesti Töörahva Kommuun earlier et Eesti Töörahva Kommuuna, Эстляндская Трудовая Коммуна ЭТК The Red Army took Valga on December 18, Tartu and Tapa on December 24. Tartu is the second largest City of Estonia. In contrast to Estonia's political and financial capital Tallinn, Tartu is often considered the intellectual By the end of the year, the Red Army controlled Estonia along the front line east of Tallinn, west from Tartu and southwest of Ainazi. Tallinn (historically known by the German, Swedish and Danish name Reval or the Polish name Rewal, among other names Tartu is the second largest City of Estonia. In contrast to Estonia's political and financial capital Tallinn, Tartu is often considered the intellectual Ainaži (ainaʒi is a harbour town in Latvia located near the Estonian border at the site of a former Livonian fishing village A mere 34 kilometers separated Tallinn and the front line.
On December 23, 1918, Colonel Johan Laidoner who was appointed Commander in chief of the Estonian armed forces, succeeded in recruiting 600 officers and 11,000 volunteers. Colonel ( RP ˈkɜnəl GA ˈkɜrnəl is a Military rank of a Commissioned officer, with corresponding ranks existing in almost every country Johan Laidoner Born in Viiratsi Parish Viljandi County, Estonia on February 12, 1884. A commander-in-chief is the Commander of a nation's Military forces or significant element of those forces He reorganized the forces by setting up the second division in Southern Estonia under the command of Colonel Viktor Puskar, along with commando type units, such as the Kuperjanov's Partisan Battalion and Kalevi Malev. Colonel ( RP ˈkɜnəl GA ˈkɜrnəl is a Military rank of a Commissioned officer, with corresponding ranks existing in almost every country Viktor Puskar VR I/1 ( May 7, 1889, Viljandi, Russian Empire - April 12, 1943, Tartu, Estonia The Kuperjanov Partisan Battalion, now the Kuperjanov Independent Infantry Battalion is an elite Estonian military unit established during the Estonian War of The government also succeeded in obtaining foreign assistance: on December 5, Finland delivered 5000 rifles and 20 field guns together with ammunition; On December 31, the British Royal Navy squadron commanded by Rear Admiral Sir Edwyn Alexander-Sinclair arrived off Tallinn; On December 31, the British fleet delivered 6500 rifles, 200 machine guns and 2 field guns. Rear admiral is a Naval Commissioned officer rank above that of a Commodore and Captain, and below that of a Vice Admiral. Sir Edwyn Sinclair Alexander-Sinclair MVO GCB, of Freswick in Caithness, Scotland (1865 in Malta - 13 November 1945 was British The British ships also captured two Russian destroyers and donated those to Estonia. In January 2, Finnish volunteer units with 3500 men arrived in Estonia. Three armored trains were built in Tallinn under the command of Captain Anton Irv.
On January 2-5, the Red Army advance was stopped along the entire front and the strengthened Estonian forces began a counter offensive on January 7. On January 9, Tapa was taken followed by Tartu on January 14. Tartu is the second largest City of Estonia. In contrast to Estonia's political and financial capital Tallinn, Tartu is often considered the intellectual A combined assault by the Army and marine commando unit landed in the rear of the Red Army and Narva was taken on January 18. Narva is the third largest City in Estonia. It is located at the eastern extreme point of Estonia, by the Russian border on the Narva Thereafter, the front stabilized along the Narva River and the war moved down to the southern front. The Narva or Narova is a River which drains the Lake Peipus, flowing on the Border of Estonia and Russia. The Battle of Paju cleared the way to the important rail junction Valga that was taken by February 4 along with Võru and Petseri. The Battle of Paju (Paju Lahing was fought near Valga, Estonia, on January 31, 1919 during the Estonian War of Independence. Võru ( Võro Võro) is a town and a municipality in south-eastern Estonia. Pechory (Печоры Estonian and Seto: Petseri) is a town in Pskov Oblast, Russia. The battle front now followed the historic Estonian settlement area. On the first Independence day, February 24, 1919, the Estonian forces consisted 19,000 men, 70 field guns, and 230 machine guns. The third Estonian division was formed with Major General Ernst Põdder in command. Ernst Põdder VR I/1 ( February 10 1879 Aleksandri Parish, Võrumaa, Estonia, Russian Empire - June 24 By the beginning of May 1919 the Estonian forces numbered 74,000 men. The Red Army had concentrated 80,000 men, 200 field and 230 machine guns supported by 5 armored trains against the Estonian forces.
The Landeswehr War broke out on the southern front in Latvia on June 5, 1919. The United Baltic Duchy (Vereinigtes Baltisches Herzogtum Apvienotā Baltijas hercogiste Ühendatud Balti Hertsogiriik was a proposal to unite the Duchy of Courland and Semigallia Events 70 - Titus and his Roman Legions breach the middle wall of Jerusalem in the Siege of Jerusalem Year 1919 ( MCMXIX) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common The Latvians had declared independence like Estonia, but the pro-British government of Kārlis Ulmanis was toppled by the German general Rüdiger von der Goltz, who installed a pro-German puppet government of Andrievs Niedra in Riga in May 1919. Kārlis Vilhelms Augusts Ulmanis (b September 4, 1877 in Bērze, Latvia – d Count Gustav Adolf Joachim Rüdiger von der Goltz ( December 8, 1865 &ndash November 4, 1946) was German Army general during WWI Andrievs Niedra, formerly spelt Andreews Needra ( February 8 1871 in Tirza civil parish near Gulbene, Vidzeme - – September Riga (Rīga riːga) the Capital of Latvia, is situated on the Baltic Sea coast on the mouth of the river Daugava. This was possible because under the terms of their armistice with the Western Allies, the Germans had been obliged to maintain their armies in the East to counter the Bolshevik threat. The Baltic German Landeswehr military formation, together with the "Iron Division" of the regular German army, started to advance northwards and demanded that the Estonian army end the occupation of parts of northern Latvia. Baltische Landeswehr ("Baltic Land Defence" was the name of the unified Armed forces of The United Baltic Duchy from November 1918 to July 3 Latvia ( Latvija officially the Republic of Latvia (Latvijas Republika is a Country in Northern Europe in the Baltic region. It was widely believed that the real intent of the Landeswehr was to annex Estonia into a German-dominated state like the United Baltic Duchy that was proposed in 1918. The United Baltic Duchy (Vereinigtes Baltisches Herzogtum Apvienotā Baltijas hercogiste Ühendatud Balti Hertsogiriik was a proposal to unite the Duchy of Courland and Semigallia In the fighting that ensued, the Baltic-German Landeswehr was defeated by the advancing Estonian Army in northern Latvia near the city of Cēsis in June 1919. Cēsis ( is a Town in Latvia located in the northern part of the Vidzeme central upland (June 23, the anniversary of the Battle of Wenden (Võnnu in Estonian) is celebrated in Estonia as a national holiday "Victory Day. Events 1180 - First Battle of Uji, starting the Genpei War in Japan 1305 - The Flemish This article is about a 1919 battle See also Battle of Wenden (1601. Cēsis ( is a Town in Latvia located in the northern part of the Vidzeme central upland ")
Although Estonian forces had attained control over the territory of Estonia, the Bolsheviks were still active and the Estonian High Command decided to push their defense lines across the border into Russia. The offensive began on May 13th. By then, Estonian land, naval and air forces comprised 74,500 men, including a 5,600-strong White Russian Northern Corps. This had its origins back in the autumn of 1918, when a small White Russian force constituted with German consent in the Pskov area retreated from the Bolsheviks and joined up with Estonian national forces. Pskov (Псков ancient Russian spelling Пльсковъ Pleskov) in Latvian Pleskava, in Estonian Pihkva, is an ancient city located in The Estonian May offensive was extremely successful and the Northern Corps mobilized members of the local population on the Russian territory under their control. On June 19, 1919, the Estonian Commander-in-Chief General Laidoner removed the White Russians from his command and they were renamed the North-Western Army. Shortly afterwards, General Nikolai N. Yudenich took command of these troops.
The Bolsheviks began a counter-offensive in July 1919, which regained much ground lost during the Estonian offensive, but the Northwestern Army survived. With arms provided by Britain and France and supported by the Estonian army, Estonian warships and the British Royal Navy, the Northwestern Army began an offensive on September 28, 1919, with the aim of capturing Petrograd. The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore known as the Senior Service) White Russian forces approached as close as ten miles (16 km) from Petrograd, but the Bolshevik leader Leon Trotsky gathered "an army of workers and soldiers", which was able to repulse Yudenich's troops and force their retreat back into Estonia where the Estonians, fearing the danger presented by a potential armed mob, disarmed and interned them. Leon Trotsky ( Russian:, Lev Davidovich Trotsky, also transliterated Leo, Lyev, Trotskii, Trotski, Trotskij The Bolsheviks continued to make determined assaults on fortified positions at the Estonian border, but exhausted themselves. The Russians and Estonians both wishe to establish peace but felt unable to be seen to make the first move. The British journalist Arthur Ransome was used as the courier through which it was arranged that the Soviets would accept a proposed Estonian request for an armistice which was made and accepted on 31 December 1919. Arthur Mitchell Ransome (born 18 January 1884 in Leeds - died 3 June 1967) was an English author and journalist A ceasefire came into effect on January 3, 1920.
Substantial British involvement in the struggle in the Baltic region in 1918-19 as part of the Allied Intervention in the Russian Civil War took several forms:
On February 2, 1920, the Peace Treaty of Tartu was signed by the Republic of Estonia and Bolshevist Russia. Events 962 - Translatio imperii: Pope John XII crowns Otto I Holy Roman Emperor, the first Holy Roman Emperor Year 1920 ( MCMXX) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display 1920 of the Gregorian calendar Tartu Peace Treaty ( Estonian: Tartu rahu, literally "Tartu peace" or Treaty of Tartu was a peace treaty between Estonia and Russian Bolshevist Russia or Bolshevik Russia is a common term for the Bolshevik side in the Russian Civil War, or more specifically the Russian At this point, the Bolshevist regime had not been recognized by any Western power. The terms of the treaty stated that Bolshevist Russia renounced in perpetuity all rights to the territory of Estonia. The agreed frontier corresponded roughly with the position of the front line at the cessation of hostilities. In particular, Estonia retained a strategic strip to the east of the Narva river (Narvataguse) and Setumaa in the southeast, areas which were lost in early 1945 - shortly after Soviet troops had taken control of Estonia, when Moscow transferred land East of the Narva River and most of Estonia's Pechory county (Setumaa) to the RSFSR. Pechory (Печоры Estonian and Seto: Petseri) is a town in Pskov Oblast, Russia.