Location of Erzurum
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Erzurum (Armenian: Կարին (Karin), see also its former and other names) is a city in eastern Anatolia, Turkey. Wikipedia talkFeatured lists for an explanation of this and other inclusion tags below -->This list of countries, arranged alphabetically Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches The provinces of Turkey are organized into 7 census-defined regions ( bölge) which were originally defined at the First Geography Congress in 1941 Turkey is divided into 81 provinces called iller in Turkish (singular is il, see Turkish alphabet for capitalization of i Eastern European Time ( EET) is one of the names of UTC+2 Time zone, 2 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. UTC+2 corresponds to the following Time zones Eastern European Time Egypt Standard Time Central Africa Time Daylight saving time ( DST Eastern European Summer Time ( EEST) is one of the names of UTC+3 Time zone, 3 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. UTC+3 is used in the following locations Moscow Time Eastern European Summer Time West Asian Summer Time The Armenian language (hy հայերեն լեզու hajɛɹɛn lɛzu —, conventional short form) is an Indo-European language spoken by the Armenian This is a list of cities in Turkey by population Included are cities that are provincial capitals or have a population of at least 7000 Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches The name "Erzurum" derives from "Arz-u Rum" (literally The Land of the Romans in Persian).
Erzurum has a population of 361,235 (2000 census). 2000 ( MM) was a Leap year that started on Saturday of the Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. It is the capital of Erzurum Province, the largest province in Turkey's Eastern Anatolia Region. The Province of Erzurum ( Arzen in antiquity Karin in ancient Armenian, Theodosiupolis or Theodosiopolis during The city is situated 1757 meters (5766 feet) above sea level and has an extreme continental climate with an average January temperature of −11 °C (12. Continental climate is a Climate that is characterized by Winter Temperatures cold enough to support a fixed period of Snow cover each Year The Celsius Temperature scale was previously known as the centigrade scale. 2 °F). Fahrenheit is a temperature scale named after Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686–1736 a German Physicist who proposed it in 1724 Temperatures often drop below −30 °C (−22. 0 °F) in the winter, with heavy snowfall.
Erzurum, known as "The Rock" in NATO code, has served as NATO's southeasternmost air force post during the Cold War. The North Atlantic Treaty Cold War is the state of conflict tension and competition that existed between the United States and the Soviet Union (USSR and their respective allies from the
The city uses the double-headed Anatolian Seljuk Eagle as its coat-of-arms, a motif based on the double-headed Byzantine Eagle that was a common symbol throughout Anatolia and the Balkans in the medieval period. The double-headed eagle is a common symbol in Heraldry and Vexillology.
Erzurum existed since the ancient times as Karin and belonged to Armenia. The Province of Erzurum ( Arzen in antiquity Karin in ancient Armenian, Theodosiupolis or Theodosiopolis during Armenia (Հայաստան transliterated: Hayastan,) officially the Republic of Armenia (Հայաստանի Հանրապետություն Hayastani
The town was known in Byzantine times as Theodosiopolis, acquiring its present name only after its final Muslim conquest following the battle of Manzikert. The Battle of Manzikert, or Malazgirt, was fought between the Byzantine Empire and Seljuq forces led by Alp Arslan on August 26 1071 near Manzikert
Saltuklus were an Anatolian Turkish Beylik centered in Erzurum, who ruled between 1071 to 1202. Saltuklu dynasty (also spelled as Saltukids or Saltuqids) were the rulers of an Anatolian Turkish Beylik of the first period founded after the Battle thumb|350px|Anatolian Turkish Beyliks map Anatolian Beyliks or Turkmen Beyliks ( Turkish: Anadolu Beylikleri, Ottoman Turkish: Melike Mama Hatun, sister of Nâsırüddin Muhammed, was the ruler between 1191 and 1200. Melike Mama Hatun, or simply Mama Hatun, was a female ruler of the Saltuklu dynasty with its capital in Erzurum, for an estimated nine years between 1191
The city was captured by Russia in 1829, but given back to the Ottoman Empire under the Treaty of Adrianople (Edirne). Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending The Peace Treaty of Adrianople (also called the Treaty of Edirne) concluded the Russo-Turkish War 1828-1829 between Russia and the Ottoman Empire During the Crimean war Russian forces approached Erzurum, but did not attack it because of insufficient forces and the continuing Russian siege of Kars. The Crimean War, also known in Russia as the Eastern War (Восточная война Vostochnaya Vojna) (March 1854–February 1856 was fought Kars may refer to Kars Turkey Kars Province, Turkey Kars Oblast, Russian Empire Kars Province The city was attacked and, after overcoming strong resistance, captured by a Russian army in the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-78, but was returned to the Ottoman Empire under the Treaty of San Stefano. The Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878 had its origins in a rise in nationalism in the Balkans as well as in the Russian goal of recovering territorial losses it had suffered The Preliminary Treaty of San Stefano was a treaty between Russia and the Ottoman Empire signed at the end of the Russo-Turkish War 1877–78.
There were massacres of the city's Armenian citizens during the Hamidian massacres (1894-1896). The Hamidian massacres, also referred to as the Armenian Massacres of 1894-1896, refers to the massacring of Armenians by the Ottoman Empire, with estimates of the   It was also a major extermination and deportation center during the Armenian Genocide of 1915.  The deportation route for the Armenians of Erzurum and neighbouring areas in eastern Anatolia went through the city of Harput. The Armenians (Հայեր Hayer) are a Nation and Ethnic group originating in the Caucasus and in the Armenian Highlands A large Anatolia (Anadolu Ανατολία Anatolía) or Asia minor, comprising most of modern Turkey, is the geographic region bounded by the Black 
The city was the location of one of the key battles in the Caucasus Campaign of World War I between the armies of the Ottoman and Russian Empires which resulted in capture of Erzurum by Russian forces under command of Grand Duke Nicholas and Nikolai Nikolaevich Yudenich on February 16, 1916. The Erzerum Campaign also known as the Erzerum Offensive and Battle of Erzerum was a major winter Offensive on the Caucasus Front that led to the The Caucasus Campaign comprised armed conflicts between the Ottoman Empire and the Russian Empire, later including the Armenia, Central Caspian Dictatorship World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish The Russian Empire ( Pre-reform Russian: Pоссійская Имперія Modern Russian: Российская Империя translit: Rossiyskaya Events 1249 - Andrew of Longjumeau is dispatched by Louis IX of France as his ambassador to meet with the Khan of the Mongols Year 1916 ( MCMXVI) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year It was returned to the Ottomans with the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk in 1918. Not to be confused with the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (February 9 1918, a similar treaty involving Ukraine and the Central Powers.
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, one of the founders of the modern Turkish Republic, resigned from the Ottoman Army in Erzurum, and was declared the "Honorary Native" and the freeman of the city, which issued him his first citizenship registration and certificate (Nüfus Cuzdanı) of the new Turkish Republic. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (19 May 1881 &ndash 10 November 1938 was an army officer revolutionary Statesman Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches The Erzurum Congress of 1919 was one of the starting points of the Turkish War of Independence. Erzurum Congress was an assembly of Turkish Revolutionaries held from 23 July to 4 August 1919 in the city of Erzurum, in eastern The Turkish War of Independence (Kurtuluş Savaşı May 19, 1919 October 29, 1923) refers to the political and military resistance developed
The largest economy, in recent years, has been the university. The Province of Erzurum ( Arzen in antiquity Karin in ancient Armenian, Theodosiupolis or Theodosiopolis during Atatürk University is one of the largest universities in Turkey, having more than forty-thousand students. Atatürk Üniversitesi (Ataturk University is a land-grant university in Erzurum, Turkey. Tourism, also, provides a large proportion of the province's income.
Erzurum is notable for the small-scale production of objects crafted from Oltu stone: most are sold as souvenirs and include prayer beads, bracelets, necklaces, brooches, earrings and hairclips.
Little of medieval Erzurum survives beyond scattered individual buildings such as the citadel fortress, and the Çifte Minareli Medrese. Çifte Minareli Medrese is an architectural monument of the late Seljuk period in the Turkish city of Erzurum.
Six kilometres to the south of the center of Erzurum is an important skiing center on the Palandöken Mountain range. Snow skiing is a group of sports utilizing Skis as primary equipment Palandöken Mountain (or shortly Palandöken) is a 3271 meters high Techtonic mountain in Erzurum Province, Turkey. There are several ski runs; the south ski run is 8 km long, the north ski run is intended for advanced skiers. The highest point of Mt. Palandöken, great Ejder at 3188m, can be reached to an altitude of 3100 metres by a chair lift. The International University Sports Federation (FISU) World Winter Games, 2011 Winter Universiade, will be held in Erzurum. The 2011 Winter Universiade, the XXV Winter Universiade, is scheduled to take place in Erzurum, Turkey.
One specialty of Erzurum's cuisine is Ciğ Kebab. Although this kebab variety is of recent introduction outside its native region, it is rapidly attaining wide-spread popularity around Turkey. Kebab (also transliterated as kabab, kabob, kibob, kebhav, kephav) refers to a variety of meat dishes in Middle Eastern
Besides, Kadayif Dolmasi is an exquisite sugary. There is walnut in Kadayif Dolmasi.
The main bus station has bus links to most major Turkish cities. Erzurum is also the main railroad endpoint for the Eastern Anatolia region. Erzurum airport, also used by the Turkish Air Force, has runways that are the second longest in Turkey.