Erwin Rudolf Josef Alexander Schrödinger (1887-1961)
|Born||August 12, 1887 |
Erdberg, Vienna, Austria-Hungary
|Died||January 4, 1961 (aged 73)|
|Institutions||University of Wroclaw|
University of Zurich
University of Berlin
University of Oxford
University of Graz
Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies
|Alma mater||University of Vienna|
|Doctoral advisor||Friedrich Hasenöhrl|
|Other academic advisors||Franz S. Exner|
|Notable students||Linus Pauling |
|Known for||Schrödinger equation|
|Notable awards||Nobel Prize in Physics (1933)|
Erwin Rudolf Josef Alexander Schrödinger (IPA: [ˈɛrviːn ˈʃrøːdɪŋɐ]; August 12, 1887 – January 4, 1961) was an Austrian - Irish physicist who achieved fame for his contributions to quantum mechanics, especially the Schrödinger equation, for which he received the Nobel Prize in 1933. Events 1099 - First Crusade: Battle of Ascalon - Crusaders under the command of Godfrey of Bouillon defeat Fatimid Year 1887 ( MDCCCLXXXVII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Events 46 BC - Titus Labienus defeats Julius Caesar in the Battle of Ruspina. Year 1961 ( MCMLXI) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Austria (Österreich ( officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich Ireland ( Irish: Éire, ˈeːrʲə is a country in north-western Europe. A physicist is a Scientist who studies or practices Physics. Physicists study a wide range of physical phenomena in many branches of physics spanning Quantum mechanics is the study of mechanical systems whose dimensions are close to the Atomic scale such as Molecules Atoms Electrons In Physics, especially Quantum mechanics, the Schrödinger equation is an equation that describes how the Quantum state of a Physical system The Nobel Prize (Nobelpriset (Nobelprisen is a Swedish prize established in the 1895 will of Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel; it was first awarded in Peace, Literature In 1935, after extensive correspondence with personal friend Albert Einstein, he proposed the Schrödinger's cat thought experiment. Albert Einstein ( German: ˈalbɐt ˈaɪ̯nʃtaɪ̯n; English: ˈælbɝt ˈaɪnstaɪn (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955 was a German -born theoretical Schrödinger's cat is a Thought experiment, often described as a Paradox, devised by Austrian physicist Erwin Schrödinger in 1935 A thought experiment (from the German Gedankenexperiment) is a proposal for an Experiment that would test a Hypothesis or Theory
In 1887 Schrödinger was born in Vienna, Austria to Rudolf Schrödinger (cerecloth producer, botanist) and Georgine Emilia Brenda (daughter of Alexander Bauer, Professor of Chemistry, k.u.k. Technische Hochschule Vienna). Vienna ( in Wien; see also other names) is the Capital of Austria, and is also one of the nine States of Austria. The German phrase kaiserlich und königlich, typically abbreviated as k Vienna University of Technology is one of the major universities in Vienna, the capital of Austria. His mother was half Austrian and half English; the English side of her family came from Leamington Spa. Leamington Spa, properly Royal Leamington Spa, commonly Leamington (ˈlɛmɪŋtən and "Leam" to locals is a Spa town in central Schrödinger learned English and German almost at the same time due to the fact that both were spoken in the family household. His father was a Catholic and his mother was a Lutheran. In 1898 he attended the Akademisches Gymnasium. in 1553 the Akademisches Gymnasium is the oldest secondary school in Vienna. Between 1906 and 1910 Schrödinger studied in Vienna under Franz Serafin Exner (1849 - 1926) and Friedrich Hasenöhrl (1874 - 1915). Franz Serafin Exner ( 24 March, 1849 - October 15, 1926) was an Austrian physicist Friedrich Hasenöhrl ( November 30, 1874 - October 7, 1915) was an Austro-Hungarian physicist He also conducted experimental work with Friedrich Kohlrausch. Friedrich Wilhelm Georg Kohlrausch ( October 14, 1840 – January 17, 1910) was a German Physicist who investigated the In 1911, Schrödinger became an assistant to Exner.
In 1914 Erwin Schrödinger achieved Habilitation (venia legendi). Year 1914 ( MCMXIV) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Habilitation is the highest academic qualification a person can achieve by their own pursuit in certain European and Asian countries Between 1914 and 1918 he participated in war work as a commissioned officer in the Austrian fortress artillery (Gorizia, Duino, Sistiana, Prosecco, Vienna). Gorizia (Gurize Gorica Görz is a town in northeastern Italy, at the foot of the Alps and bordering Slovenia. Duino ( Devin in Slovenian, Tybein in German) is a town in the coastal part of the municipality ( Comune) of Duino-Aurisina Sistiana ( Slovene: Sesljan) is a village in Friuli-Venezia Giulia in the far northeast of Italy near the Slovene border On April 6, 1920, Schrödinger married Annemarie Bertel. The same year, he became the assistant to Max Wien, in Jena, and in September 1920 he attained the position of ao. Max Wien (1866 &ndash 1938 was a German Physicist and the director of the Institute of Physics at the University of Jena. Jena (pronunciation ˈjeːna is a university City in central Germany on the river Saale. Prof. (Ausserordentlicher Professor), roughly equivalent to Reader (UK) or associate professor (US), in Stuttgart. Stuttgart (ˈʃtʊtgaɐ̯t is the capital of the state of Baden-Württemberg in southern Germany. In 1921, he became o. Year 1921 ( MCMXXI) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1921 calendar of the Gregorian calendar Prof. (Ordentlicher Professor, i. e. full professor), in Breslau (now Wrocław, Poland). Wrocław (Breslau Vratislav Vratislavia or Wratislavia Yiddish: ברעסלוי) is the chief City of the historical region of Lower Silesia
In 1922, he attended the University of Zürich. The University of Zurich ( German: Universität Zürich) located in the city of Zurich, is the largest University in Switzerland In January 1926, Schrödinger published in the Annalen der Physik the paper "Quantisierung als Eigenwertproblem" [tr. Annalen der Physik is one of the best-known and oldest (since 1790 Physics journals worldwide Quantisation as an Eigenvalue Problem] on wave mechanics and what is now known as the Schrödinger equation. In Mathematics, given a Linear transformation, an of that linear transformation is a nonzero vector which when that transformation is applied to it changes In Physics, especially Quantum mechanics, the Schrödinger equation is an equation that describes how the Quantum state of a Physical system In this paper he gave a "derivation" of the wave equation for time independent systems, and showed that it gave the correct energy eigenvalues for the hydrogen-like atom. A hydrogen-like atom is an Atom with one Electron and thus is Isoelectronic with Hydrogen. This paper has been universally celebrated as one of the most important achievements of the twentieth century, and created a revolution in quantum mechanics, and indeed of all physics and chemistry. A second paper was submitted just four weeks later that solved the quantum harmonic oscillator, the rigid rotor and the diatomic molecule, and gives a new derivation of the Schrödinger equation. The quantum harmonic oscillator is the quantum mechanical analogue of the classical harmonic oscillator. The rigid rotor is a mechanical model that is used to explain rotating systems Diatomic molecules are molecules made only of two Atoms of either the same or different Chemical elements The prefix di- means two in Greek A third paper in May showed the equivalence of his approach to that of Heisenberg and gave the treatment of the Stark effect. The Stark effect is the shifting and splitting of Spectral lines of atoms and molecules due to the presence of an external static Electric field. A fourth paper in this most remarkable series showed how to treat problems in which the system changes with time, as in scattering problems. Scattering is a general physical process whereby some forms of Radiation, such as Light, Sound or moving particles for example are forced to deviate from These papers were the central achievement of his career and were at once recognized as having great significance by the physics community.
In 1927, he succeeded Max Planck at the Friedrich Wilhelm University in Berlin. For other universities in Berlin see List of Universities in Berlin. Berlin is the capital city and one of sixteen states of Germany. In 1933, however, Schrödinger decided to leave Germany; he disliked the Nazis' anti-semitism. Antisemitism (alternatively spelled anti-semitism or anti-Semitism; also rarely known as judeophobia) is the Prejudice against or hostility He became a Fellow of Magdalen College at the University of Oxford. Magdalen College redirects here see also Magdalene College Cambridge Magdalen College (ˈmɔːdlɨn "maudlin" is one of the constituent The University of Oxford (informally "Oxford University" or simply "Oxford" located in the city of Oxford, Oxfordshire, England is the Soon after he arrived, he received the Nobel Prize together with Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac. The Nobel Prize (Nobelpriset (Nobelprisen is a Swedish prize established in the 1895 will of Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel; it was first awarded in Peace, Literature His position at Oxford did not work out; his unconventional personal life (Schrödinger lived with two women) was not met with acceptance. In 1934, Schrödinger lectured at Princeton University; he was offered a permanent position there, but did not accept it. Princeton University is a private Coeducational research university located in Princeton, New Jersey. Again, his wish to set up house with his wife and his mistress may have posed a problem. He had the prospect of a position at the University of Edinburgh but visa delays occurred, and in the end he took up a position at the University of Graz in Austria in 1936. The University of Edinburgh (Oilthigh Dhùn Èideann founded in 1582 is a renowned centre for teaching and research in Edinburgh, Scotland, UK. The University of Graz ( German, Karl-Franzens-Universität Graz) a University located in Graz, Austria, is the second-largest Austria (Österreich ( officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich
In the midst of these tenure issues in 1935, after extensive correspondence with personal friend Albert Einstein, he proposed the Schrödinger's cat thought experiment. Albert Einstein ( German: ˈalbɐt ˈaɪ̯nʃtaɪ̯n; English: ˈælbɝt ˈaɪnstaɪn (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955 was a German -born theoretical Schrödinger's cat is a Thought experiment, often described as a Paradox, devised by Austrian physicist Erwin Schrödinger in 1935 A thought experiment (from the German Gedankenexperiment) is a proposal for an Experiment that would test a Hypothesis or Theory
In 1938, after Hitler occupied Austria, Schrödinger had problems because of his flight from Germany in 1933 and his known opposition to Nazism. Year 1933 ( MCMXXXIII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Year 1938 ( MCMXXXVIII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Year 1933 ( MCMXXXIII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Nazism, which was a short name for National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus refers primarily to the Ideology and practices of the National Socialist German He issued a statement recanting this opposition (he later regretted doing so, and he personally apologized to Einstein). Albert Einstein ( German: ˈalbɐt ˈaɪ̯nʃtaɪ̯n; English: ˈælbɝt ˈaɪnstaɪn (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955 was a German -born theoretical However, this did not fully appease the new dispensation and the university dismissed him from his job for political unreliability. He suffered harassment and received instructions not to leave the country, but he and his wife fled to Italy. From there he went to visiting positions in Oxford and Ghent Universities. The University of Oxford (informally "Oxford University" or simply "Oxford" located in the city of Oxford, Oxfordshire, England is the Ghent University (in Dutch Universiteit Gent, abbreviated UGent) is one of the three large Flemish universities.
In 1940 he received an invitation to help establish an Institute for Advanced Studies in Dublin, Ireland. The Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies ( DIAS) (Institiúid Ard-Léinn Bhaile Átha Cliath Dublin, Ireland was established Dublin (ˈdʌblɨn/ /ˈdʊblɨn or /ˈdʊbəlɪn/, bˠalʲə aːha klʲiəh or cliə(ɸ is both the largest city and capital of Ireland. Ireland (pronounced /ˈaɾlənd/ Éire) is the third largest island in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world He became the Director of the School for Theoretical Physics and remained there for 17 years, during which time he became a naturalized Irish citizen. He wrote about 50 further publications on various topics, including his explorations of unified field theory. Since the 1800s some physicists have attempted to develop a single theoretical framework that can account for the Fundamental forces of nature – a Unified field theory.
In 1944, he wrote What is Life?, which contains a discussion of Negentropy and the concept of a complex molecule with the genetic code for living organisms. Year 1944 ( MCMXLIV) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. What is Life? with Mind and Matter is a non-fiction book on science for the lay reader written by physicist Erwin Schrödinger. Negative Entropy or negentropy or syntropy of a living system is the entropy that it exports to maintain its own entropy low (see Entropy and life In Chemistry, a molecule is defined as a sufficiently stable electrically neutral group of at least two Atoms in a definite arrangement held together by According to James D. Watson's memoir, DNA, The Secret of Life, Schrödinger's book gave Watson the inspiration to research the gene, which led to the discovery of the DNA double helix structure. History See also History of genetics The existence of genes was first suggested by Gregor Mendel (1822-1884 who in the 1860s studied inheritance Deoxyribonucleic acid ( DNA) is a Nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known Similarly, Francis Crick, in his autobiographical book What Mad Pursuit, described how he was influenced by Schrödinger's speculations about how genetic information might be stored in molecules. Francis Harry Compton Crick OM FRS (8 June 1916 – 28 July 2004 Ph Schrödinger stayed in Dublin until retiring in 1955. During this time he remained committed to his particular passion; scandalous involvements with students occurred and he fathered two children by two different Irish women. He had a life-long interest in the Vedanta philosophy of Hinduism, which influenced his speculations at the close of What is Life? about the possibility that individual consciousness is only a manifestation of a unitary consciousness pervading the universe. Vedanta ( Devanagari: sa वेदान्त Vedānta) is a spiritual tradition explained in the Upanishads that is concerned with the Self-realisation Hinduism is a religious tradition that originated in the Indian subcontinent. Consciousness has been defined loosely as a constellation of attributes of Mind such as Subjectivity, Self-awareness, Sentience, and the The Universe is defined as everything that Physically Exists: the entirety of Space and Time, all forms of Matter, Energy 
In 1956, he returned to Vienna (chair ad personam). At an important lecture during the World Energy Conference he refused to speak on nuclear energy because of his skepticism about it and gave a philosophical lecture instead. During this period Schrödinger turned from mainstream quantum mechanics' definition of wave-particle duality and promoted the wave idea alone causing much controversy.
Schrödinger decided in 1933 that he could not live in a country in which persecution of Jews had become a national policy. PLEASE TAKE NOTE************ Alexander Frederick Lindemann, the head of physics at Oxford University, visited Germany in the spring of 1933 to try to arrange positions in England for some young Jewish scientists from Germany. Frederick Alexander Lindemann 1st Viscount Cherwell PC CH was an English Physicist who was an influential scientific adviser to the British The University of Oxford (informally "Oxford University" or simply "Oxford" located in the city of Oxford, Oxfordshire, England is the Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland He spoke to Schrödinger about posts for one of his assistants and was surprised to discover that Schrödinger himself was interested in leaving Germany. Schrödinger asked for a colleague, Arthur March, to be offered a post as his assistant.
The request for March stemmed from Schrödinger's unconventional relationships with women. His relations with his wife had never been good and he had had many lovers with his wife's knowledge. Anny had her own lover for many years, Schrödinger's friend Hermann Weyl. Hermann Klaus Hugo Weyl ( 9 November 1885 – 8 December 1955) was a German Mathematician. Schrödinger asked for March to be his assistant because, at that time, he was in love with March's wife Hilde.
Many of the scientists who had left Germany spent the summer of 1933 in Bolzano-Bozen (Italy). The Province of Bolzano-Bozen (Provincia autonoma di Bolzano Autonome Provinz Bozen Ladin: Provinzia Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Here Hilde became pregnant with Schrödinger's child. On 4 November 1933 Schrödinger, his wife and Hilde March arrived in Oxford. Events 1333 - Flood of the Arno River, causing massive damage in Florence as recorded by the Florentine chronicler Giovanni Villani Year 1933 ( MCMXXXIII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Schrödinger had been elected a fellow of Magdalen College. Magdalen College redirects here see also Magdalene College Cambridge Magdalen College (ˈmɔːdlɨn "maudlin" is one of the constituent Soon after they arrived in Oxford, Schrödinger heard that, for his work on wave mechanics, he had been awarded the Nobel prize. In Physics, especially Quantum mechanics, the Schrödinger equation is an equation that describes how the Quantum state of a Physical system The Nobel Prize (Nobelpriset (Nobelprisen is a Swedish prize established in the 1895 will of Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel; it was first awarded in Peace, Literature
In early 1934 Schrödinger was invited to lecture at Princeton University and while there he was made an offer of a permanent position. Princeton University is a private Coeducational research university located in Princeton, New Jersey. On his return to Oxford he negotiated about salary and pension conditions at Princeton but in the end he did not accept. It is thought that the fact that he wished to live at Princeton with Anny and Hilde both sharing the upbringing of his child was not found acceptable. The fact that Schrödinger openly had two wives, even if one of them was married to another man, was not well received in Oxford either. Nevertheless, his daughter Ruth Georgie Erica was born there on 30 May 1934. 
On January 4, 1961, Schrödinger died in Vienna of tuberculosis at the age of 73. Events 46 BC - Titus Labienus defeats Julius Caesar in the Battle of Ruspina. Year 1961 ( MCMLXI) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Vienna ( in Wien; see also other names) is the Capital of Austria, and is also one of the nine States of Austria. Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or T u' b' erculosis Bacillus --> is a common He left a widow, Anny (born Annemarie Bertel on December 3, 1896, died October 3, 1965), and was buried in Alpbach (Austria). Events 1800 - War of the Second Coalition: Battle of Hohenlinden, French Year 1896 ( MDCCCXCVI) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap year Events 42 BC - First Battle of Philippi: Triumvirs Mark Antony and Octavian fight an indecisive battle with Caesar's Year 1965 ( MCMLXV) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. Alpbach is a village in Western Austria in the state of Tyrol. Austria (Österreich ( officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich
The philosophical issues raised by Schrödinger's cat are still debated today and remains his most enduring legacy in popular science (Schrödinger's equation being his most enduring legacy at a more technical level). Schrödinger's cat is a Thought experiment, often described as a Paradox, devised by Austrian physicist Erwin Schrödinger in 1935 In Physics, especially Quantum mechanics, the Schrödinger equation is an equation that describes how the Quantum state of a Physical system The huge Schrödinger crater on the far side of the Moon was posthumously named after him by the IAU. Schrödinger is a huge lunar Impact crater of the form normally called a walled-plain Far Side of the Moon, in original French, La face cachée de la lune, is a 2003 film by Robert Lepage. The Erwin Schrödinger International Institute for Mathematical Physics was established in Vienna in 1993.
One of Schrödinger's lesser-known areas of scientific contribution was his work on color, color perception, and colorimetry (Farbenmetrik). Color vision is the capacity of an organism or machine to distinguish objects based on the Wavelengths (or frequencies) of the Light they reflect or emit Colorimetry or Colourimetry can refer to the quantitative study of Color perception In 1920, he published three papers in this area:
The second of these is available in English as "Outline of a Theory of Color Measurement for Daylight Vision" in Sources of Color Science, Ed. David L. MacAdam, The MIT Press (1970), 134-182.
|DATE OF BIRTH||August 12, 1887|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Erdberg, Vienna, Austria|
|DATE OF DEATH||January 4, 1961, age 73|
|PLACE OF DEATH||Vienna, Austria|