The Erie Canal is a canal in New York state from the Hudson River to Lake Erie, connecting the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean. Canals are artificial channels for water There are two types of canals water conveyance canals which are used for the conveyance and delivery of water and Waterways New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous The Hudson River, called Muh-he-kun-ne-tuk, the Great Mohegan by the Iroquois, or as the Lenape Native Americans called it in Unami Lake Erie (ˈɪəriː is the fourth largest Lake (by surface area of the five Great Lakes, and the tenth largest globally The Laurentian Great Lakes are a chain of freshwater lakes located in eastern North America, on the Canada–United States border. First proposed in 1699, it was built from 1817 to 1825. Year 1817 ( MDCCCXVII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Year 1825 ( MDCCCXXV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common The Erie Canal was the first transportation route between the eastern seaboard (New York City) and the western interior (Buffalo) of the United States that was faster than carts pulled by draft animals, and cut transport costs by about 95%. The City of New York Buffalo (ˈbʌfəloʊ is the second largest city in New York State. The Canal resulted in a massive population surge in western New York state, opened regions further west to increased settlement, and was a prime factor in the rise of New York City as the chief port of the U. The City of New York S. It was expanded in 1834 to 1862. Year 1834 ( MDCCCXXXIV) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common Year 1862 was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting on Monday In 1918 the original Canal was replaced by the larger New York State Barge Canal. Year 1918 ( MCMXVIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common The New York State Canal System (formerly known as the New York State Barge Canal) is a successor to the Erie Canal and other Canals within New York Today it is part of the New York State Canal System, and is mainly used by recreational watercraft. The New York State Canal System (formerly known as the New York State Barge Canal) is a successor to the Erie Canal and other Canals within New York
The extraordinary success of the Bridgewater Canal in Britain, completed in 1761, led to a frenzy of canal building in England. The Bridgewater Canal is a Canal in North West England, connecting Runcorn, Manchester, and Leigh. The idea of a canal or artificially improved waterway to tie the east coast to the new western settlements was in the air: Cadwallader Colden first proposed using the Mohawk Valley in 1724. Cadwallader Colden ( February 7, 1688 &ndash September 20, 1776) was a Physician, Farmer, surveyor, The Mohawk Valley ( Yenęˀná•ˀna•č in Tuscarora) region of the U George Washington led a serious effort to turn the Potomac River into a navigable link to the west, sinking substantial energy and capital into the Patowmack Company from 1785 until his death fifteen years later. George Washington (February 22 1732 December 14 1799 served as the first President of the United States of America (1789&ndash1797 and led the The Potomac River flows into the Chesapeake Bay, located along the mid- Atlantic coast of the United States. The Patowmack Canal is an inoperative Canal located in Virginia, United States, that was designed to bypass rapids in the Potomac River upstream of the Christopher Colles, who was familiar with the Bridgewater Canal, surveyed the Mohawk valley and made a presentation to the New York state legislature in 1784 proposing a canal from Ontario]]; the proposal drew attention and some action but came to nothing.
Gouverneur Morris and Elkanah Watson were other early proponents of a canal along the Mohawk. Gouverneur Morris ( January 31, 1752 November 6, 1816) was an American statesman who represented Pennsylvania in the Elkanah Watson ( January 22, 1758 &ndash December 5, 1842) was a visionary traveller and writer agriculturist and canal promoter Their efforts led to creation of the Western Inland Lock Navigation Company, which took the first actual steps to improve navigation on the Mohawk. But the company proved that private financing was inadequate.
In 1798 the Niagara Canal Company was incorporated.
The advocate who finally got the Canal built was entrepreneur Jesse Hawley. Jesse Hawley was a Flour Merchant in Geneva New York who became an early and major proponent of building of the Erie Canal. He envisioned growing huge quantities of grain in the upstate New York plains, then largely unsettled, for sale on the Eastern Seaboard. New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous The East Coast of the United States, also known as the "Eastern Seaboard" or "Atlantic Seaboard" refers to the easternmost coastal states in the central and northern But he went bankrupt trying to ship it to the coast. Bankruptcy is a legally declared inability or impairment of ability of an individual or organization to pay their Creditors Creditors may file a bankruptcy petition against While in Canandaigua debtors' prison, he started pressing for the construction of a canal along the Mohawk valley. Canandaigua ( Utaˀnaráhkhwaˀ in Tuscarora) is a City in Ontario County, New York He had strong support from Joseph Ellicott, agent for the Holland Land Company in Batavia. For other people with the surname Ellicott, see there Joseph Ellicott ( November 1, 1760 - August 19, The Holland Land Company was a purchaser of the western two-thirds of the western New York land tract known as the Phelps and Gorham Purchase. Batavia is a city in Genesee County, Western New York, USA, located near the middle of Genesee County entirely within the Town Ellicott realized that a canal would add immense value to the land he was selling in the western part of the state. Ellicott later became the first canal commissioner.
The Mohawk River, a tributary to the Hudson, runs in a glacial meltwater channel across the northern reaches of the Appalachians, separating them in New York State into the Catskills and Adirondacks. An ice age is a period of long-term reduction in the Temperature of the Earth 's surface and atmosphere resulting in an expansion of continental Ice sheets The Catskill Mountains (also known as simply the Catskills) a natural area in New York State northwest of New York City and southwest of Albany The Adirondack Mountains are a Mountain range located in the northeastern part of New York, that runs through Clinton, Essex, Franklin The Mohawk Valley was the only cut across the Appalachians north of Alabama, and led almost directly from the Hudson River on the east to either Lake Ontario or Lake Erie on the west. Alabama (formally the State of Alabama;) is a State located in the southern region of the United States of America. From there much of the interior and many settlements would be accessible on the lakes.
The problem was that the land rises about 600 feet (180 m) from the Hudson to Lake Erie. Locks at the time could handle up to 12 feet (3. 7 m), so at least 50 locks would be required along the 360 miles (580 km) canal. Any such canal would cost a fortune even today, but in 1800 was barely imaginable. President Jefferson, called it "a little short of madness" and rejected it. Thomas Jefferson (April 13 1743 – July 4 1826 was the third President of the United States (1801–1809 the principal author of the Declaration of Independence  Nevertheless Hawley managed to interest New York governor DeWitt Clinton. DeWitt Clinton ( March 2, 1769 Little Britain New York February 11, 1828 Albany New York) was an early American politician There was much opposition, and the project was scorned as "Clinton's Folly," or "Clinton's Ditch. " But in 1817, Clinton got the legislature to appropriate $7,000,000 for construction. Year 1817 ( MDCCCXVII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common
The original Canal was 363 miles (584 km) long, from Albany on the Hudson to Buffalo, on Lake Erie. Albany is the Capital of the State of New York and the County seat of Albany County. Buffalo (ˈbʌfəloʊ is the second largest city in New York State. The channel was a cut 40 feet (12 m) wide and 4 feet (1. 2 m) deep, with removed soil piled on the downhill side to form a walkway. Barges, up to 3. 5 feet (1. 1 m) in draft, were pulled by horses and mules on the walkway. The horse ( Equus caballus) is a hoofed ( Ungulate) Mammal, one of eight living species of the family Equidae. In its common modern meaning a mule is the offspring of a male Donkey and a female Horse, which is classified as a kind of F1 hybrid. With only one towpath, when barges passed there was quick unhitching and re-hitching of the animal teams while the barges continued by momentum. The sides of the cut were be lined with stone, the bottom with clay. Clay is a naturally occurring material composed primarily of fine-grained Minerals which show plasticity through a variable range of Water content, and The stone work required hundreds of German masons , who later built many of New York's famous buildings. The craft of stonemasonry has existed since the dawn of Civilization - creating Buildings structures and Sculpture using stone from the earth Masonry is the building of structures from individual units laid in and bound together by mortar, and the term "masonry" can also refer to the units themselves
Construction began July 4, 1817, at Rome, New York. Events 836 - Pactum Sicardi, peace between the Principality of Benevento and the Duchy of Naples Rome is a City in Oneida County, New York, United States. The population was 34950 at the 2000 census. The first 15 miles (24 km) section, from Rome to Utica, opened in 1819. Utica is a City in the American state of New York, and the County seat of Oneida County. Year 1819 ( MDCCCXIX) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar in the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common year At that rate the canal would not be finished for 30 years. The main problems were felling trees to clear a path through virgin forest, and moving excavated soil, both of which took longer than expected. But the builders solved these problems. To fell a tree, they threw rope over the top branches and winched it down. They pulled out the stumps with a huge tripod-mounted winch. The soil went into large wheelbarrows that were dumped into mule-pulled carts.
A three-man team with mules could now build a mile in a year, meaning that the problem now was finding enough labor.
The men who planned and oversaw construction were novices, both as surveyors and as engineers. There were no civil engineers in the United States. A civil engineer is a person who practices Civil engineering, one of the many engineering professions James Geddes and Benjamin Wright, who laid out the route, were judges whose experience in surveying was in settling boundary disputes; Geddes had only used a surveying instrument for a few hours. James Geddes, born at Carlisle, Pennsylvania on July 22 1763, was a prominent surveyor, engineer New York State legislator Benjamin Wright ( October 10, 1770 – August 24, 1842) was a noted American Civil engineer who served as Chief Engineer of both the Canvass White was a 27-year-old amateur engineer who talked Clinton into letting him go to Britain at his own expense to study the canal system there. Canvass White ( September 8, 1790 – December 18, 1834) was an Engineer and Inventor. Nathan Roberts was a mathematics teacher and land speculator. Mathematics is the body of Knowledge and Academic discipline that studies such concepts as Quantity, Structure, Space and Yet these men "carried the Erie Canal up the Niagara escarpment at Lockport, maneuvered it onto a towering embankment to cross over Irondequoit creek, spanned the Genesee River for it on an awesome aqueduct, and carved a route for it out of the solid rock between Little Falls and Schenectady—and all of those venturesome designs worked precisely as planned. Lockport is a City in Niagara County, New York, United States. The Genesee River's ( Čunehstí•yu• in Tuscarora) name is derived from the Seneca tribe word meaning good valley or pleasant valley An aqueduct is an artificial channel that is constructed to convey water from one location to another Little Falls New York may refer to either Little Falls (town New York, located in Herkimer County Little Falls (city New York, Schenectady (skəˈnɛktədi Θkahnéhtati in Tuscarora) is a City in Schenectady County, New York, United States " (Bernstein, p. 381)
Construction continued at increased rate as new workers arrived. But when the canal reached Montezuma Marsh (at the outlet of Cayuga Lake west of Syracuse), over 1,000 workers died of swamp fever and construction stopped. Montezuma Marsh is a Marsh at the northern end of Cayuga Lake in the Finger Lakes region of New York. Cayuga Lake (pronounced either "kā-'yü-gə" or "kī-'yü-gə" is the longest of western New York 's glacial Finger Lakes, and is the second largest Syracuse (locally ˈsɛrəkjuːs sometimes ˈsɪrəkjuːs or /ˈsɪərəkjuːs/ by non-natives is a city in Central New York, USA. Work continued on the downhill side towards the Hudson, and when the marsh froze in winter, the crews worked to complete the section across the swamps.
The middle section from Utica to Salina (Syracuse) was completed in 1820 and traffic on that section started up immediately. Salina is a Town in Onondaga County, New York, United States. The eastern section, 250 miles (400 km) from Brockport to Albany, opened on September 10, 1823, to great fanfare. Brockport is a Village located in the Town of Sweden in Monroe County, New York, USA. Events 506 - The Bishops of Visigothic Gaul meet in the Council of Agde. Year 1823 ( MDCCCXXIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common
The Champlain Canal, a 64 miles (103 km) north-south route from Watervliet on the Hudson to Lake Champlain, opened on the same date. The Champlain Canal is a 60-mile Canal that connects the south end of Lake Champlain to the Hudson River in New York. Watervliet is a City in Albany County, New York, United States. Lake Champlain (French lac Champlain) is a natural freshwater Lake in North America, located mainly within the borders of the United States
In 1824, before the Canal was completed, a detailed Pocket Guide for the Tourist and Traveler, Along the Line of the Canals, and the Interior Commerce of the State of New York, was published for the benefit of travelers and land speculators — possibly America's first tour guide.
After Montezuma Marsh, the next obstacle was crossing the Niagara Escarpment, an 80 feet (24 m) wall of hard dolomitic limestone, to rise to the level of Lake Erie. The Niagara Escarpment is a long Escarpment, or Cuesta, in the United States and Canada that runs westward from New York State, through Dolomite (ˈdɒləmaɪt is the name of a Sedimentary Carbonate rock and a Mineral, both composed Limestone is a Sedimentary rock composed largely of the Mineral Calcite ( Calcium carbonate: CaCO3 The route followed the channel of a creek that had cut a ravine steeply down the escarpment, with two sets of five locks in a series, giving rise to the community of Lockport. Lockport is a City in Niagara County, New York, United States. These 12-foot (3. 7 m) lift-locks had a total lift of 60 feet (18 m), exiting into a deeply cut channel. The final leg had to be cut 30 feet (9. 1 m) through another limestone layer, the Onondaga ridge. The Onondaga Formation is a group of hard Limestones and Dolostones of Devonian age that form an important geographic feature in the area of outcrop Much of that section was blasted with black powder. Gunpowder is a an explosive mixture of Sulfur, Charcoal and Potassium nitrate (also known as saltpetre/saltpeter that burns rapidly producing volumes The inexperience of the crews often led to accidents, and sometimes rocks falling on nearby homes.
Two villages competed to be the terminus: Black Rock, on the Niagara River, and Buffalo, at the eastern tip of Lake Erie. Black Rock, once an independent community is now a neighborhood of the northwest section of the city of Buffalo New York. The Niagara River flows to the north from Lake Erie to Lake Ontario. Buffalo expended great energy to widen and deepen Buffalo Creek to make it navigable and to create a harbor at its mouth. For other rivers with this name see Buffalo River. The Buffalo River is a River that empties into the eastern end of Lake Erie Buffalo won over Black Rock, and grew into a large city, swallowing its former competitor.
Work was completed on October 26, 1825. Events 740 - An Earthquake strikes Constantinople, causing much damage and death Year 1825 ( MDCCCXXV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common The event was marked by a statewide "Grand Celebration," culminating in successive cannon shots along the length of the canal and the Hudson, which took 90 minutes to travel from Buffalo to New York City. A flotilla of boats, led by Governor Dewitt Clinton aboard the Seneca Chief, sailed from Buffalo to New York City in ten days. Clinton then ceremonially poured Lake Erie water into New York Harbor to mark the "Wedding of the Waters. "
The Canal began on the west side of the Hudson River at Albany, and ran north to Troy, where the Champlain Canal branched off. Troy is a City in New York, US, and the County seat of Rensselaer County. At Cohoes it turned west along the south shore of the Mohawk River, crossing to the north side at Crescent and again to the south at Rexford Flats. Cohoes is a City located at the northeast corner of Albany County New York, USA. The Canal continued west near the south shore of the Mohawk River all the way to Rome, where the Mohawk turns north.
At Rome, the Canal continued west parallel to Wood Creek, which flows from Oneida Lake, and turned southwest and west cross-country to avoid the lake. Oneida Lake is the largest lake entirely within New York (798 square miles From Canastota west it ran roughly along the north (lower) edge of the Onondaga Escarpment, passing through Syracuse and Rochester. Canastota is a Village located inside the Town of Lenox in Madison County New York, United States. The Onondaga Formation is a group of hard Limestones and Dolostones of Devonian age that form an important geographic feature in the area of outcrop At Lockport the Canal turned southwest to rise to the top of the Niagara Escarpment, using the ravine of Eighteenmile Creek. The Niagara Escarpment is a long Escarpment, or Cuesta, in the United States and Canada that runs westward from New York State, through The Canal continued south-southwest to Pendleton, where it turned west and southwest, mainly using the channel of Tonawanda Creek. Pendleton is a Town in Niagara County, New York, United States. Tonawanda Creek is a small River in Western New York, in the United States. From Tonawanda south to Buffalo it ran just east of the Niagara River, emptying out into the river in downtown Buffalo. The name Tonawanda refers to several locations in Western New York.
Problems developed but were quickly solved. Leaks developed along the entire length of the canal, but these were sealed with a newly invented concrete that hardened under water. Concrete is a construction material composed of Cement (commonly Portland cement) as well as other cementitious materials such as Fly ash and Slag Erosion on the clay bottom proved to be a problem and the speed was limited to 4 mph (6 km/h).
The original design planned for an annual tonnage of 1. 5 million tons (1. 36 million tonnes), but this was exceeded immediately. An ambitious program to improve the canal began in 1834. During this massive series of construction projects, known as the First Enlargement, the canal was widened to 70 feet (21 m) and deepened to 7 feet (2. 1 m). Locks were widened and/or rebuilt in new locations, and many new aqueducts were constructed. The canal was also straightened and slightly re-routed in some stretches, resulting in the abandonment of short segments of the original 1825 canal. The First Enlargement was completed in 1862, with further minor enlargements in later decades.
Today, the reconfiguration of the canal created during the First Enlargement is commonly referred to as the Improved Erie Canal or the Old Erie Canal, to distinguish it from the canal's modern-day course. Old Erie Canal State Historic Park is a part of the New York State Park system. Existing remains of the 1825 canal abandoned during the Enlargement are sometimes referred to today as Clinton's Ditch (which was also the popular nickname for the entire Erie Canal project during its original 1817-1825 construction).
Additional feeder canals soon extended the Erie Canal into a system. These included the Cayuga-Seneca Canal south to the Finger Lakes, the Oswego Canal from Three Rivers north to Lake Ontario at Oswego, and the Champlain Canal from Troy north to Lake Champlain. The Finger Lakes are a chain of lakes in the west-central section of Upstate New York that are a popular tourist destination Oswego is a City in Oswego County, New York, United States. The population was 18096 at the 2000 census. From 1833 to 1877, the short Crooked Lake Canal connected Keuka Lake and Seneca Lake. Keuka Lake is an unusual member of the Finger Lakes because it is Y -shaped instead of long and narrow Seneca Lake, one of western New York 's glacial Finger Lakes, is the largest finger lake The Chemung Canal connected the south end of Seneca Lake to Elmira in 1833, and was an important route for Pennsylvania coal and timber into the canal system. The Chemung River (shuh-MUHNG is a Tributary of the Susquehanna River, approximately 45 mi (72 km long in south central New York and northern Elmira is a City in Chemung County, New York, USA. It is the principal city of the 'Elmira New York Metropolitan Statistical Area The Chenango Canal in 1836 connected the Erie Canal at Utica to Binghamton and caused a business boom in the Chenango River valley. Chenango Canal was a Towpath Canal that existed in the middle 19th century in upstate New York in the United States. Binghamton, known as The Parlor City is a City located in the Southern Tier of New York in the United States. The Chenango River is a Tributary of the Susquehanna River, approximately 90 miles (145 km long in central New York in the United States The Chenango and Chemung canals linked the Erie with the Susquehanna River system. The Susquehanna River (originally "Sasquesahanough" per the 1612 John Smith map is a River located in the northeastern United States. The Black River Canal connected the Black River to the Erie Canal at Rome and remained in operation until the 1920s. The Black River Canal was a Canal built in northern New York in the USA to connect the Erie Canal to the Black River. The Black River is a blackwater River that empties into the eastern end of Lake Ontario on the shore of Jefferson County New York in the The Genesee Valley Canal was run along the Genesee River to connect with the Allegheny River at Olean, but the Allegheny section which would have connected to the Ohio and Mississippi was never built. The Genesee Valley Canal Railroad was a part of the Pennsylvania Railroad system in central New York. The Genesee River's ( Čunehstí•yu• in Tuscarora) name is derived from the Seneca tribe word meaning good valley or pleasant valley The Allegheny River is a principal Tributary of the Ohio River and is located in the Eastern United States. Olean (ˈoliˌæn is a City in Cattaraugus County, New York, United States. The Genesee Valley Canal was later abandoned and became the Genesee Valley Canal Railroad. The Genesee Valley Canal Railroad was a part of the Pennsylvania Railroad system in central New York.
In 1903, the New York state legislature authorized construction of the New York State Barge Canal as the "Improvement of the Erie, the Oswego, the Champlain, and the Cayuga and Seneca Canals". The New York State Canal System (formerly known as the New York State Barge Canal) is a successor to the Erie Canal and other Canals within New York  In 1905, construction of the Barge Canal began, which was completed in 1918, at a cost of $96. 7 million.  Freight traffic reached a total of 5. 2 million tons by 1951, before declining in the face of combined rail and truck competition.
As the canal brought travelers to New York City, it took business away from other ports such as Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and Baltimore, Maryland. Philadelphia (ˌfɪləˈdɛlfiə Those cities and their states chartered projects to compete with the Erie Canal. In Pennsylvania, the Main Line of Public Works was a combined canal and railroad running west from Philadelphia to Pittsburgh on the Ohio River, opened in 1834. The Main Line of Public Works was a railroad and canal system built by the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in the 19th century The Ohio River is the largest Tributary by volume of the Mississippi River. In Maryland, the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad ran west to Wheeling, West Virginia, also on the Ohio River, and was completed in 1853. The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad ( B&O) was one of the Oldest railroads in the United States and the first Common carrier railroad Wheeling is a city in West Virginia, in the United States. Most of the city is in Ohio County, with a small
Competition also came from inside New York state. The New York Central Railroad, known simply as the New York Central in its publicity was a Railroad operating in the Northeastern United States. This article is about the line of the New York Central Railroad system The Mohawk and Hudson Railroad opened in 1831, providing a bypass to the slowest part of the canal between Albany and Schenectady. The Mohawk and Hudson Railroad was the first railroad built in the State of New York and one of the First railroads in the United States. Other railroads were soon chartered and built to continue the line west to Buffalo, and in 1842 a continuous line (which later became the New York Central Railroad and its Auburn Road in 1853) was open the whole way to Buffalo. The New York Central Railroad, known simply as the New York Central in its publicity was a Railroad operating in the Northeastern United States. Consolidation under date of August 1 1850, of the Auburn and Rochester Railroad Company, which was incorporated May 13 1836, and road opened As the railroad served the same general route as the canal, but provided for faster travel, passengers soon switched to it. However as late as 1852, the canal carried thirteen times more freight tonnage than all the railroads in New York state, combined; it continued to compete well with the railroads through 1882, when tolls were abolished.
The New York, West Shore and Buffalo Railway was completed in 1884, as a route running closely parallel to both the canal and the New York Central Railroad. This article is about the line of the New York Central Railroad system The New York Central Railroad, known simply as the New York Central in its publicity was a Railroad operating in the Northeastern United States. However, it went bankrupt and was acquired the next year by the New York Central.
The Erie Canal made an immense contribution to the wealth and importance of New York City, Buffalo, and New York State. Its impact went much further, increasing trade throughout the nation by opening eastern and overseas markets to Midwestern farm products and by enabling migration to the West. New ethnic Irish communities formed in some towns along its route after completion, as Irish immigrants were a large portion of labor force involved in its construction.
Because so many immigrants traveled on the canal, many genealogists would like to find copies of canal passenger lists. Unfortunately, apart from the years 1827-1829, canal boat operators were not required to record or report passenger names to the government, which in this case was the State of New York. Those 1827-1829 passenger lists survive today in the New York State Archives.
It also helped bind the still-new nation closer to Britain and Europe. British repeal of the Corn Law resulted in a huge increase in exports of Midwestern wheat to Britain. The Corn Laws were Import tariffs designed to support domestic British corn prices against competition from less expensive foreign-grain imports between 1815 and 1846 Trade between the US and Canada also increased as a result of the Corn Law and a reciprocity (free-trade) agreement signed in 1854; much of this trade flowed along the Erie. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page
Its success also prompted imitation: a rash of canal building followed. Also, the many technical hurdles that had to be overcome made heroes of those whose innovations made the canal possible. This led to an increased public esteem for practical education.
Many notable authors wrote about the canal, including Herman Melville, Frances Trollope, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Harriet Beecher Stowe, Mark Twain, Samuel Hopkins Adams and the Marquis de Lafayette, and many tales and songs were written about life on the canal. Herman Melville (August 1 1819 &ndash September 28 1891 was an American novelist Short story writer Essayist and poet Frances Trollope ( March 10, 1780 &ndash October 6, 1863) was an English Novelist and miscellaneous writer who published as Mrs Nathaniel Hawthorne (born Nathaniel Hathorne; July 4 1804 – May 19 1864 was an American novelist and Short story writer Harriet Beecher Stowe (June 14 1811 – July 1 1896 was an American Author and Abolitionist, whose Novel Uncle Tom's Cabin Samuel Langhorne Clemens (November 30 1835 – April 21 1910 better known by the Pen name Mark Twain, was an American Humorist, satirist Samuel Hopkins Adams ( January 26, 1871 &ndash November 15, 1958) was an American writer best known for his investigative journalism The popular song Low Bridge by Thomas S. Allen was written in 1905 to memorialize the canal's early heyday, when barges were pulled by mules rather than engines. The popular song "Fifteen Miles on the Erie Canal" was written in 1905 by Thomas S Thomas S Allen (b 1876 Natick Massachusetts, d 1919 Boston Massachusetts) an early figure in Tin Pan Alley, was an American Chicago, among other Great Lakes cities, recognized the commercial importance of the canal to its economy, and two West Loop streets are named Canal and Clinton (for canal proponent DeWitt Clinton). Chicago (ʃɪˈkɑːgoʊ is the largest City by population in the state of Illinois and the American Midwest of the United States. The Laurentian Great Lakes are a chain of freshwater lakes located in eastern North America, on the Canada–United States border. Population According to the 2000 Census, 16388 people live in the Loop
Concern that erosion caused by logging in the Adirondacks could silt up the canal contributed to the creation of another New York National Historic Landmark, the Adirondack Park, in 1885. The Adirondack Mountains are a Mountain range located in the northeastern part of New York, that runs through Clinton, Essex, Franklin The Adirondack Park is a publicly-protected area located in northeast New York.
In 1918 the Canal was replaced by the larger New York State Barge Canal. The new canal replaced much of the original route, leaving many abandoned sections (most notably between Syracuse and Rome). New digging and flood control technologies allowed engineers to canalize rivers that the original canal sought to avoid, such as the Mohawk, Seneca and Clyde Rivers, and Oneida Lake. The Seneca River in Central New York flows from West to East, from Seneca Lake, though the Montezuma Marsh at the north end of In sections which did not consist of canalized rivers (particularly between Rochester and Buffalo), the original Erie Canal channel was enlarged to 120 feet (37 m) wide and 12 feet (3. 7 m) deep. The expansion allowed barges up to 2,000 tons to use the Canal. This expensive project was politically unpopular in parts of the state not served by the canal, and failed to save it from becoming obsolete.
The new alignment began on the Hudson River at the border between Cohoes and Waterford, where it ran northwest with five locks, running into the Mohawk east of Crescent. Waterford is a Town in Saratoga County, New York, USA. The population was 8515 at the 2000 census While the old Canal ran next to the Mohawk all the way to Rome, the new canal ran through the river, straightened or widened where necessary. At Ilion the new canal left the river for good, but continued to run on a new alignment parallel to both the river and the old canal to Rome. Ilion is a Village in Herkimer County, New York, United States. From Rome the new route continued almost due west, merging with Fish Creek just east of its entry into Oneida Lake.
From Oneida Lake, the new canal ran west along the Oneida River, with cutoffs to shorten the route. The Oneida River in Central New York State flows from Oneida Lake to its confluence with the Seneca and Oswego Rivers The Oswego At Three Rivers the Oneida River turns northwest, and was deepened for the Oswego Canal to Lake Ontario. The new Erie Canal turned south there along the Seneca River, which turns west near Syracuse and continues west to a point in the Montezuma Marsh ( ). There the Cayuga and Seneca Canal continued south with the Seneca River, and the new Erie Canal again ran parallel to the old Canal along the bottom of the Niagara Escarpment, in some places running along the Clyde River, and in some places replacing the old Canal. At Pittsford, southeast of Rochester, the Canal turned west to run around the south side of Rochester, rather than through downtown. Pittsford is a Village in Monroe County, New York, United States. The Canal currently crosses the Genesee River at the Genesee Valley Park ( ). The Genesee River's ( Čunehstí•yu• in Tuscarora) name is derived from the Seneca tribe word meaning good valley or pleasant valley Genesee Valley Park is located south of Rochester New York along the shores of the Genesee River. It then rejoins the old path near North Gates. From there it was again roughly an upgrade to the original canal, running west to Lockport and southwest to Tonawanda, where the new alignment simply emptied into the Niagara River.
Due to the growth of highways, railroads, and the Saint Lawrence Seaway, commercial traffic on the canal declined dramatically during the second half of the 20th century. The St Lawrence Seaway is the common name for a system of Canals that permits ocean-going vessels to travel from the Atlantic Ocean to the Great Lakes Since the 1990s, the Canal system has been used primarily by recreational traffic, although a very limited amount commercial traffic still uses the it. Erie Canal is open to small craft and some larger vessels for most of the year. During winter, water is drained from parts of the canal for maintenance. The boating season runs from May through November.
In 1992, the New York State Barge Canal was renamed the New York State Canal System (including the Erie, Cayuga-Seneca, Oswego, and Champlain Canals) and put under the newly created New York State Canal Corporation, a subsidiary of the New York State Thruway Authority. The New York State Canal System (formerly known as the New York State Barge Canal) is a successor to the Erie Canal and other Canals within New York The Cayuga-Seneca Canal is a Canal in New York, USA. It is now part of the New York State Canal System. The New York State Canal Corporation is a subsidiary of the New York State Thruway Authority. The New York State Thruway (officially the Governor Thomas E Dewey Thruway) is a limited-access toll Highway in the U Today the Erie Canal Corridor covers 524 miles (843 km) of navigable water from Lake Champlain to the Capital Region and west to Lake Erie. The Capital District (also "Capital Region" is an imprecise regional definition (much like Upstate New York) that generally refers to the four counties surrounding The area has a population of 2. 7 million, and about 75% of upstate New York's population lives within 25 miles (40 km) of the Erie Canal. In 2006, recreational boating fees were eliminated to attract more visitors. The Canal System is operated using money generated by Thruway tolls.
The Champlain Canal, Lake Champlain, and the Chambly Canal and Richelieu River in Canada form the Lakes to Locks Passage, making a tourist attraction of the former waterway linking eastern Canada to the Erie Canal. The Chambly Canal is a National Historic Site of Canada in the Province of Quebec, running along the Richelieu River past St-Jean-sur-Richelieu The Richelieu River is a river in Quebec, Canada. It flows from Lake Champlain about 171 km (106 miles north ending into the St The Lakes to Locks Passage is a recreational waterway that extends from Waterford New York to Montreal Quebec.
Travel on the Canal's middle section (particularly in the Mohawk Valley) was severelyhampered by flooding in late June and early July 2006. Flood damage to the canal and its facilities was estimated as at least $15 million.
Sections of the old Erie Canal abandoned after 1918 are owned by New York state, or have been ceded to or purchased by counties or municipalities. Many stretches of the old Canal have been filled in to create roads such as Erie Boulevard in Syracuse, and Broad Street and the Rochester Subway in Rochester. The Rochester Subway or Rochester Industrial and Rapid Transit Railway was an underground rapid transit system in the city of Rochester, New York A 36 miles (58 km) stretch of the old Canal is preserved by the New York state at Old Erie Canal State Historic Park, and in 1960 the Schoharie Crossing State Historic Site, a section of the canal in Montgomery County, was one of the first sites recognized as a National Historic Landmark. Old Erie Canal State Historic Park is a part of the New York State Park system. Schoharie Crossing State Historic Site, also known as Erie Canal National Historic Landmark, is a historic district that includes the ruins of the Erie Canal aqueduct Montgomery County is a County located in the US state of New York. A National Historic Landmark (NHL is a Building, site, Structure, Object, or District, that is officially recognized by the 
Some municipalities have elected to preserve sections as town or county canal parks, or have plans to do so. Notably, Camillus Erie Canal Park preserves a 7-mile (11 km) stretch and plans to restore Nine Mile Creek Aqueduct, built in 1841 as part of the First Enlargement of the Canal. Camillus Erie Canal Park is a town park in Camillus New York that preserves a seven mile stretch of the Erie Canal. Nine Mile Creek Aqueduct is the ruin of a stone and wood aqueduct of the Erie Canal over Nine Mile Creek in Camillus New York. In Camillus Park and some communities, the old Canal has been of overgrowth and debris and refilled. Proposals have been made to rehydrate the old Canal through downtown Rochester or Syracuse, as a tourist attraction. A tourist attraction is a place of interest where Tourists visit typically for its inherent or exhibited cultural value historical significance natural or built beauty or In Syracuse, the location of the old Canal is represented by a reflecting pool in downtown's Clinton Square and the downtown hosts a canal barge and weigh lock structure, now dry. A weigh lock is a specialized Canal lock designed to determine the weight of Barges in order to asses toll payments based upon the weight and value of the
In 2004, the administration of New York governor George Pataki was criticized when officials of New York State Canal Corporation attempted to sell private development rights to large stretches of the Old Erie Canal to a single developer for US$30,000, far less than the land was worth on the open market. George Elmer Pataki (born June 24, 1945) is an American politician who was the 53rd Governor of New York serving three consecutive The United States dollar ( sign: $; code: USD) is the unit of Currency of the United States; it has also been After an investigation by the Syracuse Post-Standard newspaper, the Pataki administration nullified the deal. The Post-Standard is the major daily Newspaper servicing the greater Syracuse New York metro area
The creation of a unified, statewide Erie Canal historic trail or greenway to attract tourism has been an elusive goal since it was first proposed in the 1990s. A greenway is a long narrow piece of land often used for recreation and pedestrian and bicycle traffic and sometimes including multiple transportation ( Streetcar, Light However, many communities along the Old Erie Canal have made progress in establishing parks, improving towpaths, and raising funds for restoration of old cana structures such as locks and aqueducts. Biking, hiking, snowmobiling, cross-country skiing, horseback riding, canoeing and fishing are among activities promoted.
The towpath is a good choice for an easy multi-day bicycle vacation. Bicycle touring is a Leisure Travel activity which involves touring exploring or Sightseeing by Bicycle. Many towns along the way have B&Bs, motels and campsites. Bed and breakfast, also known as B&B, is a term originating in the United Kingdom, but now also used all over the world for an establishment that offers accommodation The website of  Parks and Trails New York Canalway Corridor has information on the Canal, and sells a guidebook (latest edition 2007) with waterproof trail maps and information on nearby places to eat, sleep, or visit spots of historical interest.
Parks and museums on the Old Erie Canal include (East to West):
The following list of locks are provided for the current canal, from east to west:
Note: There is no Lock 1 or Lock 31 on the Erie Canal. Schoharie Crossing State Historic Site, also known as Erie Canal National Historic Landmark, is a historic district that includes the ruins of the Erie Canal aqueduct Chittenango is a Village located inside the Town of Sullivan in Madison County New York, United States. Old Erie Canal State Historic Park is a part of the New York State Park system. DeWitt is a Town in Onondaga County, New York, USA. As of the 2000 census, the town population was 24071 Weedsport is a Village in Cayuga County, New York, USA. The population was 2017 at the 2000 census The Erie Canal Museum, in Syracuse New York is a museum about the Erie Canal across New York. Camillus Erie Canal Park is a town park in Camillus New York that preserves a seven mile stretch of the Erie Canal. Camillus New York is located in Onondaga County There are two parts to Camillus New York Camillus New York (town Camillus New York (village Jordan Canal Park in Jordan New York includes the Jordan Aqueduct which carried the Erie Canal over Skaneateles Creek. Jordan is a Village in Onondaga County, New York, United States. Elbridge is a Town in Onondaga County, New York, United States. Clyde is a Village in Wayne County, New York, United States. The population was 2269 at the 2000 census Palmyra is a Town in Wayne County, New York, USA. The population was 7672 at the 2000 census Macedon is a Town in Wayne County, New York, United States. The population was 8688 at the 2000 census Genesee Valley Park is located south of Rochester New York along the shores of the Genesee River. A lock is a device for raising and lowering boats between stretches of water of different levels on river and canal Waterways. The place of "Lock 1" on the passage from the lower Hudson to Lake Erie is taken by the Federal Lock, located just north of Troy, NY, and is not part of the Erie Canal System proper. The Federal Dam is a manmade Dam built across the Hudson River, near Troy New York in the United States.
(upstream / west)
(downstream / east)
|Lift||Distance to Next Lock|
(upstream / west)
|2||Waterford||48. Waterford is a Town in Saratoga County, New York, USA. The population was 8515 at the 2000 census 9 feet (14. 9 m)||15. 3 feet (4. 7 m)||33. 6 feet (10. 2 m)||E3, 0. 28 miles (0. 45 km)|
|3||Waterford||83. Waterford is a Town in Saratoga County, New York, USA. The population was 8515 at the 2000 census 5 feet (25. 5 m)||48. 9 feet (14. 9 m)||34. 6 feet (10. 5 m)||E4, 0. 62 miles (1. 00 km)|
|4||Waterford||118. Waterford is a Town in Saratoga County, New York, USA. The population was 8515 at the 2000 census 1 feet (36. 0 m)||83. 5 feet (25. 5 m)||34. 6 feet (10. 5 m)||E5, 0. 16 miles (0. 26 km)|
|5||Waterford||151. Waterford is a Town in Saratoga County, New York, USA. The population was 8515 at the 2000 census 4 feet (46. 1 m)||118. 1 feet (36. 0 m)||33. 3 feet (10. 1 m)||E6, 0. 28 miles (0. 45 km)|
|6||Waterford||184. Waterford is a Town in Saratoga County, New York, USA. The population was 8515 at the 2000 census 4 feet (56. 2 m)||151. 4 feet (46. 1 m)||33 feet (10 m)||E7, 10. 83 miles (17. 43 km)|
|7||Niskayuna||211. Niskayuna is a Town in Schenectady County, New York, USA. The population was 20295 at the 2000 census 4 feet (64. 4 m)||184. 4 feet (56. 2 m)||27 feet (8. 2 m)||E8, 10. 83 miles (17. 43 km)|
|8||Glenville||225. Glenville is a Town in Schenectady County, New York, United States. 4 feet (68. 7 m)||211. 4 feet (64. 4 m)||14 feet (4. 3 m)||E9, 4. 82 miles (7. 76 km)|
|9||Rotterdam||240. Rotterdam is a Town in Schenectady County, New York, United States. 4 feet (73. 3 m)||225. 4 feet (68. 7 m)||15 feet (4. 6 m)||E10, 6. 16 miles (9. 91 km)|
|10||Cranesville||255. 4 feet (77. 8 m)||240. 4 feet (73. 3 m)||15 feet (4. 6 m)||E11, 4. 05 miles (6. 52 km)|
|11||Amsterdam||267. The Erie Canal is a popular canal in New York state from the Hudson River to Lake Erie, approximately 360 miles connecting the Great Lakes Amsterdam New York is the name of two locations in Montgomery County New York Amsterdam (city New York Amsterdam (town New York 4 feet (81. 5 m)||255. 4 feet (77. 8 m)||12 feet (3. 7 m)||E12, 4. 57 miles (7. 35 km)|
|12||Tribes Hill||278. Tribes Hill is a hamlet (and Census-designated place) located in the Town of Mohawk in Montgomery County New York, United States. 4 feet (84. 9 m)||267. 4 feet (81. 5 m)||11 feet (3. 4 m)||E13, 9. 68 miles (15. 58 km)|
|13||Randall||286. 4 feet (87. 3 m)||278. 4 feet (84. 9 m)||8 feet (2. 4 m)||E14, 7. 9 miles (12. 7 km)|
|14||Canajoharie||294. Canajoharie New York may refer to Canajoharie (town New York Canajoharie (village New York 4 feet (89. 7 m)||286. 4 feet (87. 3 m)||8 feet (2. 4 m)||E15, data unavailable|
|15||Fort Plain||302. Fort Plain is a Village in Montgomery County, New York, United States. 4 feet (92. 2 m)||294. 4 feet (89. 7 m)||8 feet (2. 4 m)||E16, data unavailable|
|16||Mindenville||322. Minden is a Town in Montgomery County, New York, United States. 9 feet (98. 4 m)||302. 4 feet (92. 2 m)||20. 5 feet (6. 2 m)||E17, data unavailable|
|17||Little Falls||363. Little Falls New York may refer to either Little Falls (town New York, located in Herkimer County Little Falls (city New York, 4 feet (110. 8 m)||322. 9 feet (98. 4 m)||40. 5 feet (12. 3 m)||E18, data unavailable|
|18||Jacksonburg||383. 4 feet (116. 9 m)||363. 4 feet (110. 8 m)||20 feet (6. 1 m)||E19, data unavailable|
|19||Frankfort||404. Frankfort is a Town in Herkimer County, New York, United States. 4 feet (123. 3 m)||383. 4 feet (116. 9 m)||21 feet (6. 4 m)||E20, data unavailable|
|20||Careys Corners||420. Marcy is a Town in Oneida County, New York, United States. The population was 9469 at the 2000 census 4 feet (128. 1 m)||404. 4 feet (123. 3 m)||16 feet (4. 9 m)||E21, data unavailable|
|21||Rome||395. Rome is a City in Oneida County, New York, United States. The population was 34950 at the 2000 census. 4 feet (120. 5 m)||420. 4 feet (128. 1 m)||25 feet (7. 6 m)||E22, data unavailable|
|22||Rome||370. Rome is a City in Oneida County, New York, United States. The population was 34950 at the 2000 census. 1 feet (112. 8 m)||395. 4 feet (120. 5 m)||25. 3 feet (7. 7 m)||E23, data unavailable|
|23||Brewerton||363 feet (111 m)||370. Brewerton is a Census-designated place (CDP in the town of Cicero in Onondaga County and the town of Hastings in Oswego County 1 feet (112. 8 m)||7. 1 feet (2. 2 m)||E24, data unavailable|
|24||Baldwinsville||374 feet (114 m)||363 feet (111 m)||11 feet (3. Baldwinsville is a Village in Onondaga County, New York, United States. 4 m)||E25, 30. 75 miles (49. 49 km)|
|25||Mays Point||380 feet (120 m)||374 feet (114 m)||6 feet (1. 8 m)||E26, 5. 84 miles (9. 40 km)|
|26||Clyde||386 feet (118 m)||380 feet (120 m)||6 feet (1. Clyde is a Village in Wayne County, New York, United States. The population was 2269 at the 2000 census 8 m)||E27, 12. 06 miles (19. 41 km)|
|27||Lyons||398. Lyons is a Town in Wayne County, New York, USA. The population was 5831 at the 2000 census 5 feet (121. 5 m)||386 feet (118 m)||12. 5 feet (3. 8 m)||E28A, 1. 25 miles (2. 01 km)|
|28A||Lyons||418 feet (127 m)||398. Lyons is a Town in Wayne County, New York, USA. The population was 5831 at the 2000 census 5 feet (121. 5 m)||19. 5 feet (5. 9 m)||E28B, 3. 93 miles (6. 32 km)|
|28B||Newark||430 feet (130 m)||418 feet (127 m)||12 feet (3. Newark is a Village in Wayne County, New York, US, 30 miles (48 km east by south of 7 m)||E29, 9. 7 miles (15. 6 km)|
|29||Palmyra||446 feet (136 m)||430 feet (130 m)||16 feet (4. Palmyra is a Town in Wayne County, New York, USA. The population was 7672 at the 2000 census 9 m)||E30, 3 miles (4. 8 km)|
|30||Macedon||462. Macedon is a Town in Wayne County, New York, United States. The population was 8688 at the 2000 census 4 feet (140. 9 m)||446 feet (136 m)||16. 4 feet (5. 0 m)||E32, 16. 1 miles (25. 9 km)|
|32||Pittsford||487. Pittsford is a Town in Monroe County, New York, United States and is an affluent suburb of Rochester. 5 feet (148. 6 m)||462. 4 feet (140. 9 m)||25. 1 feet (7. 7 m)||E33, 1. 3 miles (2. 1 km)|
|33||Henrietta||512. Henrietta is a Town in Monroe County, New York, United States. 9 feet (156. 3 m)||487. 5 feet (148. 6 m)||25. 4 feet (7. 7 m)||E34/35, 64. 2 miles (103. 3 km)|
|34||Lockport||539. Lockport is a City in Niagara County, New York, United States. 5 feet (164. 4 m)||514. 9 feet (156. 9 m)||24. 6 feet (7. 5 m)||E35, 0 miles (0 km)|
|35||Lockport||564 feet (172 m)||539. Lockport is a City in Niagara County, New York, United States. 5 feet (164. 4 m)||24. 5 feet (7. 5 m)||Black Rock Lock in Niagara River, 26 miles (42 km)|