The Epistle to the Hebrews (abbr. The Gospel of Matthew (Gk Κατά Ματθαίον Ευαγγέλιον is one of the four Canonical gospels in the New Testament and is a Synoptic gospel Content Authorship The gospel itself is anonymous but as early as Papias in the early 2nd century a text was attributed to Mark, a cousin The Gospel of Luke (Gk Κατά Λουκάν Ευαγγέλιον) is a synoptic Gospel, and is the third and longest of the four canonical Gospels of the The Gospel of John (literally According to John; Greek, Κατὰ Ἰωάννην Kata Iōannēn) is the fourth Gospel in the canon The Acts of the Apostles is a book of the Bible, which now stands fifth in the New Testament. The Epistle of St Paul the Apostle to the Romans is one of the letters of the New Testament canon of the Christian Bible. The First Epistle to the Corinthians is a book of the Bible in the New Testament. The Second Epistle to the Corinthians is a book in the New Testament, written by Paul the Apostle. The Epistle to the Galatians is a book of the New Testament. It is a letter from Paul of Tarsus to a number of early Christian communities in the Roman province of Described by William Barclay as the "Queen of the Epistles" the Epistle to the Ephesians is one of the books of the Bible in the New The Epistle to the Philippians (or simply Philippians) is a Book included in the New Testament of the Bible. The Epistle to the Colossians is a book of the Bible New Testament. The First Epistle to the Thessalonians, also known as the First Letter to the Thessalonians, is a book from the New Testament of the Christian Bible The Second Epistle to the Thessalonians, also known as the Second Letter to the Thessalonians, is a book from the New Testament of the Christian Bible The First Epistle to Timothy is one of three letters in New Testament of the Bible often grouped together as the Pastoral Epistles. The Second Epistle to Timothy is one of the three Pastoral Epistles, traditionally attributed to Saint Paul, and is part of the canonical New Testament The Epistle to Titus is one of the Pastoral Epistles. The Epistle to Titus is a book of the canonic New Testament, one of the The Epistle to Philemon is a prison letter from Paul of Tarsus to Philemon, a leader in the Colossian church. The Epistle of James is a book in the Christian New Testament. The First Epistle of Peter is a book of the New Testament. It has traditionally been held to have been written by Saint Peter the apostle during his time as Bishop The Second Epistle of Peter is a book of the New Testament of the Bible, traditionally ascribed to Saint Peter, but in modern times widely regarded as The First Epistle of John is a book of the New Testament, and is the fourth catholic or "general" Epistles. The Second Epistle of John (often simply called 2nd John or II John) is a book in the Christian Holy Scriptures, the authorship of The New Testament Third Epistle of John (often referred to as 3 John) written in the form of an Epistle, is the 64th book of the Bible. The brief Epistle of Jude is the penultimate book in the Christian New Testament canon. The Book of Revelation, also called Revelation to John, Apocalypse of John ( pronounced, from the Ἀποκάλυψις Ἰωάννου Heb for citations) is one of the books in the New Testament. A citation is a reference to a source (not always the original source published or unpublished(citation needed Though traditionally credited to the Apostle Paul, the letter is anonymous. Paul the apostle (שאול התרסי Šaʾul HaTarsi, meaning " Saul of Tarsus " Σαούλ Saul and Σαῦλος Saulos and Most modern scholars, both conservative and critical, believe its author was not Paul.
The letter has carried its traditional title since Tertullian described it as Barnabae titulus ad Hebraeos in De Pudicitia chapter 20 ("Barnabas's Letter to the Hebrews. Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus, Anglicised as Tertullian, (ca ")
The author of Hebrews is not known. The Pauline epistles are the thirteen books in the New Testament traditionally attributed to and explicitly ascribed to Paul of Tarsus. The text as it has been passed down to the present time is internally anonymous, though ancient title headings attribute it to the Apostle Paul. Tradition attributes the letter to Paul, but the style is notably different from the rest of Paul's epistles. Eusebius reports that the original letter had a Jewish audience and was written in Hebrew, and then later translated into Greek by Luke. Paul's speech in Antioch Acts 13:13-52 recorded by Luke has a strikingly similar style to Hebrews, and notably different from Paul's letters to gentile audiences.
However, even in antiquity doubts were raised about Paul's alleged authorship. The reasons for this controversy are fairly plain. For example, his letters always contain an introduction stating authorship, yet Hebrews does not.  Also, while much of its theology and teachings may be considered Pauline, it contains many other ideas which seem to have no such root or influence. Pauline Christianity is a term used to refer to a branch of Early Christianity associated with the beliefs and doctrines espoused by Paul the Apostle through Moreover, the writing style is substantially different from that of Paul's authentic epistles, a characteristic first noticed by Clement (c. Saint Clement of Alexandria (born Titus Flavius Clemens) (c150 - 211/216 was the first notable member of the Church of Alexandria, and one of its most 210). In Paul's letter to the Galatians, he forcefully defends his claim that he received his gospel directly from the resurrected Jesus himself. The major Resurrection appearances of Jesus are reported in the New Testament to have occurred after his death and burial and prior to his Ascension
Nevertheless, in the fourth century, the church largely agreed to include Hebrews as the fourteenth letter of Paul. Jerome and Augustine of Hippo were influential in affirming Paul's authorship, and the Church affirmed this authorship until the Reformation. Jerome (c 347 – September 30, 420) ( Latin: Eusebius Sophronius Hieronymus; Εὐσέβιος Σωφρόνιος Ἱερώνυμος
In general, the evidence against Pauline authorship is considered too solid for scholarly dispute. Donald Guthrie, in his New Testament Introduction (1976), commented that "most modern writers find more difficulty in imagining how this Epistle was ever attributed to Paul than in disposing of the theory. " Harold Attridge tells us that "it is certainly not a work of the apostle"; Daniel Wallace simply states, "the arguments against Pauline authorship, however, are conclusive. " As a result, few supporters of Pauline authorship remain.
In response to the doubts raised about Paul's involvement, other possible authors were suggested as early as the third century CE. Origen (c. Origen ( Greek: Ōrigénēs, or Origen Adamantius, ca 185–ca 240) suggested that either Luke the Evangelist or Clement of Rome might be the author. Luke the Evangelist ( Hebrew: לוּקָֻא Greek: Loukás) was an early Christian leader who is said by tradition to be the author of Saint  Tertullian proposed Paul's companion Barnabas. Saint Barnabas (1st century born Joseph was an early Christian convert one of the earliest disciples in Jerusalem. Barnabas, to whom other noncanonical works are attributed (such as Epistle of Barnabas), was close to Paul in his ministry, and exhibited skill with midrash of Hebrew Scripture; the other works attributed to him bolster the case for his authorship of Hebrews with similar style, voice, and skill. The Epistle of Barnabas is a Greek treatise with some features of an Epistle containing twenty-one chapters preserved complete in the 4th century Codex Midrash ( Hebrew: מדרש plural midrashim, lit "to repeat" is a Hebrew term referring to the not exact but comparative ( homiletic
Martin Luther proposed Apollos, described as an Alexandrian and "a learned man" (Acts 18:24), popular in Corinth (1 Corinthians 1:12), and adept at using the scriptures and arguing for Christianity while "refuting the Jews" (Acts 18:27–28). Martin Luther (November 10 1483 February 18 1546 was a German Monk, theologian, university professor Father of Protestantism, and church reformer
In more recent times, some scholars have advanced a case for the authorship of Hebrews belonging to Priscilla. Priscilla and Aquila were a First Century Jewish Christian couple described in the New Testament Perhaps the most thoroughly presented argument that Priscilla authored Hebrews came from Berlin Prof. Adolph Von Harnack in 1900. Starr's book contains Harnack's summary of his research:
Harnack gives four reasons for his conclusion that Priscilla wrote the Letter to the Hebrews:
Nevertheless, other commentators have observed that the self-reference in Hebrews 11:32 employs a masculine participle, implying that Priscilla could not have been the author; or else she was masquerading as a male in order to gain credibility. 
As Richard Heard notes, in his Introduction to the New Testament, "modern critics have confirmed that the epistle cannot be attributed to Paul and have for the most part agreed with Origen’s judgement, ‘But as to who wrote the epistle, God knows the truth. ’"
Hebrews was written to a specific audience facing very specific circumstances. We can discern various facts about the recipients of Hebrews through a careful mirror reading of the letter:
Traditional scholars have argued the letter's audience was Jewish Christians, as early as the end of the second century (hence its title, "The Epistle to the Hebrews"). Jewish Christians (sometimes called also "Hebrew Christians" or "Christian Jews") is a term which can have two meanings a historical one and a However, Hebrews is part of an internal New Testament debate between the extreme Judaizers (who argued that non-Jews must convert to Judaism before they can receive the Holy Spirit of Jesus's Jewish covenant) versus the extreme lawless ones (who argued that Jews must reject God's commandments and that God's eternal Torah was no longer in effect). Judaizers, see also WiktionaryJudaization, generally describes those who inculcate to Christians the adherence to Torah Laws, which is normally considered A conversion to Judaism (גיור giyur) is a formal act undertaken by a non-Jewish person who wishes to be recognised as a full member of the Jewish community For the term in politics describing socialist movements see Autonomism Antinomianism (from the Greek ἀντί, "against" term " Torah " ( Hebrew: תּוֹרָה "teaching" or "instruction" sometimes translated as "Law" most commonly refers to Peter and Paul represent the moderates of each faction, respectively. The Epistle emphasizes non-Jewish followers of Jesus do not need to convert to Judaism to share in all of God's promises to Jews. Liberal American theologian Edgar Goodspeed notes, "But the writer's Judaism is not actual and objective, but literary and academic, manifestly gained from the reading of the Septuagint Greek version of the Jewish scriptures, and his polished Greek style would be a strange vehicle for a message to Aramaic-speaking Jews or Christians of Jewish blood. The Septuagint (ˈsɛptuədʒɪnt or simply " LXX " is the Koine Greek version of the Hebrew Bible, translated in stages between the Most scholars believe that historical '''Jesus''' primarily spoke Aramaic, with some Hebrew and Greek, although there "
Hebrews is often erroneously named as one of the general (or catholic) epistles. General epistles (also called Catholic Epistles) are books in the New Testament in the form of letters But since it was written to a specific group of Jewish-Christians, it is not technically a general epistle.
Although the author is unknown, Hebrews has been dated to shortly after the Pauline epistles were collected and began to circulate, c. The Pauline epistles, Epistles of Paul, or Letters of Paul, are the thirteen New Testament books which have the name Paul (Παῦλος as the first 95 CE. Windows 95 is listed under numbers -->Year 95 was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Julian calendar This date is dependent on a traditional date for I Clement of 96 CE. The Epistles of Clement ( 1 Clement and 2 Clement) are two letters ascribed to Saint Clement, an Apostolic Father, and the fourth Pope Year 96 was a Leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Julian calendar. Harold W. Attridge claims only a general dating is possible and places the letter as being written between 60 CE and 100 CE. Harold W Attridge (born November 1946 has been the Dean of the Yale Divinity School since 2002 Year 60 was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Julian calendar.
Some, such as John A.T. Robinson, place the entire New Testament at a much earlier date. The Right Reverend Dr John Arthur Thomas Robinson (1919 in Canterbury England &ndash December 5, 1983) was a New Testament scholar author Robinson argues, for example, that there is no textual evidence that the New Testament authors had knowledge of the destruction of the Second Temple by the Romans in 70 CE. The Second Temple (בית המקדש romanized 'Beit HaMikdash' meaning 'Holy House' was the reconstructed Temple in Jerusalem which stood between 516 BCE and 70 CE Year 70 was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Julian calendar. The use of tabernacle terminology in Hebrews has been used to date the epistle before the destruction of the temple, the idea being that knowing about the destruction of both Jerusalem and the temple would have influenced the development of his overall argument to include such evidence. The Siege of Jerusalem in the year 70 AD It was a decisive event in the First Jewish-Roman War, followed by the fall of Masada in 73
Most scholars today believe the document was written to prevent apostasy. (Apostasy is the abandonment of a political or religious belief. ) Some have interpreted apostasy to mean a number of different things, such as a group of Christians in one sect leaving for another more conservative sect, one in which the author disapproves. Some have seen apostasy as a move from the Christian assembly to pagan ritual. In light of a possibly Jewish-Christian audience, the apostasy in this sense may be in regard to Jewish-Christians leaving the Christian assembly to return to the synagogue. In light of Pauline doctrine, the epistle dissuades non-Jewish Christians from feeling a need to convert to Judaism. Therefore the author writes, "Let us hold fast to our confession" (4:14).
The Bible's Epistle to the Hebrews affirms special creation. Special creation describes a mechanism for producing life on earth that is promoted by "special creationists" following an agenda known as "special creationism" It affirms that God by His Son, Jesus Christ, made the worlds. " God. . . hath in these last days spoken unto us by his Son. . . by whom also he made the worlds" (1:1-2). The epistle also states that the worlds themselves do not provide the evidence of how God formed them. "Through faith we understand that the worlds were framed by the Word of God, so that things which are seen were not made of things which do appear" ((Hebrews 11:3).
According to the Catholic Encyclopedia: Epistle to the Hebrews:
|“||. . . the Epistle opens with the solemn announcement of the superiority of the New Testament Revelation by the Son over Old Testament Revelation by the prophets (Hebrews 1:1-4). In Western Christianity, the Old Testament refers to the books that form the first of the two-part Christian Biblical canon. It then proves and explains from the Scriptures the superiority of this New Covenant over the Old by the comparison of the Son with the angels as mediators of the Old Covenant (1:5-2:18), with Moses and Josue as the founders of the Old Covenant (3:1-4:16), and, finally, by opposing the high-priesthood of Christ after the order of Melchisedech to the Levitical priesthood after the order of Aaron (5:1-10:18). The term New Covenant (; Greek:, diathēkē kainē is used in the Bible (both in the Hebrew Bible and the Greek New Testament) to refer An angel is a Spiritual Supernatural being found in many Religions Although the nature of angels and the tasks given to them vary from tradition to tradition In Christian theology, the Mosaic Covenant or Sinaitic Covenant refers to the relationship between Yahweh and the Jews and B'nei Moses ( Latin: Moyses,; Greek: grc Mωυσής in both the Septuagint and the New Testament; Arabic: ar موسىٰ Joshua, Jehoshuah, or Yehoshua ( 'יְהוֹשֻׁעַ, Tiberian: jə Melchizedek is an enigmatic figure twice mentioned in the Hebrew Tanakh and in the Christian Old Testament. In the Jewish tradition a Levite ( is a member of the Hebrew tribe of Levi. This article is about Aaron the Levite in the Hebrew Bible, the Qu'ran, and other sources||”|
Hebrews is a very consciously "literary" document. The purity of its Greek was noted by Clement of Alexandria, according to Eusebius (Historia Eccl. Saint Clement of Alexandria (born Titus Flavius Clemens) (c150 - 211/216 was the first notable member of the Church of Alexandria, and one of its most , VI, xiv), and Origen asserted that every competent judge must recognize a great difference between this epistle and Paul's (Eusebius, VI, xxv). Origen ( Greek: Ōrigénēs, or Origen Adamantius, ca 185–ca
This letter consists of two strands: an expositional or doctrinal strand (1:1–14; 2:5–18; 5:1–14; 6:13–9:28; 13:18–25), and a hortatory or ethical strand which punctuates the exposition parenthetically at key points as warnings to the readers (2:1–4; 3:1–4:16; 6:1–12; 10:1–13:17).
Hebrews does not fit the form of a traditional Hellenistic epistle, lacking a proper prescript. This article focuses on the cultural aspects of the Hellenistic age for the historical aspects see Hellenistic period. An epistle (pronounced) ( Greek επιστολη epistolē "letter" is a writing directed or sent to a person or group of persons usually a letter Modern scholars generally believe this book was originally a sermon or homily, although possibly modified after it was delivered to include the travel plans, greetings and closing (13:20-25). 
Hebrews contains many references to the Old Testament—specifically to its Septuagint text. In Western Christianity, the Old Testament refers to the books that form the first of the two-part Christian Biblical canon. The Septuagint (ˈsɛptuədʒɪnt or simply " LXX " is the Koine Greek version of the Hebrew Bible, translated in stages between the It has been regarded as a treatise supplementary to the Romans and Galatians, and as a kind of commentary on the book of Leviticus and Temple worship in general. The Epistle of St Paul the Apostle to the Romans is one of the letters of the New Testament canon of the Christian Bible. The Epistle to the Galatians is a book of the New Testament. It is a letter from Paul of Tarsus to a number of early Christian communities in the Roman province of Leviticus (from Greek Λευιτικός, "relating to the Levites " Etymology The Hebrew name given in Scripture for the building is Beit HaMikdash or "The Holy House" and only the Temple in Jerusalem is referred to by this name
Online translations of the Epistle to the Hebrews:
Epistle to the Hebrews
Books of the Bible