For other meanings of epic, see Epic
Tablet containing a fragment of the epic Gilgamesh
An epic is a lengthy, revered narrative poem, ordinarily concerning a serious subject containing details of heroic deeds and events significant to a culture or nation. Literature is the Art of written works Literally translated the word means "acquaintance with letters" (from Latin littera letter As a Literary genre of High culture, romance or chivalric romance refers to a style of heroic Prose and verse Narrative A novel (from Italian novella, Spanish novela, French nouvelle for "new" "news" or "short story Comedy (from the Greek κωμωδίαkomodia has a popular meaning (any discourse generally intended to amuse especially in Television, Film, and Drama is the specific mode of Fiction represented in Performance. Satire is often strictly defined as a literary genre or form; although in practice it is also found in the graphic and Performing arts In satire human A performance, in Performing arts, generally comprises an event in which one group of people (the performer or performers behave in a particular way for another group of people A Book is a set or collection of written printed illustrated or blank sheets made of Paper, Parchment, or other material usually fastened together For the Wikipedia guideline regarding editing articles see WikipediaManual of Style. The following is a list of literary terms; that is those words used in discussion classification criticism and analysis of Literature. The history of literature is the historical development of Writings in Prose or Poetry which attempt to provide Entertainment, enlightenment The History of literature in the Modern period in Europe begins with the Age of Enlightenment and the conclusion of the Baroque period in the 18th century This is a list of lists of Books in Wikipedia General lists List of anonymously published works List of books The following are lists of Writers: By name A &ndash B &ndash Y &ndash Z By type of writing This is a list of literary awards from around the world Worldwide in scope Nobel Prize in Literature Neustadt International Prize This is a list of awards that are or have been given out to writers of Poetry, either for a specific poem collection of poems or body of work Literary criticism is the study discussion evaluation and interpretation of Literature. Literary theory in a strict sense is the systematic study of the nature of Literature and of the methods for analyzing literature A literary magazine is a Periodical devoted to Literature in a broad sense Narrative poetry is Poetry that tells a story The poems may be short or long and the story it relates to may be simple or complex  A work need not be written to qualify as an epic, although even the works of such great poets as Homer, Dante Alighieri, and John Milton would be unlikely to have survived without being written down. Homer ( Ancient Greek:, Homēros) is a legendary ancient Greek epic Poet, traditionally said to be the author of the epic poems the John Milton ( 9 December, 1608 – 8 November, 1674) was an English Poet, Prose Polemicist and The first epics are known as primary, or original, epics. Epics that attempt to imitate these like Virgil's The Aeneid and John Milton's Paradise Lost are known as literary, or secondary, epics. Publius Vergilius Maro ( October 15, 70 BCE &ndash September 21, 19 BCE later called Virgilius, and known in English as Virgil or John Milton ( 9 December, 1608 – 8 November, 1674) was an English Poet, Prose Polemicist and  Another word for epic poetry is epyllion (plural: epyllia) which is a brief narrative poem with a romantic or mythological theme. A narrative or story is a construct created in a suitable format (written spoken poetry prose images song Theater, or Dance) that describes a sequence of Romanticism is a complex artistic literary and intellectual movement that originated in the second half of the 18th century in Western Europe, and gained strength during the The word mythology (from the Greek grc μυθολογία mythología, meaning "a story-telling a legendary lore" A theme, from Old French tesme, is a broad idea in a story or literary work or a message or lesson conveyed by a written text The term, which means 'little epic', came in use in the Nineteenth century. It refers primarily to the type of erotic and mythological long elegy of which Ovid remains the master; to a lesser degree, the term includes some poems of the English Renaissance, particularly those influenced by Ovid. Publius Ovidius Naso ( March 20, 43 BC – 17 AD was a Roman poet known to the English -speaking world as Ovid who wrote on many topics including The English Renaissance was a cultural and artistic movement in England dating from the early 16th century to the early 17th century One suggested example of classical epyllion may be seen in the story of Nisus and Euryalus in Book IX of The Aeneid. Classical antiquity (also the classical era or classical period) is a broad term for a long period of cultural History centered on the Mediterranean For the group of nine Ancient Egyptian deities see Ennead. The Aeneid (əˈniːɪd in
Oral epics or world folk epics
The first epics were products of preliterate societies and oral poetic traditions. traditional definition of literacy is considered to be the ability to read and write or the ability to use Language to read, write, listen, A society is a Population of Humans characterized by patterns of relationships between individuals that share a distinctive Culture and Institutions Oral history can be defined as the recording preservation and interpretation of historical information, based on the personal experiences and opinions of the speaker In these traditions, poetry is transmitted to the audience and from performer to performer by purely oral means.
Early twentieth-century studies of living oral epic traditions in the Balkans by Milman Parry and Albert Lord demonstrated the paratactic model used for composing these poems. Milman Parry ( 1902 - December 3[[ 935]] was a scholar of Epic poetry and the founder of the discipline of Oral tradition. Albert Bates Lord (1912-1991 was a Professor of Slavic and Comparative Literature at Harvard University who after the untimely death of Milman Parry, carried on Parataxis (from Greek for 'act of placing side by side' fr para, beside + tassein, to arrange contrasted to Syntaxis) is a Literary technique What they demonstrated was that oral epics tend to be constructed in short episodes, each of equal status, interest and importance. This facilitates memorization, as the poet is recalling each episode in turn and using the completed episodes to recreate the entire epic as he performs it.
Parry and Lord also showed that the most likely source for written texts of the epics of Homer was dictation from an oral performance. Homer ( Ancient Greek:, Homēros) is a legendary ancient Greek epic Poet, traditionally said to be the author of the epic poems the
Epic: a long narrative poem in elevated stature presenting characters of high position in adventures forming an organic whole through their relation to a central heroic figure and through their development of episodes important to the history of a nation or race.
Epics have 6 main characteristics:
- The hero is of imposing stature, of national or international importance, and of great historical or legendary significance.
- The setting is vast, covering many nations, the world, or the universe.
- The action consists of deeds of great valor or requiring superhuman courage.
- Supernatural forces—gods, angels, demons—insert themselves in the action.
- A style of sustained elevation is used.
- The poet retains a measure of objectivity.
The hero generally participates in a cyclical journey or quest, faces adversaries that try to defeat him in his journey, and returns home significantly transformed by his journey. The epic hero illustrates traits, performs deeds, and exemplifies certain morals that are valued by the society from which the epic originates. Many epic heroes are recurring characters in the legends of their native culture. For the daytime equivalent see Recurring status. A recurring character is a Fictional character, usually in a Prime time
Conventions of Epics:
- Praepositio: Opens by stating the theme or cause of the epic. This may take the form of a purpose (as in Milton, who proposed "to justify the ways of God to men"); of a question (as in the Iliad, where Homer asks the Muse which god it was who caused the war); or of a situation (as in the Song of Roland, with Charlemagne in Spain). The Iliad ( Greek: Ἰλιάς (Ancient Ιλιάδα (Modern is together with the Odyssey, one of two ancient Homer ( Ancient Greek:, Homēros) is a legendary ancient Greek epic Poet, traditionally said to be the author of the epic poems the In Greek mythology, the Trojan War was waged against the city of Troy by the Achaeans after Paris of Troy stole Helen from her The Song of Roland (La Chanson de Roland is the oldest remaining major work of French literature. Charlemagne (ˈʃɑrlɨmeɪn Carolus Magnus or Karolus Magnus meaning Charles the Great) (747 – 28 January 814 was King of the Franks from 768 to his
- Invocation: Writer invokes a Muse, one of the nine daughters of Zeus. An invocation (from the Latin verb invocare "to call on invoke" may take the form of Supplication or Prayer In Greek mythology, the Muses ( Ancient Greek, hai moũsai: perhaps from the Proto-Indo-European root * men- "think" are Zeus (zjuːs in Greek: nominative: Zeús /zdeús/ genitive: Diós; Modern Greek /'zefs/ in Greek mythology The poet prays to the Muses to provide him with divine inspiration to tell the story of a great hero. (This convention is obviously restricted to cultures which were influenced by Classical culture: the Epic of Gilgamesh, for example, or the Bhagavata Purana would obviously not contain this element)
- In medias res: narrative opens "in the middle of things", with the hero at his lowest point. The Epic of Gilgamesh is an epic poem from Ancient Mesopotamia and is among the earliest known works of literary fiction. The Bhagavata Purana (also known as Śrīmad Bhāgavatam, or simply Bhāgavatam) is one of the Puranic texts of Hindu literature In medias res, also medias in res ( Latin for "into the middle of things" is a literary and artistic technique where the Narrative Usually flashbacks show earlier portions of the story.
- Enumeratio: Catalogues and genealogies are given. Enumeratio is the figure of amplification in which a subject is divided detailing parts causes effects or consequences to make a point more forcibly These long lists of objects, places, and people place the finite action of the epic within a broader, universal context. Often, the poet is also paying homage to the ancestors of audience members.
- Epithet: Heavy use of repetition or stock phrases: e. An epithet (from Greek ἐπίθετον - epitheton, neut of ἐπίθετος - epithetos, "attributed added" is a g. , Homer's "rosy-fingered dawn" and "wine-dark sea. A characteristic of Homer 's style is the use of recurring Epithets as in "rosy-fingered dawn" or "swift-footed Achilles "
Literate societies have often copied the epic format; the earliest European examples of which the text survives are the Argonautica of Apollonius of Rhodes and Virgil's Aeneid, which follow both the style and subject matter of Homer. The Argonautica ( Greek:) is a Greek Epic poem written by Apollonius Rhodius in the 3rd century BCE. For the group of nine Ancient Egyptian deities see Ennead. The Aeneid (əˈniːɪd in Homer ( Ancient Greek:, Homēros) is a legendary ancient Greek epic Poet, traditionally said to be the author of the epic poems the Other obvious examples are Nonnus' Dionysiaca, Tulsidas' Sri Ramacharit Manas. Theophanes Nonnus was a Byzantine physician For the saint of this name see Saint Nonnus. Gosvāmī Tulsīdās (1532-1623 Devanāgarī: तुलसीदास may be written as Tulasī Dāsa depending on if the name is transcribed Śrī Rāmacaritamānas ( Devanāgarī: hi श्री राम चरित मानस ( Hindi / Avadhi) is an Epic poem composed by the
Notable epic poems
- This list can be compared with two others, national epic and list of world folk-epics. A national epic is an epic poem or similar work which seeks or is believed to capture and express the essence or spirit of a particular Nation; not necessarily a World folk-epics are those epics which are not just Literary Masterpieces but also an integral part of the Weltanschauung of a people 
Ancient epics (to 500)
- 20th to 18th century BC:
- 8th to 6th century BC:
- Enuma Elish (Babylonian mythology)
- Iliad, ascribed to Homer (Greek mythology)
- Odyssey, ascribed to Homer (Greek mythology)
- Works and Days, ascribed to Hesiod (Greek mythology)
- Jaya, ascribed to Vyasa (Hindu mythology)
- Lost Greek epics ascribed to the Cyclic poets:
- Epic Cycle including Cypria, Aethiopis, Little Iliad, Sack of Troy, Return from Troy, Telegony
- Theban Cycle including Oedipodea, Thebaid, Epigoni (epic), Alcmeonis
- Others: Titanomachy, Heracleia, Capture of Oechalia, Naupactia, Phocais, Minyas, Danais'
- 7th to 5th century BC:
- 5th to 4th century BC:
- 3rd century BC:
- 2nd century BC:
- 1st century BC:
- 1st century AD:
- 2nd century:
- 2nd to 5th century:
- 3rd to 4th century:
- 4th century:
- 5th century:
Medieval epics (500-1500)
- 8th to 10th century:
- 9th century:
- 10th century:
- 11th century:
- 12th century:
- 13th century:
- 14th century:
- Cursor Mundi by an anonymous cleric (c. The Epic of Gilgamesh is an epic poem from Ancient Mesopotamia and is among the earliest known works of literary fiction. Mesopotamian mythology is the collective name given to Sumerian Akkadian Assyrian and Babylonian mythologies from the land between the Tigris The 18th century BCE Akkadian Atra-Hasis epic, named after its human hero The akk Enûma Eliš is the Babylonian Creation myth (named for its Incipit) Babylonian mythology is a set of stories depicting the activities of Babylonian deities, Heroes and Mythological creatures While these stories The Iliad ( Greek: Ἰλιάς (Ancient Ιλιάδα (Modern is together with the Odyssey, one of two ancient Homer ( Ancient Greek:, Homēros) is a legendary ancient Greek epic Poet, traditionally said to be the author of the epic poems the Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the ancient Greeks concerning their gods and Heroes the nature of the world and the origins and significance The Odyssey ( Greek: Ὀδύσσεια or Odússeia) is one of two major ancient Greek epic poems attributed to Homer. Works and Days (in Ancient Greek / Erga kaí Hemérai, which sometimes goes by the Latin name Opera et Dies, as in the OCT) Hesiod ( Greek: Hesiodos) was an early Greek Poet and Rhapsode, who presumably lived around 700 BCE Vyāsa ( Devanāgarī: व्यास is a central and revered figure in the majority of Hindu traditions Hindu mythology is the large body of Mythology related to Hinduism, notably as contained in Sanskrit literature, such as the Sanskrit epics and Cyclic Poets is a shorthand term for the early Greek epic poets, approximate contemporaries of Homer. The Epic Cycle (Επικός Κύκλος was a collection of Ancient Greek Epic poems that related the story of the Trojan War, which includes the The Cypria ( Ancient Greek: Kypria; Latin form Cypria) is an epic of ancient Greek literature that was quite The Little Iliad ( Greek:, Ilias mikra; Latin: Ilias parva The Iliou persis ( Greek:; also known as Iliupersis, esp in Latin; English: Sack of Ilium) is a lost epic of ancient The Nostoi (Νόστοι also known as Nosti in Latin, Returns in English) is a lost epic of ancient Greek literature. The Telegony ( Greek:, Tēlegoneia; Latin: Telegonia) is a lost Ancient Greek epic poem about Telegonus The Theban Cycle (Θηβαϊκὸς Κύκλος is a collection of four lost epics of ancient Greek literature which related the mythical history of the Boeotian The Thebaid (Θηβαΐδα is an Ancient Greek Epic poem of uncertain authorship (see Cyclic poets) sometimes attributed by early writers to Homer Epigoni ( Greek: Επίγονοι Epigonoi "The Progeny" was an early Greek epic a sequel to the Thebaid and therefore Alcmeonis ( Greek: Ἀλκμεωνίς Alkmeonis or Alkmaionis) is the title of a lost early Greek epic which is considered to have Titanomachy (epic poem In Greek mythology, the Titanomachy, or War of the Titans (Τιτανομαχία was the ten-year series of battles fought between The Naupactia ( Greek:, Naupaktia) is a lost epic poem of ancient Greek literature. Minyas (Μινυάς was the title of an early Greek epic poem probably dating to the sixth century BC, which is now lost and whose author is unknown Vaisampayana or Vaiśampayana a character in the Mahabharata, one of the two major Sanskrit Epics of Ancient India. Vyāsa ( Devanāgarī: व्यास is a central and revered figure in the majority of Hindu traditions The Rāmāyaṇa ( Devanāgarī: sa रामायण is an ancient Sanskrit epic attributed to the Hindu sage ( Maharishi) Valmiki Valmiki ( Sanskrit: वाल्मीकि vālmīki) (ca 400 BCE northern India is celebrated as the poet harbinger in Sanskrit literature Aristeas was a semi- Legendary Greek Poet and miracle-worker, a native of Proconnesus in Asia Minor, active ca The Book of Job ( איוב) is one of the books of the Hebrew Bible. The Argonautica ( Greek:) is a Greek Epic poem written by Apollonius Rhodius in the 3rd century BCE. Quintus Ennius (239 - 169 BC was a writer during the period of the Roman Republic, and is often considered the father of Roman Poetry. For the group of nine Ancient Egyptian deities see Ennead. The Aeneid (əˈniːɪd in Publius Vergilius Maro ( October 15, 70 BCE &ndash September 21, 19 BCE later called Virgilius, and known in English as Virgil or The Metamorphoses by the Roman poet Ovid is a narrative poem Publius Ovidius Naso ( March 20, 43 BC – 17 AD was a Roman poet known to the English -speaking world as Ovid who wrote on many topics including Pharsalia was also an ancient district in Greece in which Pharsalus was located The Roman Republic was the phase of the ancient Roman civilization characterized by a Republican form of government a period which began with the overthrow of the Marcus Annaeus Lucanus ( November 3, 39 AD – April 30, 65 AD better known in English as Lucan, was a Roman The Second Punic War (referred to as "The War Against Hannibal" by the Romans lasted from 218 to 201 BC and involved combatants in the western Silius Italicus, in full Tiberius Catius Silius Italicus (25 or 26 - 101 was a Latin epic Poet. The Argonautica ( Greek:) is a Greek Epic poem written by Apollonius Rhodius in the 3rd century BCE. Gaius Valerius Flaccus (died ca AD 90 was a Roman Poet who flourished in the " Silver Age " under the emperors Vespasian and Titus The Thebaid is an Epic poem composed by Statius in Latin during the silver age of Latin poetry in the late first century AD Publius Papinius Statius (ca 45-96 was a Roman Poet of the Silver Age of Latin literature, born in Naples, Italy. Buddhacarita ("Acts of the Buddha" more accurately Buddhacaritaṃ, Devanagari बुद्दचरितं is an epic poem in Aśvaghoṣa (? 80 -? 150 CE) ( Devanagari: अश्वघोष was an Indian Philosopher - Poet, born in Saketa Indian epic poetry is the Epic poetry written in the Indian subcontinent. The Five Great Epics of Tamil Literature are Silappatikaram, Manimegalai, Civaka Cintamani, Valayaapathi Silappatikaram ( Tamil: சிலப்பதிகாரம்; siləppəd̪iɡɑːrəm is one of the five great epics of ancient Tamil Literature Ilango Adigal (இளங்கோ அடிகள் was a Tamil poet who was instrumental in the creation of Silappathikaram, one of the five great epics of Manimekalai ( மணிமேகலை) written by Seethalai Saathanar is one of the masterpieces of Tamil literature and is considered as one of the Civaka-cintamani (transliterated with innumerable variations is a classical Tamil language epic poem Tirutakkatevar was a Tamil poet who wrote Jivaka-chintamani, one of the five greatest epics of Tamil literature ( Manimegalai Silapadhigaaram, Valayaapathi Kundalakesi ( Tamil: குண்டலகேசி) is a fragmentary Tamil epic. Buddhism is a family of beliefs and practices Jainism, traditionally known as Jain Dharma / Shraman Dharma (जैन धर्म is an ancient religion of India. The Posthomerica is an epic poem by Quintus of Smyrna, probably written in the latter half of the 4th century, and telling the story of the period between Quintus Smyrnaeus (or Quintus of Smyrna, also known as Kointos of Smyrna) ( Κόιντος Σμυρναίος) was a Greek epic Gaius Vettius Aquilinus Juvencus ( GAIVS·VETTIVS·AQVILINVS·IVVENCVS; Juvenco known as Juvencus or Juvenk, was a Spanish Kumarasambhava or Kumaarasambhavam is an epic poem written by the Hindu poet Kalidas. "Kalidasa" redirects here For the true bug Genus, see Kalidasa (insect. Indian epic poetry is the Epic poetry written in the Indian subcontinent. Raghuvamsa is believed to be a lineage of warrior kings tracing its ancestry to Surya. Theophanes Nonnus was a Byzantine physician For the saint of this name see Saint Nonnus. Theophanes Nonnus was a Byzantine physician For the saint of this name see Saint Nonnus. Beowulf is an Old English Heroic epic poem of anonymous authorship dating as recorded in the Nowell Codex manuscript from between Waldere or Waldhere is the conventional title given to two Old English fragments from a lost Epic poem, discovered in 1860 by E David of Sasun (or David of Sassoun) ( Armenian: Սասունցի Դավիթ /Sasuntsi Davit/ is an Armenian epic hero who drove Arab invaders The Armenian language (hy հայերեն լեզու hajɛɹɛn lɛzu —, conventional short form) is an Indo-European language spoken by the Armenian The Bhagavata Purana (also known as Śrīmad Bhāgavatam, or simply Bhāgavatam) is one of the Puranic texts of Hindu literature Sanskrit (sa संस्कृता वाक् saṃskṛtā vāk, for short sa संस्कृतम् saṃskṛtam) is a historical Shāhnāmé, or Shāhnāma ((alternative spellings are Shahnama Shahnameh Shahname Shah-Nama, etc By Persian Mythology is meant the myths and sacred narratives of the culturally and linguistically related group of ancient peoples who inhabited the Iranian Plateau The Persian Empire was a series of Iranian empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the original Persian homeland and beyond in Western Asia The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Dynasty or Sassanian Dynasty (ساسانیان) is the name used for the third Iranian dynasty and the second Persian empire Waltharius, a Latin poem founded on German popular tradition relates the exploits of the west Gothic hero Walter of Aquitaine. Walter of Aquitaine is a legendary king of the Visigoths. He figures in several epic poems and narratives in medieval languages Waldere The Battle of Maldon took place on 10 August 991 near Maldon beside the River Blackwater in Essex England, during the reign of The Poetic Edda is a collection of Old Norse poems primarily preserved in the Icelandic mediaeval Manuscript Codex Regius. Norse mythology comprises the indigenous pre-Christian religion, beliefs and Legends of the Scandinavian peoples including those who settled on Iceland The Prose Edda, also known as the Younger Edda, Snorri's Edda ( Snorra Edda) or simply Edda, is an Ruodlieb is a romance in Latin verse by an unknown German Poet who flourished about 1030. Digenis Acritis (Διγενῆς Ἀκρίτης) known in Folksongs as Διγενῆς Ἀκρίτας ( is the most famous of the Acritic Songs. The Song of Roland (La Chanson de Roland is the oldest remaining major work of French literature. The Song of Roland (La Chanson de Roland is the oldest remaining major work of French literature. The Epic of King Gesar is the central epic poem of Tibet and much of Central Asia. Tibetan refers to a group of languages spoken primarily by Tibetan peoples who live across a wide area of eastern Central Asia bordering South Asia as well as by overseas The Epic of Manas is a traditional epic poem of the Kyrgyz people The Kyrgyz (also spelled Kirgiz, Kirghiz) are a Turkic Ethnic group found primarily in Kyrgyzstan. The Knight in the Panther's Skin ( Georgian: ვეფხისტყაოსანი transliterated as Vepkhist'q'aosani) is an Epic poem Shota Rustaveli (შოთა რუსთაველი 1160 - ? was a Georgian poet of the 12th century, and the greatest classic of Georgian secular literature Alexandreis sive Gesta Alexandri Magni ( The Alexandreid or The Deeds of Alexander the Great) is a medieval Latin epic poem by Walter of Walter of Châtillon ( Latin Gualterus de Castellione) was a 12th-century French writer and theologian who wrote in the Latin language Daretis Phrygii Ilias De bello Troiano ("The Iliad of Dares the Phrygian On the Trojan War" is an epic poem in Latin, written around 1183 by Antiocheis is an epic poem by Joseph of Exeter, written in Latin soon after the year 1190 when Joseph returned to England from the Third Joseph of Exeter was a Twelfth century Latin poet from Exeter, England. Carmen de Prodicione Guenonis ("Song of the Treachery of Ganelon " is an anonymous poem in medieval Latin written in the first half of the 12th century Architrenius is a medieval allegorical and satirical poem in Hexameters by Johannes de Hauvilla (also known as Johannes de Altavilla or Jean John of Hauville (also known as Johannes de Hauvilla, Johannes de Altavilla, John of Hauteville and Jean de Hauteville) was a moralist and satirical The Liber ad honorem Augusti sive de rebus Siculis ("Book in honour of the Emperor or on Sicilian affairs" also called Carmen de motibus Siculis Peter of Eboli or Petrus de Ebulo (flourished ca 1196&ndash1220 was a Didactic Versifier and Chronicler who wrote in Latin. Sicily ( Italian and Sicilian: Sicilia) is an autonomous region of Italy. Henry VI (November 1165 – 28 September 1197) was King of Germany from 1190 to 1197 Holy Roman Emperor from 1191 to 1197 and King The Nibelungenlied, translated as The Song of the Nibelungs, is an epic poem in Middle High German. Brut (ca 1190 is a Middle English poem compiled and recast by the English priest Layamon. The Chanson de la Croisade Albigeoise ("Song of the Albigensian Crusade" in modern Occitan Cançon de la crosada (formerly Canso Occitan ( IPA BrE: /ˈɒksɪtn/ AmE: /ˈɑksəˌtɑn/ known also as Lenga d'òc or Langue d'oc (native name occitan Sundiata is a given name or surname and may refer to Sundiata Keita (circa 1217-1255 founder of the Mali Empire and subject of the epic known as "Sundiata" El Cantar de Mio Cid is the oldest preserved Spanish epic poem ( epopeya) The Reconquista (a Spanish and Portuguese word for "Reconquest" Arabic: الاسترداد, "Recapturing" was a period De triumphis ecclesiae is a Latin epic in elegiac metre written c Johannes de Garlandia or John of Garland was a philologist and university teacher Parzival is a major medieval German Epic poem attributed to the poet Wolfram von Eschenbach, written in the Middle High German Cursor Mundi (Latin for "Runner of the World" is an anonymous Middle-English religious poem of nearly 30000 lines written around 1300 AD. Anonymity is derived from the Greek word ανωνυμία, meaning "without a Name " or "namelessness" 1300)
- Divina Commedia (The Divine Comedy) by Dante Alighieri
- Africa, Latin literary epic by Petrarch
- The Tale of the Heike (Japanese epic war tale)
- 15th century:
Modern epics (from 1500)
- 16th century:
- Orlando furioso by Ludovico Ariosto (1516)
- Os Lusíadas by Luís de Camões (c. The Divine Comedy Africa is an epic poem in Latin Hexameters by the 14th century Italian poet Petrarch (Francesco Petrarca Francesco Petrarca ( July 20, 1304 – July 19, 1374) known in English as Petrarch, was an Italian scholar The Tale of the Heike ( Heike monogatari, 平家物語 is an epic account of the struggle between the Taira and Minamoto Clans The are the dominant Ethnic group of Japan. Worldwide approximately 130 million people are of Japanese descent of these approximately 127 million are residents of Japan The Alliterative Morte Arthure is a 4346 line Middle English poem retelling the latter part of the legend of King Arthur. Orlando Innamorato ("Orlando in Love" is an Epic poem written by the Italian Renaissance author Matteo Maria Boiardo. Matteo Maria Boiardo (c 1434 &ndash December 20, 1494) was an Italian Renaissance Poet. Orlando Furioso ("The Frenzy of Orlando" more literally "Mad Orlando" in Italian furioso is seldom capitalized is an Italian Os Lusíadas, pron. uʃ lu'ziɐdɐʃ (usually known by the title The Lusiads in English is a Portuguese epic poem Luís Vaz de Camões (luˈiʃ vaʃ dɨ kaˈmõĩʃ sometimes rendered in English from old Portuguese as Camoens) (c 1555)
- La Araucana by Alonso de Ercilla y Zúñiga (1569-1589)
- La Gerusalemme liberata by Torquato Tasso (1575)
- Ramacharitamanasa (based on the Ramayana) by Goswami Tulsidas (1577)
- Lepanto by King James VI of Scotland (1591)
- Matilda by Michael Drayton (1594)
- The Faerie Queene by Edmund Spenser (1596)
- 17th century:
- 18th century:
- 19th century:
- 20th century:
- Lahuta e Malcís by Gjergj Fishta (composed 1902-1937)
- The Ballad of the White Horse by G K Chesterton (1911)
- Mensagem by Fernando Pessoa
- The Hashish-Eater; Or, The Apocalypse of Evil by Clark Ashton Smith (1920)
- Savitri by Aurobindo Ghose (1950)
- Astronautilía-Hvězdoplavba by Jan Křesadlo
- The Odyssey: A Modern Sequel by Nikos Kazantzakis (Greek verse, composed 1924-1938)
- The Cantos by Ezra Pound (composed 1915-1969)
- A Cycle of the West by John Neihardt (composed 1921-1949)
- "A" by Louis Zukofsky (composed 1928-1968)
- Paterson by William Carlos Williams (composed c. La Araucana is an epic poem in Spanish about the Spanish conquest of Chile, by Alonso de Ercilla; it is also known in English as The Alonso de Ercilla y Zúñiga ( Madrid August 7, 1533 &ndash November 29, 1594 in Madrid Spanish nobleman soldier and Jerusalem Delivered ( La Gerusalemme liberata) (first published 1581 is an Epic poem by the Italian poet Torquato Tasso which tells Torquato Tasso ( 11 March 1544 &ndash 25 April 1595) was an Italian Poet of the 16th century best known for his poem Śrī Rāmacaritamānas ( Devanāgarī: hi श्री राम चरित मानस ( Hindi / Avadhi) is an Epic poem composed by the The Rāmāyaṇa ( Devanāgarī: sa रामायण is an ancient Sanskrit epic attributed to the Hindu sage ( Maharishi) Valmiki Gosvāmī Tulsīdās (1532-1623 Devanāgarī: तुलसीदास may be written as Tulasī Dāsa depending on if the name is transcribed James VI and I (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625 was King of Scotland as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James Michael Drayton (1563 &ndash December 23, 1631) was an English Poet who came to prominence in the Elizabethan era. The Faerie Queene is an English epic poem by Edmund Spenser, published first in three books in 1590 and later in six books in 1596 Edmund Spenser (c 1552 &ndash 13 January, 1599) was an important English Poet and Poet Laureate best known for The Michael Drayton (1563 &ndash December 23, 1631) was an English Poet who came to prominence in the Elizabethan era. Szigeti veszedelem ( Latin Obsidionis Szigetianae, English Peril of Sziget) was the title of the Hungarian Epic poem in fifteen Hungarian ( magyar nyelv) is a Uralic language (more specifically a Ugric language) unrelated to most other languages in Europe. Nikola Zrinski redirects here See Nikola Šubić Zrinski for the member of the Zrinski family who lived in the 16th century Paradise Lost is an Epic poem in Blank verse by the 17th-century English poet John Milton. John Milton ( 9 December, 1608 – 8 November, 1674) was an English Poet, Prose Polemicist and Paradise Regain'd is a Poem by the 17th century English poet John Milton, published in 1671 John Milton ( 9 December, 1608 – 8 November, 1674) was an English Poet, Prose Polemicist and Sir Richard Blackmore, ( 22 January 1654 &ndash 9 October 1729) English Poet and Physician, is remembered primarily Sir Richard Blackmore, ( 22 January 1654 &ndash 9 October 1729) English Poet and Physician, is remembered primarily Sir Richard Blackmore, ( 22 January 1654 &ndash 9 October 1729) English Poet and Physician, is remembered primarily Sir Richard Blackmore, ( 22 January 1654 &ndash 9 October 1729) English Poet and Physician, is remembered primarily right|thumb|Title page of ''La Henriade'' (1778 [[Geneva]] Edition François-Marie Arouet ( 21 November 1694 30 May 1778) better known by the Pen name Voltaire, was a French François-Marie Arouet ( 21 November 1694 30 May 1778) better known by the Pen name Voltaire, was a French Sir Richard Blackmore, ( 22 January 1654 &ndash 9 October 1729) English Poet and Physician, is remembered primarily Utend̠i wa Tambuka or Utenzi wa Tambuka ("The Story of Tambuka" also known as Kyuo kya Hereḳali (the book of Heraclius is an Epic poem Richard Glover may refer to Richard Glover (poet (1712–1785 English poet and MP Richard Glover (radio presenter (born 1958 Australian William Wilkie (1721 - 1772 was a Scottish Poet. The son of a Farmer, he was born in West Lothian and educated at Edinburgh. Ossian is the narrator and supposed author of a cycle of poems which the Scottish poet James Macpherson claimed to have translated from ancient sources in the James Macpherson (Seumas Mac a' Phearsain 27 October 1736 17 February 1796) was a Scottish Poet, known as the "translator" Caoineadh Airt Uí Laoghaire or the Lament for Art Ó Laoghaire is an Irish Keen, or Dirge written by his wife Eibhlín Dubh Eibhlín Dubh Ní Chonaill also Eileen O' Connell (c1743 &ndash c Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock (ˈklɔpʃtɔk July 2, 1724 &ndash March 14, 1803) was a German Poet. Mikhail Matveyevich Kheraskov (1733-1807 was regarded as the most important Russian poet by Catherine the Great and her contemporaries Mikhail Matveyevich Kheraskov (1733-1807 was regarded as the most important Russian poet by Catherine the Great and her contemporaries Richard Glover may refer to Richard Glover (poet (1712–1785 English poet and MP Richard Glover (radio presenter (born 1958 Australian Robert Southey ( August 12, 1774 &ndash March 21, 1843) was an English Poet of the Romantic school one Robert Southey ( August 12, 1774 &ndash March 21, 1843) was an English Poet of the Romantic school one Robert Southey ( August 12, 1774 &ndash March 21, 1843) was an English Poet of the Romantic school one Joel Barlow (March 24 1754 – December 26 1812 American Poet and Politician Biography Barlow was born in Redding, Fairfield County Milton a Poem is an Epic poem by William Blake, written and illustrated between 1804 and 1810. William Blake (28 November 1757 – 12 August 1827 was an English poet, painter, and Printmaker. Kehama is the name of a fictional Hindu rajah who obtains and sports with supernatural powers whose adventures are given in Robert Southey 's Robert Southey ( August 12, 1774 &ndash March 21, 1843) was an English Poet of the Romantic school one Robert Southey ( August 12, 1774 &ndash March 21, 1843) was an English Poet of the Romantic school one Percy Bysshe Shelley (August 4 1792 – July 8 1822 ˈpɝːsɪ ˈbɪʃ ˈʃɛlɪ was one of the major English Romantic poets and is widely considered to be among "Hyperion" can also refer to the Epistolary novel Hyperion by the German poet Friedrich Hölderlin. The novel should not be confused with John Keats's epic poem fragment The Fall of Hyperion A Dream. Philippe-Alexandre Le Brun de Charmettes (1785 1870 was a French Historian, poet and official Don Juan (dɒn dʒuən is a long digressive satiric poem by Lord Byron, based on the legend of Don Juan, which Byron reverses portraying Juan not as Pan Tadeusz, the full title in English: Mister Thaddeus or the Last Foray in Lithuania a History of the Nobility in the Years 1811 and 1812 in Twelve Adam Bernard Mickiewicz (pronounced ] in Belarusian, Адам Міцкевіч; in Lithuanian, Adomas Bernardas Mickevičius; December Ivan Mažuranić (1814-1890 was a Croatian poet linguist and politician&mdashprobably the most important figure in Croatia's cultural life in the mid-19th century The Kalevala is a book and epic poem which the Finn Elias Lönnrot compiled from Finnish and Karelian Folklore in the nineteenth Elias Lönnrot ( ( April 9, 1802 – March 19, 1884) was a Finnish Philologist and collector of traditional Finnish Finnish mythology, that of the Finnish people, has many features shared with fellow Finnic Estonian mythology and its non-Finnic neighbours the Balts and Kalevipoeg is an epic poem by Friedrich Reinhold Kreutzwald held to be the Estonian National epic. Friedrich Reinhold Kreutzwald ( at the Jõepere Manor in Kadrina, Virumaa &mdash in Tartu) was an Estonian Writer and Physician Estonian Mythology is a complex of myths belonging to the folk heritage of Estonians. The Prelude is an autobiographical "philosophical" Poem in Blank verse by the English poet William Wordsworth. The Song of Hiawatha is an 1855 Epic poem by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow based on the legends of the Ojibway Indians. Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (February 27 1807 &ndash March 24 1882 was an American educator and Poet whose works include " Paul Revere's Ride " La Fin de Satan ( The End of Satan) is a work of poetry Victor Hugo written between 1854 and 1862, but unfinished and published after his death Victor-Marie Hugo ( ( February 26, 1802 – May 22, 1885) was a French Poet, Playwright, Novelist La Légende des siècles is a collection of poems by Victor Hugo, conceived as an immense depiction of the history and evolution of humanity Victor-Marie Hugo ( ( February 26, 1802 – May 22, 1885) was a French Poet, Playwright, Novelist This article deals with Hernández's poem For other things named after it see Martín Fierro (disambiguation Martín Fierro is For the astronaut see Jose Hernandez, for the Baseball player see José Hernández. Clarel A Poem and Pilgrimage in the Holy Land is an American epic poem by Herman Melville, published in two volumes in 1876. Herman Melville (August 1 1819 &ndash September 28 1891 was an American novelist Short story writer Essayist and poet The City of Dreadful Night is a long poem by the Scottish poet James "B James Thomson ( November 23, 1834 &mdash June 3, 1882) published under the pseudonym Bysshe Vanolis, was a Scottish Victorian-era Jacint Verdaguer i Santaló (Folgueroles May 17, 1845 - Vallvidrera June 10, 1902) is one of the greatest poets of Catalan literature Spīdola redirects here For other uses see Spidola Lāčplēsis is an epic poem by Andrejs Pumpurs, a Andrejs Pumpurs ( September 22 1841 on the Courland side of the former Lieljumprava civil parish now Birzgale civil parish - – July 6 Gjergj Fishta (born October 23, 1871 - December 30, 1940) was an Albanian Franciscan Friar, a poet and a translator The Ballad of the White Horse is a Poem by G K Chesterton about the idealized exploits of the Saxon King Alfred the Great Gilbert Keith Chesterton (29 May 1874 – 14 June 1936 was an influential English writer of the early 20th century Fernando António Nogueira Pessoa (fɨɾˈnɐ̃du pɨˈsoɐ (b Fernando António Nogueira Pessoa (fɨɾˈnɐ̃du pɨˈsoɐ (b Clark Ashton Smith ( January 13, 1893 - August 14, 1961) was a Poet, sculptor, painter and author of fantasy Savitri A Legend and a Symbol is a 24000 verse poem by Sri Aurobindo about an individual who overcomes the Ignorance suffering and death in the world through her Sri Aurobindo (শ্রী অরবিন্দ Sri Ôrobindo) ( August 15, 1872 – December 5, 1950) was an Indian Jan Křesadlo was the primary pseudonym used by Václav Jaroslav Karel Pinkava ( December 9, 1926 in Prague - August 13, 1995 The Odyssey A Modern Sequel is an epic poem by the Greek poet and philosopher Nikos Kazantzakis, based on Homer 's Odyssey Nikos Kazantzakis ( Νίκος Καζαντζάκης) ( February 18, 1883, Heraklion, Crete, Ottoman Empire - Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly The Cantos by Ezra Pound is a long incomplete Poem in 120 sections each of which is a Canto. Ezra Weston Loomis Pound ( Hailey, Idaho Territory, United States October 30 1885 – Venice, Italy November 1 1972 was an American Expatriate A Cycle of the West is a collection of five epic poems (called " Songs " written and published over a nearly thirty-year span by John G Johnathan (John Gneisenau Neihardt ( January 8, 1881 – November 24, 1973) was an American Author of Poetry Louis Zukofsky ( January 23, 1904 – May 12, 1978) was one of the most important second-generation American Paterson is a Poem by influential modern American poet William Carlos Williams. William Carlos Williams ( 17 September 1883 &ndash 4 March 1963) was an American poet closely associated with modernism 1940-1961)
- Victory for the Slain by Hugh John Lofting (1942)
- The Maximus Poems by Charles Olson (composed 1950-1970)
- Aniara by Harry Martinson (composed 1956)
- Libretto for the Republic of Liberia by Melvin B. Tolson (1953)
- Mountains and Rivers Without End by Gary Snyder (composed 1965-1996)
- The Changing Light at Sandover by James Merrill (composed 1976-1982)
- Omeros by Derek Walcott (1990)
- The Descent of Alette by Alice Notley (1996)
- Cheikh Anta Diop: Poem for the Living by Mwatabu S. Okantah (1997)
- The Dream of Norumbega: Epic on the U. Hugh John Lofting ( January 14, 1886 &ndash September 26, 1947) was a British author trained as a civil engineer who created the character Charles Olson ( 27 December 1910 &ndash 10 January 1970) was an important 2nd generation American modernist poet Aniara (full original title Aniara: en revy om människan i tid och rum)is a Poem of Science fiction written by the Swedish Harry Martinson ( May 6, 1904 — February 11, 1978) was an author and poet Melvin Beaunorus Tolson ( February 6, 1898 &ndash August 29, 1966) was an American Modernist poet, educator columnist Trade Gary Snyder (born May 8, 1930) is an American Poet (often associated with the Beat Generation The Changing Light at Sandover is a 560-page epic Poem by James Merrill (1926&ndash1995 James Ingram Merrill ( March 3, 1926 &ndash February 6, 1995) was a Pulitzer Prize winning " Omeros " is a 1990 poem by Derek Walcott. Many consider it the finest work of this Nobel Prize winning author Derek Alton Walcott (born January 23, 1930) is a West Indies poet playwright writer and visual artist who writes mainly in English. Alice Notley (born 8 November, 1945) is an American Poet. She was born in Bisbee Arizona and grew up in Needles California Mwatabu S Okantah (b August 18 1952 in Newark, New Jersey, United States) is an American poet essayist professor and vocalist S. by James Wm. Chichetto (c. James Wm Chichetto is a Poet, Artist, Critic, and a Catholic priest of the Congregation of Holy Cross, an international religious community 1990; p. 2000- )
- ^ Michael Meyer, The Bedford Introduction to Literature, Bedford/St. David Jones CH ( 1 November 1895 – 28 October 1974) was both an artist and one of the most important first generation British Pablo Neruda ( July 12, 1904 – September 23, 1973) was the pen name and later legal name of the Chilean writer and politician Four Quartets is the name given to four related poems by T S Eliot, collected and republished in book form in 1943 Thomas Stearns Eliot, OM (September 26 1888 – January 4 1965 was a poet Dramatist, and Literary critic. Der Ring des Nibelungen ( The Ring of the Nibelung) is a cycle of four epic Music dramas by the German composer Parsifal is an Opera, or Music drama, in three acts by Richard Wagner. Leslie Allan Murray, AO (born 17 October 1938) known as Les Murray, is an Australian Poet, anthologist and critic The chansons de geste, Old French for "songs of Heroic deeds lineages" are the epic poems that appear at the dawn of French literature A Duma (дума plural dumy) is a sung epic poem which originated in Ukraine during the Hetmanate Era around the sixteenth century possibly Bylina ( Russian: были́на also Byliny, Bylyny and Stariny) is a traditional epic, Though an abundance of historical reminiscence and legend lay in the storehouse of Jewish literature none of it was built into epic poems until relatively recently See also Old testament, Septuagint, Targum, Peshitta The Tanakh (תַּנַ"ךְ (taˈnax or; also Tenakh or Tenak is Indian epic poetry is the Epic poetry written in the Indian subcontinent. Serbian epic poetry (Српске епске народне песме is a form of Epic poetry originating in the Serbian lands, today's Serbia, are Ainu sagas that form a long rich tradition of Oral literature. World folk-epics are those epics which are not just Literary Masterpieces but also an integral part of the Weltanschauung of a people A national epic is an epic poem or similar work which seeks or is believed to capture and express the essence or spirit of a particular Nation; not necessarily a Etymology According to the Online Etymology Dictionary, the word bible is from Latin biblia, traced from the same word through Medieval Latin and Late Latin In Greek mythology, Calliope ("beautiful-voiced" also spelled Kaliope or Kalliope, in Greek, Καλλιόπη An epic hero is an important figure from a History or Legend, usually favored by or even partially descended from deities, but aligned more closely with Alpamysh, also spelled as Alp-amish or Alpamish ( Uzbek language: Alpomish/Алпомиш Turkish: Alpamis, Kazakh Cyrillic Martin's, 2005, p2128. ISBN 0-312-41242-8
- ^ "epic". The Columbia Encyclopedia (6). (2004). New York: Columbia University Press. Retrieved on 2007-09-25. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Events 303 - On a voyage preaching the Gospel, Saint Fermin of Pamplona is beheaded in Amiens, France
- ^ According to that article, world folk epics are those which are not just literary masterpieces but also an integral part of the world view of a people, originally oral, later written down by one or several authors. Masterpiece (or chef d'œuvre) refers to any Work of art that is considered extraordinary A comprehensive world view (or worldview) is a term Calqued from the German word Weltanschauung ( Welt is the German
- Jan de Vries: Heroic Song and Heroic Legend ISBN 0-405-10566-5
- Cornel Heinsdorff: Christus, Nikodemus und die Samaritanerin bei Juvencus. Mit einem Anhang zur lateinischen Evangelienvorlage, Untersuchungen zur antiken Literatur und Geschichte 67, Berlin/New York 2003, ISBN 3-11-017851-6
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