Ancient City of Anatolia
The Celsus Library
Ephesus (Hittite Apasa; Ancient Greek Ἔφεσος; Turkish Efes) was a city of ancient Anatolia. Hittite or Nesili is the Extinct language once spoken by the Hittites, a people who created an empire centered on ancient Hattusas (modern The Ancient Greek language is the historical stage in the development of the Hellenic language family spanning the Archaic (c Turkish ( tr Türkçe IPA) is a language spoken by over 63 million people worldwide making it the most commonly spoken of the Turkic languages. Anatolia (Anadolu Ανατολία Anatolía) or Asia minor, comprising most of modern Turkey, is the geographic region bounded by the Black During the period known as Classical Greece it was located in Ionia, where the Cayster River (Küçük Menderes) flows into the Aegean Sea. In the context of the art architecture and culture of Ancient Greece, the classical period corresponds to most of the 5th and 4th centuries Geography Physical Ionia was of small extent not exceeding 90 geographical miles in length from north to south with a breadth varying from 40 to 55 miles but to this Cayster River (or Küçük Menderes, "Little Maeander" is located south of İzmir, Turkey. Etymology In ancient times there were various explanations for the name Aegean. It belonged to the Ionian League. The Ionian League ( Ancient Greek, Iōnes, koinon Iōnōn, koinē sunodos Iōnōn Latin commune consilium; also called
Ephesus hosted one of the seven churches of Asia, addressed in the Book of Revelation of The Bible), and the Gospel of John might have been written here. This article is about the seven churches mentioned in the Book of Revelation. The Book of Revelation, also called Revelation to John, Apocalypse of John ( pronounced, from the Ἀποκάλυψις Ἰωάννου Etymology According to the Online Etymology Dictionary, the word bible is from Latin biblia, traced from the same word through Medieval Latin and Late Latin The Gospel of John (literally According to John; Greek, Κατὰ Ἰωάννην Kata Iōannēn) is the fourth Gospel in the canon  It is also the site of a large gladiator graveyard. Gladiators (gladiatores "swordsmen" or "one who uses a sword" from la ''gladius'' "sword" were professional fighters in Ancient Rome who fought
The city was famed for the Temple of Artemis (completed around 550 BC), and both were destroyed by the Goths in 263. The Temple of Artemis ( Greek: Ἀρτεμίσιον Events and trends Carthage conquers Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica. The Goths ( Gothic: Gothic usvg|14px|u]]Gothic asvg|14px|a]]Gothic s Events By Place Roman Empire The Goths invade Ephesus and destroy city and temple The emperor Constantine rebuilt much of the city and erected a new public bath. Constantine ( Latin: Cōnstantīnus, Greek:) is a given name and surname derived from the Latin word constans, meaning constant or The town was again partially destroyed by an earthquake in 614. Events By Place Europe The Palace of Diocletian is damaged by the Avars who sack nearby Salona. The importance of the city as a commercial centre declined as the harbour slowly filled with silt from the river.
Today's archaeological site lies 3 kilometers south of the Selçuk district of İzmir Province, Turkey. Selçuk is the central town of Selçuk district İzmir Province in Turkey, northeast of Kuşadası, northeast of Ephesus. İzmir is a province of Turkey in western Anatolia on the Aegean coast whose capital is the city of Izmir. Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches The ruins of Ephesus are a favorite international and local tourist attraction, partly owing to their easy accessibility from Adnan Menderes Airport and via the port of Kuşadası. This article is about ruins in Architecture; for other meanings see Ruins (disambiguation. İzmir Adnan Menderes International Airport is an airport serving İzmir and is named after the Turkish politician and former prime minister Adnan Menderes Kuşadası is a Resort town in Turkey 's Aegean coast and the center of the district of the same name in Aydın Province.
The area surrounding Ephesus was already inhabited during the Neolithic Age (about 6000 BC) as was revealed by the excavations at the nearby hoyuk (artificial mounds) of Arvalya and Cukurici. 
Excavations in recent years have unearthed settlements from the early Bronze Age at the Ayasuluk Hill. The term Bronze Age refers to a period in human cultural development when the most advanced Metalworking (at least in systematic and widespread use included techniques for In 1954 a burial ground from the Mycenaean era (1500-1400 BC) with ceramic pots was discovered close to the ruins of the basilica of St. Mycenaean Greece is a cultural period of ancient Greece taking its name from the archaeological site of Mycenae in northeastern Argolis, in the Peloponnese John.  This was the period of the Mycenaean Expansion when the Achaioi (as they were called by Homer) settled in Ahhiyawa during the 14th and the 13th centuries BC. Achaea (Αχαΐα Achaïa, axaˈia in Polytonic orthography) is an ancient province and a present prefecture of Greece, on the northern Homer ( Ancient Greek:, Homēros) is a legendary ancient Greek epic Poet, traditionally said to be the author of the epic poems the Scholars believe that Ephesus was founded on the settlement of Apasa (or Abasa), a Bronze Age-city noted in 14th century BC Hittite sources as in the land of Ahhiyawa. The term Bronze Age refers to a period in human cultural development when the most advanced Metalworking (at least in systematic and widespread use included techniques for 
The city of Ephesus itself was founded as an Attic-Ionian colony in the 10th century BC on the Ayasuluk Hill, three kilometers from the center of antique Ephesus (as attested by excavations at the Seljuk castle during the 1990s). The Temple of Artemis ( Greek: Ἀρτεμίσιον Selçuk is the central town of Selçuk district İzmir Province in Turkey, northeast of Kuşadası, northeast of Ephesus. Seljuk ( Arabic: السلاجقة Turkish: Selçuk; also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq) was the eponymous hero of the Seljuks The mythical founder of the city was Androklos, son of king Kadros and a prince of Athens, who had to leave his country after the death of his father. Athens (ˈæθənz Αθήνα Athina,) the Capital and largest city of Greece, dominates the Attica periphery as one of the world's According to legend, he founded Ephesus on the place where the oracle of Delphi became reality ("A fish and a boar will show you the way"). Delphi ( Greek,) ( pronounce and dialectal forms) is an archaeological site and a modern town in Greece on the south-western Androklos drove away most of the native Carian and Lelegian inhabitants of the city and united his people with the remainder. Municipalities of Caria Cramer's detailed catalog of Carian towns in Classical Greece is based entirely on ancient sources The Leleges were one of the aboriginal peoples of southwest Anatolia (compare " Pelasgians quot who were already there when the Indo-European Hellenes He was a successful warrior and, as king, he was able to join the twelve cities of Ionia together into the Ionian League. Geography Physical Ionia was of small extent not exceeding 90 geographical miles in length from north to south with a breadth varying from 40 to 55 miles but to this The Ionian League ( Ancient Greek, Iōnes, koinon Iōnōn, koinē sunodos Iōnōn Latin commune consilium; also called During his reign the city began to prosper. He died in a battle against the Carians when he came to the aid of Priene, another city of the Ionian League. Priene ( Ancient Greek: Πριήνη, Priēnē was an ancient Greek city of Ionia (and member of the Ionian League) at the base  Androklos and his dog are depicted on the Hadrian temple frieze, dating from the second century. Later, Greek historians such as Pausanias, Strabo and the poet Kallinos, and the historian Herodotos however reassigned the city's mythological foundation to Ephos, queen of the Amazons. Strabo ( Greek: Στράβων 63/64 BC – ca AD 24 was a Greek historian, geographer and philosopher. Herodotus of Halicarnassus ( Greek: Hēródotos Halikarnāsseús) was a Greek Historian who lived in the 5th century BC ( 484 BC&ndash The Amazons (in Greek, grc Ἀμαζόνες are a nation of all-female warriors in Classical and Greek mythology, who were possibly historical
The Greek goddess Artemis and the great Anatolian goddess Kybele were identified together as Artemis of Ephesus. In Greek mythology, Artemis language|Greek] ( Nominative), ( Genitive))] was the daughter of Zeus and Leto, and the twin sister Originally a Hittite and Phrygian Goddess, Cybele (Κυβέλη was a deification of the Earth Mother and was worshipped in The many-breasted "Lady of Ephesus", identified with Artemis, was venerated in the Temple of Artemis, one of the Seven Wonders of the World and the largest building of the ancient world according to Pausanias (4. In Greek mythology, Artemis language|Greek] ( Nominative), ( Genitive))] was the daughter of Zeus and Leto, and the twin sister The Temple of Artemis ( Greek: Ἀρτεμίσιον Pausanias ( Greek:) was a Greek traveller and Geographer of the 2nd century CE, who lived in the times of Hadrian, Antoninus 31. 8). Pausanius mentions that the temple was built by Ephesus, son of the river god Caystrus.  before the arrival of the Ionians. Of this structure, scarcely a trace remains.
About 650 BC Ephesus was attacked by Cimmerians who razed the city, including the temple of Artemis. Events and trends Occupation begins at Maya site of Piedras Negras Guatemala. See Cimmeria (Conan or Cimmeria (Poem for the fiction of Robert E A few small Cimmerian artifacts can be seen at the archaeological museum of Ephese.
When the Cimmerians had been driven away, the city was ruled by a series of tyrants. After a revolt by the people, Ephesus was ruled by a council called the Kuretes. The city prospered again, producing a number of important historical figures, such as the iambic poets Callinus  and the satirist Hipponax, the philosopher Heraclitus, the great painter Parrhasius and later the grammarian Zenodotos, the physicians Soranus and Rufus. An iamb or iambus is a Metrical foot used in various types of Poetry. Callinus (also known as Kallinus) was a Poet who lived in the Ancient Greek city of Ephesus in Asia Minor in the mid- 7th century Hipponax of Ephesus was an Ancient Greek Iambic Poet. Expelled from Ephesus in 540 BC by the tyrant Athenagoras, he took refuge Heraclitus of Ephesus ( Ancient Greek: &mdash grc-Latn ''Hērákleitos ho Ephésios'' English Heraclitus the Ephesian) (ca For other uses see Parrhasius (mythology. Parrhasius of Ephesus was the son of Evenor and one of the greatest Zenodotus ( Greek grammarian Literary critic, and scholar on Homer; first Librarian of the Library of Alexandria; pupil of Soranus, Greek Physician, born at Ephesus, lived during the reigns of Trajan and Hadrian (AD 98-138
About 560 BC Ephesus was conquered by the Lydians under the mighty king Croesus. Events and trends 568 BC — Amtalqa succeeds his brother Aspelta as king of Kush. Defining Lydia Aside from a legend related by Herodotus, who states that the name Lydia came from king Lydus at the time of the fall of Troy This article refers to the historical King of Lydia For the opera by Reinhard Keiser, see Croesus (opera. He treated the inhabitants with respect, despite ruling harshly, and even became the main contributor to the construction of the temple of Artemis.  His signature has been found on the base of one of the columns of the temple (now on display in the British Museum). The British Museum is a Museum of human history and culture in London. Croesus made the populations of the different settlements around Ephesus regroup (synoikismos) in the vicinity of the Temple of Artemis, enlarging the city. Synoikismos (Greek συνοικισμός roughly means "dwelling together" in Greek and was created to oppose Hegemony.
Later in the same century, the Lydians under Croesus invaded Persia. The Ionians refused a peace offer from Cyrus the Great, siding with the Lydians instead. After the Persians defeated Croesus the Ionians offered to make peace but Cyrus insisted that they surrender and become part of the empire.  They were defeated by the Persian army commander Harpagos in 547 BC. Harpagus (also known as Harpagos or Hypargus) ( Akkadian: Arbaku, Arbaces) was a Events and trends 546 BC — Croesus, Lydian king, is defeated by Cyrus of Persia near the River Halys The Persians then incorporated the Greek cities of Asia Minor into the Achaemenid Empire. The Achaemenid Empire or Achaemenid Persian Empire ( haχɒmaneʃijɒn (558–330 BC was the first of the Persian Empires to rule over significant portions of Those cities were then ruled by satraps. See also the related deity Satrapes. Satrap (Persian ساتراپ was the name given to the governors of the Provinces of ancient
Ephesus continued to prosper. But when taxes continued to be raised under Cambyses II and Darius, the Ephesians participated in the Ionian Revolt against Persian rule in the Battle of Ephesus (498 BC), an event which instigated the Greco-Persian wars. Darius I the Great (c 549 BC&ndash486 BC 𐎭𐎠𐎼𐎹𐎺𐎢𐏁 Dārayavahuš: "Possessing goodness" Having ascended to power amidst controversy and bloodshed The Ionian Revolts were triggered by the actions of Aristagoras, the Tyrant of the Ionian city of Miletus at the end of the 6th century The Battle of Ephesus ( 498 BC) was a battle in the Ionian Revolt. In 479 BC, the Ionians, together with Athens and Sparta, were able to oust the Persians from Anatolia. Events By place Greece The Persian commander Mardonius, now based in Thessaly, wins support Athens (ˈæθənz Αθήνα Athina,) the Capital and largest city of Greece, dominates the Attica periphery as one of the world's The city of Sparta ( Doric Σπάρτα Attic Σπάρτη In 478 BC, the Ionian cities entered with Athens and Sparta the Delian League against the Persians. Events By place Greece Despite Spartan opposition Athens is refortified as well as rebuilt after the The Delian League was an association of approximately 150 5th-century BC Greek City-states under the leadership of Athens, whose purpose was to continue Ephesus did not contribute ships, but only participated with financial support by offering the treasure of Apollo to the goddess Athena, protector of Athens. ATHENA was an Antimatter research project that took place at the AD Ring at CERN.
During the Peloponnesian War, Ephesus was first allied to Athens but sided in a later phase, called the Decelean War, or the Ionian War with Sparta, which also had received the support of the Persians. Athens (ˈæθənz Αθήνα Athina,) the Capital and largest city of Greece, dominates the Attica periphery as one of the world's As a result, the rule over the kingdoms of Anatolia was ceded again to Persia.
These wars didn't affect much the daily life in Ephesus. In those times, Ephesus was surprisingly modern in their social relations. They allowed strangers to integrate. Education was much valued. Through the cult of Artemis, the city also became a bastion of women's rights. Ephesus even had its female artists. In later times Pliny mentions having seen at Ephesus a representation of the goddess Diana by Timarata, the daughter of a painter. Gaius or Caius Plinius Secundus, ( AD 23 – August 25, AD 79 better known as Pliny the Elder, was an ancient Author In Roman mythology, Diana was the goddess of the hunt, being associated with wild animals and woodland and also of the Moon.
In 356 BC the temple of Artemis was burnt down, according to legend, by a lunatic called Herostratus. Events By place Persian Empire Having blamed the defeats by Philip II in Thessaly and Chalcidice on his colleagues Chares is By coincidence, this was the night that Alexander the Great was born. The inhabitants of Ephesus started at once with the restoration and even planning a larger and grander temple.
When Alexander the Great defeated the Persian forces at the Battle of Granicus in 334 BC, the Greek cities of Asia Minor were liberated. Meyers Konversations-Lexikon was a major German Encyclopedia that existed in various editions from 1839 until 1984 when it merged with the Brockhaus Alexander the Great ( or, Mégas Aléxandros; July 20 356 BC June 10 or June 11 323 BC also known as Alexander III of Macedon (el Ἀλέξανδρος Γ' The Battle of the Granicus River in May 334 BC was the first of three major battles fought between Alexander the Great and the Persian Empire. The pro-Persian tyrant Syrpax and his family were stoned to death and Alexander was greeted warmly in Ephesus when he entered it in triumph. When he saw that the temple of Artemis was not yet finished, he proposed to finance the temple and have his name as an inscription of the front. But the inhabitants of Ephesus refused, claiming that it was not fitting for a god to build a temple for another god. After the death of Alexander in 323 BC, Ephesus came under the rule of Lysimachus, one of Alexander's generals, in 290 BC. Events By place Macedonian Empire 10 June — In Babylon, Alexander the Great dies ten days after being taken ill Lysimachus ( Greek: Λυσίμαχος Lysimachos; 360 BCE - 281 BCE was a Macedonian officer and diadochus (i Events By place Roman Republic Roman general and Consul, Manius Curius Dentatus, gains a decisive victory over the
As the river Cayster was silting up the harbour, the resulting marshes were the cause of malaria and many deaths among the inhabitants. The people of Ephesus were forced to move to a new settlement 2 kilometers further on, when the king flooded the old city by blocking the sewers.  This settlement was called after the king's second wife Arsinoe II of Egypt. Arsinoe II (Greek Αρσινόη (316 BC-July 270 BC queen of Thrace and Macedonia and later co-ruler of Egypt with her brother and husband Ptolemy II After Lysimachus had destroyed the nearby cities of Lebedos and Colophon in 292 BC, he relocated their inhabitants to the new city. Lysimachus ( Greek: Λυσίμαχος Lysimachos; 360 BCE - 281 BCE was a Macedonian officer and diadochus (i Lebedus -- the Latinized form of the original Greek name Lebedos -- was the most northerly of the Ionian Colophon ( Greek) was a city in the region of Lydia in antiquity dating from about the turn of the first millennium-BC The architectural layout of the city would remain unchanged for the next 500 years.
Ephesus revolted after the treacherous death of Agathocles, giving the Syrian king Seleucus I Nicator an opportunity for removing and killing Lysimachus, his last rival, at the Battle of Corupedium in 281 BC. Agathocles ( Greek: Aγαθoκλής died 284 BC was the son of Lysimachus by an Odrysian woman who Polyaenus calls Macris Seleucus I (surnamed for later generations Nicator, Greek: Σέλευκος Νικάτωρ, i The Battle of Corupedium (also called Corupedion is the name of the last battle of the Diadochi, the rival successors to Alexander the Great. Events By place Asia Minor The Battle of Corupedium in Lydia is the last battle of the Diadochi, the rival successors After the death of Lysimachos the town took again the name of Ephesus.
Thus Ephese became part of the Seleucid Empire. The Seleucid Empire /sə'lusɪd/ ( 312 - 63 BC) was a Hellenistic empire i After the murder on king Antiochus II Theos and his Egyptian wife, pharao Ptolemy III invaded the Seleucid Empire and the Egyptian fleet swept the coast of Asia Minor. Antiochus II Theos (286 BC&ndash246 BC was a king of the Hellenistic Seleucid Kingdom who reigned 261 BC&ndash246 BC Ptolemy III Euergetes, ( Greek: Πτολεμαῖος Εὐεργέτης, Ptolemaĩos Euergétēs, reigned 246 BC&ndash222 BC was the third ruler Ephesus came under Egyptian rule between 263-197 BC.
When the Seleucid king Antiochus III the Great tried to regain the Greek cities of Asia Minor, he came in conflict with Rome. Antiochus III the Great, ( Greek; ca 241&ndash187 BC ruled 222&ndash187 BC younger son of Seleucus II Callinicus Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 After a series of battles, he was defeated by Scipio Asiaticus at the Battle of Magnesia in 190 BC. Lucius Cornelius Scipio Asiaticus (2nd century BC-aft 183 BC was a Roman general and statesman The Battle of Magnesia was fought in 190 BC near Magnesia ad Sipylum, on the plains of Lydia (modern Turkey) between the Romans Events By place Greece The Battle of the Eurymedon is fought between a Seleucid fleet and ships from Rhodes and As a result, Ephesus came under the rule of the Attalid king of Pergamon Eumenes II (197-133 BC). Eumenes II of Pergamon (Εὐμένης Α' τῆς Περγάμου (ruled 197 - 159 BC was king of Pergamon and a member of the Attalid dynasty. When his grandson Attalus III died without male children of his own, he left his kingdom to the Roman Republic. Attalus III (in Greek Attalos III) Philometor Euergetes (ca 170 BC &ndash 133 BC was the last Attalid king of Pergamon, ruling from The Roman Republic was the phase of the ancient Roman civilization characterized by a Republican form of government a period which began with the overthrow of the
Ephesus became subject of the Roman Republic. The Roman Republic was the phase of the ancient Roman civilization characterized by a Republican form of government a period which began with the overthrow of the The city felt at once the Roman influence. Taxes rose considerably and the treasures of the city were systematically plundered. In 88 BC Ephesus welcomed Archelaus, a general of Mithridates the Great, king of Pontus, when he conquered Western Anatolia. Year 88 BC was a year of the pre-Julian calendar. Events By place Rome The Social War ends with the defeat of the Italian See Mithridates for people and concepts with the same name Mithridates VI (Μιθριδάτης 132&ndash63 BC also known as Mithridates Geography The Black Sea region loosely called Pontus by various scholars has a steep rocky coast with rivers that cascade through the gorges of the coastal ranges This led to the Asiatic Vespers, the slaughter of 80,000 Roman citizens in Asia Minor, or any person who spoke with a Latin accent. The Asiatic Vespers (also known as the Vespers of 88 BC refers to an infamous episode during the First Mithridatic War. Many had lived in Ephesus. But when they saw how badly the people of Chios had been treated by Zenobius, a general of Mithridates, they refused entry to his army. Chios (Χίος pronounced ˈçio̞s alternative transliterations Khíos and Híos) is the fifth largest of the Greek islands, situated Zenobius was invited into the city to visit Philopoemen (the father of Monima, the favorite wife of Mithridates) and the overseer of Ephesus. As the people expected nothing good of him, they threw him into prison and murdered him. Mithridates took revenge and inflicted terrible punishments. However, the Greek cities were given freedom and several substantial rights. Ephesus became, for a short time, self-governing. When Mithridates was defeated in the First Mithridatic War by the Roman consul Lucius Cornelius Sulla, Ephesus came back under Roman rule in 86 BC. The First Mithridatic War ( 90 &ndash 85 BC) was a conflict fought between the Kingdom of Pontus and revolting Greek cities -Athens being the most prominent- Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix ( Latin: L•CORNELIVS•L•F•P•N•SVLLA•FELIX (c Sulla imposed a huge indemnity, along with five years of back taxes, which left Asian cities heavily in debt for a long time to come. 
When Augustus became emperor in 27 BC, he made Ephesus instead of Pergamum the capital of proconsular Asia, which covered the western part of Asia Minor. Augustus ( Latin: IMPERATOR·CAESAR·DIVI·FILIVS·AVGVSTVS September 23 63 BC – August 19 AD 14) born Gaius Octavius Thurinus, was Year 27 BC was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Julian calendar. The Roman province of Asia, also called Phrygia was an administrative unit added to the late Republic. Ephesus entered an era of prosperity. It became the seat of the governor, growing into a metropolis and a major center of commerce. It was second in importance and size only to Rome.  Ephesus has been estimated to be in the range of 400,000 to 500,000 inhabitants in the year 100, making it the largest city in Roman Asia and of the day. Ephesus was at its peak during the first and second century AD.
The city was famed for the Temple of Artemis (Diana) , who had her chief shrine there, the Library of Celsus, and its theatre, which was capable of holding 25,000 spectators. The Temple of Artemis ( Greek: Ἀρτεμίσιον In Roman mythology, Diana was the goddess of the hunt, being associated with wild animals and woodland and also of the Moon. This open-air theater was used initially for drama, but during later Roman times gladiatorial combats were also held on its stage, with the first archaeological evidence of a gladiator graveyard found in May 2007.  The population of Ephesus also had several major bath complexes, built at various points while the city was under Roman rule. Public baths originated from a communal need for cleanliness Often the term public is misleading to some people as they will have restrictions based upon who can use the facility The city had one of the most advanced aqueduct systems in the ancient world, with multiple aqueducts of various sizes to supply different areas of the city, including 4 major aqueducts. An aqueduct is an artificial channel that is constructed to convey water from one location to another
The city and the temple were destroyed by the Goths in 263. The Goths ( Gothic: Gothic usvg|14px|u]]Gothic asvg|14px|a]]Gothic s Events By Place Roman Empire The Goths invade Ephesus and destroy city and temple This marked the decline of the splendour of the city.
Ephesus remained the most important city of the Byzantine Empire in Asia (after Constantinople) in the 5th and 6th centuries. Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis, or gr ἡ Πόλις hē Polis, Latin: la CONSTANTINOPOLIS The emperor Constantine rebuilt much of the city and erected a new public bath. Constantine ( Latin: Cōnstantīnus, Greek:) is a given name and surname derived from the Latin word constans, meaning constant or In 406 John Chrysostom, archbishop of Constantinople, ordered the destruction of the Temple of Artemis. Events By Place Western Roman Empire Roman legions in Britain mutiny against Honorius and select This article refers to the Christian saint For other uses of the name see Chrysostomos.  Emperor Flavius Arcadius raised the level of the street between the theatre and the harbour. Flavius Arcadius (377/378&ndash May 1, 408) was Byzantine Emperor in the Eastern half of the Roman Empire from 395 until his death The basilica of St. John was built during the reign of emperor Justinian I in the sixth century. Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus ( Greek: Φλάβιος Πέτρος Σαββάτιος Ιουστινιανός; known in English as Justinian I or
The town was again partially destroyed by an earthquake in 614. Events By Place Europe The Palace of Diocletian is damaged by the Avars who sack nearby Salona.
The importance of the city as a commercial centre declined as the harbour slowly filled with silt from the river (today, Küçük Menderes) despite repeated dredges during the city's history.  (Today, the harbor is 5 kilometers inland). The loss of its harbor caused Ephesus to lose its access to the Aegean Sea, which was important for trade. Etymology In ancient times there were various explanations for the name Aegean. People started leaving the lowland of the city for the surrounding hills. The ruins of the temples were used as building blocks for new homes. Marble sculptures were ground to powder to make lime for plaster.
Sackings by the Arabs first in the year 654-655 by caliph Muawiyah I, and later in 700 and 716 hastened the decline further. Events By Place Europe Rhodes is invaded by an Arab force remains of the Colossus of Rhodes are sold off Events By Place Europe November 15 — Northumbrian king Oswiu defeats Mercian king Penda in the The Caliph is the Head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Shari'ah Mu'awiyah I (a=معاوية بن أبي سفيان|t=Mu‘āwīyah ibn Abī Sufyān 602-680 was a Sahaba (companion of the Islamic prophet, Muhammad Events By Place North America The Mount Edziza volcanic complex erupts in northern British Columbia, Canada. For the area code see Area code 716 Events By Place Byzantine Empire Theodosius III leads a revolt against Anastasius
When the Seljuk Turks conquered it in 1071-1100, it was a small village. The Seljuq (also Seljuq Turks, Seldjuks, Seldjuqs, Seljuks; in Turkish Selçuklular; in Ṣaljūqīyān; in The Byzantines resumed control in 1100 and changed the name of the town into Hagios Theologos. They kept control of the region until 1308. Crusaders, passing through, were surprised that there was only a small village, called Ayasalouk, where they had expected a bustling city with a large seaport. Even the temple of Artemis was completely forgotten by the local population.
The town was conquered in 1304 by Sasa Bey, an army commander of the Menteşoğullari principality. The Anatolian Turkish Beylik of Menteşe ( 1260 - 1424) with capital in Milas in southwest Anatolia and headquartered in Beçin Shortly afterwards, it was ceded to the Aydinoğullari principality that stationed a powerful navy in the harbour of Ayasluğ (the present-day Selçuk, next to Ephesus). The Anatolian Turkish Beylik of Aydınoğlu with its capital first in Birgi, and later in Ayasluğ (present day Selçuk) was one of the Selçuk is the central town of Selçuk district İzmir Province in Turkey, northeast of Kuşadası, northeast of Ephesus. Selçuk is the central town of Selçuk district İzmir Province in Turkey, northeast of Kuşadası, northeast of Ephesus. Ayasoluk became an important harbour, from where the navy organised raids to the surrounding regions.
The town knew again a short period of flourishing during the 14th century under these new Seljuk rulers. Seljuk ( Arabic: السلاجقة Turkish: Selçuk; also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq) was the eponymous hero of the Seljuks They added important architectural works such as the İsa Bey Mosque, caravansaries and Turkish bathhouses (hamam). İsabey Mosque (İsabey Camii constructed in 1374 is one of the oldest and most impressive works of architectural art remaining from the Anatolian beyliks. The Turkish bath (hamam from حمّام) is the Middle Eastern variant of a steam bath, which can be categorized as a wet relative of the
They were incorporated as vassals into the Ottoman Empire for the first time in 1390. The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish The Central Asian warlord Tamerlane defeated the Ottomans in Anatolia in 1402 and the Ottoman sultan Bayezid I died in captivity. Timur also written Emir Timur or Amir Temur ( Chagatai: تیمور - Tēmōr " Iron " (1336 – 19 February 1405 among Bayezid I ( Ottoman: بايزيد الأول Turkish: Beyazıt, nicknamed Yıldırım (Ottoman ییلدیرم "the Thunderbolt" The region was restored to the Anatolian Turkish Beyliks. thumb|350px|Anatolian Turkish Beyliks map Anatolian Beyliks or Turkmen Beyliks ( Turkish: Anadolu Beylikleri, Ottoman Turkish: After a period of unrest, the region was again incorporated into the Ottoman Empire by sultan Mehmed II in 1425.
Ephesus was eventually completely abandoned in the 15th century and lost her former glory. Nearby Ayasluğ was renamed Selçuk in 1914. Year 1914 ( MCMXIV) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year
According to the New Testament, Ephesus became an important center for early Christianity from the 50s AD. Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings Paul used it as a base and spent there more than two years on his third missionary journey (Acts 19:8, 19:10, 20:31). Paul the apostle (שאול התרסי Šaʾul HaTarsi, meaning " Saul of Tarsus " Σαούλ Saul and Σαῦλος Saulos and He became embroiled in a dispute with artisans, whose livelihood depended on selling the statuettes of Artemis in the Temple of Artemis (Acts 19:23–41). The Acts of the Apostles is a book of the Bible, which now stands fifth in the New Testament. He wrote between 53 and 57 A. Year 53 was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Julian calendar. Year 57 was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Julian calendar. D. the letter 1 Corinthians from Ephesus (possibly from the "Paul tower" close to the harbour, where he was imprisoned for a short time). The First Epistle to the Corinthians is a book of the Bible in the New Testament. Later Paul wrote to the Christian community at Ephesus, according to tradition, while he was in prison in Rome (around 62 A. Described by William Barclay as the "Queen of the Epistles" the Epistle to the Ephesians is one of the books of the Bible in the New D. )
The Apostle John lived in Asia Minor (Anatolia) in the last decades of the first century and from Ephesus had guided the Churches of that province. After Domitian's death the Apostle returned to Ephesus during the reign of Trajan, and at Ephesus he died about 100 AD at a great age. Ephesus was one of the seven cities addressed in Revelation (2:1–7), indicating that the church at Ephesus was still strong. This article is about the seven churches mentioned in the Book of Revelation. The Book of Revelation, also called Revelation to John, Apocalypse of John ( pronounced, from the Ἀποκάλυψις Ἰωάννου
Two decades later, the church at Ephesus there was still important enough to be addressed by a letter written by Bishop Ignatius of Antioch to the Ephesians in the early 2nd century AD, that begins with, "Ignatius, who is also called Theophorus, to the Church which is at Ephesus, in Asia, deservedly most happy, being blessed in the greatness and fullness of God the Father, and predestinated before the beginning of time, that it should be always for an enduring and unchangeable glory" (Letter to the Ephesians). Saint Ignatius of Antioch (also known as Theophorus) (ca 35-110 was the third Bishop and Patriarch of Antioch and possibly a student of the Apostle John The church at Ephesus had given their support for Ignatius, who was taken to Rome for execution.
The house of the Virgin Mary (Turkish: Meryem Ana, meaning "Mother Mary"), about 7 kilometers from Selçuk, is believed to have been the last home of Mary, mother of Jesus. The House of the Virgin Mary ( Turkish: Meryemana or Meryem Ana Evi, "Mother Mary's House" is a Christian Selçuk is the central town of Selçuk district İzmir Province in Turkey, northeast of Kuşadası, northeast of Ephesus. It is a popular place of pilgrimage which has been visited by three recent popes. History See also History of the Papacy Catholics recognize the Pope as a successor to Saint Peter, who Jesus named as the "shepherd" and
The Church of Mary close to the harbor of Ephesus was the setting for the Third Ecumenical Council in 431, which resulted in the condemnation of Nestorius. The Church of Mary (Meryem Kilisesi is an ancient Christian Cathedral dedicated to the Theotokos (the This article covers the Ecumenical council of 431 For the council of 449 see Second Council of Ephesus. Events By Place Western Roman Empire Aëtius pushes the Franks back across the Somme. Nestorius (in Greek: Νεστόριος; c 386&ndash c 451 was Archbishop of Constantinople from 10 April 428 A Second Council of Ephesus was held in 449, but its controversial acts were never approved by the Catholics. The Second Council of Ephesus was a church synod in 449 AD. It was convoked by Emperor Theodosius II as an Ecumenical council but because of the controversial Events By Place Europe Vortigern forms an alliance with Hengest and Horsa, by tradition chieftains of the Jutes It came to be called the Robber Council of Ephesus or Robber Synod of Latrocinium by its opponents.
The site is large. In fact, Ephesus contains the largest collection of Roman ruins East of the Mediterranean. Only an estimated 15% has been excavated. The ruins that are visible give some idea of the city's original splendour, and the names associated with the ruins are evocative of its former life. The theater dominates the view down Harbour Street which leads to the long silted-up harbor.
The Library of Celsus, whose façade has been carefully reconstructed from all original pieces, was built ca. AD 125 by Gaius Julius Aquila in memory of his father, and once held nearly 12,000 scrolls. Designed with an exaggerated entrance — so as to enhance its perceived size, speculate many historians — the building faces east so that the reading rooms could make best use of the morning light.
A part of the site, St. John's Basilica, was built in the 6th century AD, under emperor Justinian I over the supposed site of the apostle's tomb. The 6th century is the period from 501 to 600 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian / Common Era. Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus ( Greek: Φλάβιος Πέτρος Σαββάτιος Ιουστινιανός; known in English as Justinian I or It is now surrounded by Selçuk. Selçuk is the central town of Selçuk district İzmir Province in Turkey, northeast of Kuşadası, northeast of Ephesus.
The Temple of Artemis, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, is represented only by one inconspicuous column, revealed during an archaeological excavation by the British Museum in the 1870s. The Temple of Artemis ( Greek: Ἀρτεμίσιον The Seven Wonders of the World (or the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World) is a well known list of seven remarkable constructions of Classical antiquity. The British Museum is a Museum of human history and culture in London. Some fragments of the frieze (which are insufficient to suggest the form of the original) and other small finds were removed – some to London and some to the Archaeological Museum, Istanbul. In Architecture the frieze is the wide central section part of an Entablature and may be plain or &ndash in the Ionic or Corinthian order &ndash Other edifices excavated include:
Ephesus is believed to be the city of the Seven Sleepers. The Roman Martyrology mentions the Seven Sleepers of Ephesus under the date of 27 July, as follows "Commemoration of the seven Holy Sleeper of The story of the Seven Sleepers, who are considered saints by Christians and Muslims, tells that they were persecuted because of their belief in God and that they slept in a cave near Ephesus for centuries. A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth A Muslim (مسلم pronounced Muslim, not Muzlim) is an adherent of the Religion
Geography Physical Ionia was of small extent not exceeding 90 geographical miles in length from north to south with a breadth varying from 40 to 55 miles but to this The Ionian League ( Ancient Greek, Iōnes, koinon Iōnōn, koinē sunodos Iōnōn Latin commune consilium; also called