November 1944 – April 1985
|Succeeded by||Ramiz Alia|
|Born||16 October 1908|
Gjirokastër, Ottoman Empire
|Died||11 April 1985 (aged 76)|
|Political party||Albanian Party of Labour|
[ɛnˈvɛɾ ˈhɔdʒa], 16 October 1908 – 11 April 1985) was the leader of the People's Republic of Albania from the end of World War II until his death in 1985, as the First Secretary of the Communist Albanian Party of Labour. See also General Secretary. A number of International organizations, Communist parties and other bodies use the title Secretary The Party of Labour of Albania ( Partia e Punës e Shqipërisë, PPSh in Albanian was the sole legal Political party in Albania during Events in November All Saints' Day (formerly All Hallows Day a Christian holy day is celebrated on November 1, the day after Halloween Year 1944 ( MCMXLIV) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. April holidays and events National Poetry Month - in United States National Sexual Assault Awareness Month - in United Year 1985 ( MCMLXXXV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link displays 1985 Gregorian calendar) (born October 18, 1925) was the communist leader of Albania from 1985 to 1992 and President of the Republic of Albania from 1991 to 1992 Events 456 - Magister militum Ricimer defeats the Emperor Avitus at Piacenza and becomes master of the western Year 1908 ( MCMVIII) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year Gjirokastër or Gjirokastra ( Albanian ɟɪɾokaˈstəɾ Ljurocastru Αργυρόκαστρο Argyrókastro) is a City The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish Events 491 - Flavius Anastasius becomes Byzantine Emperor, with the name of Anastasius I. Year 1985 ( MCMLXXXV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link displays 1985 Gregorian calendar) Tirana (Tiranë or Tirana is the Capital and largest city of the Republic of Albania. This article is about the country in southern Europe For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Albania topics. This article is about the country in southern Europe For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Albania topics. The Party of Labour of Albania ( Partia e Punës e Shqipërisë, PPSh in Albanian was the sole legal Political party in Albania during (Xhuglini Nexhmije Hoxha ( Serbo-Croat: (Džuglini Nedžmije Hodža) dʒuglini nɛdʒmijɛ hɔdʒa (born February 7, 1921, Bitolj Events 456 - Magister militum Ricimer defeats the Emperor Avitus at Piacenza and becomes master of the western Year 1908 ( MCMVIII) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year Events 491 - Flavius Anastasius becomes Byzantine Emperor, with the name of Anastasius I. Year 1985 ( MCMLXXXV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link displays 1985 Gregorian calendar) Socialist People's Republic of Albania (Albanian Republika Popullore Socialiste e Shqipërisë) was the official name of Albania during the communist rule World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including See also General Secretary. A number of International organizations, Communist parties and other bodies use the title Secretary Communism is a Socioeconomic structure that promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless, stateless Society based The Party of Labour of Albania ( Partia e Punës e Shqipërisë, PPSh in Albanian was the sole legal Political party in Albania during He was also Prime Minister of Albania from 1944 to 1954 and Minister of Foreign Affairs from 1946 to 1953. List of Heads of Government of Albania (1912-Present Principality of Albania (1912-1920 Prime Ministers Ismail Qemali Hoxha's rule was characterized by isolation from the rest of Europe and his proclaimed firm adherence to anti-revisionist Marxist-Leninism, which has been dubbed "Hoxhaism". In the Marxist-Leninist movement an anti-revisionist is one who favors the line of theory and practice associated with Marx - Engels - Lenin Marxism-Leninism is a Communist ideological stream that emerged as the mainstream tendency amongst the Communist parties in the 1920s as it was adopted  Albania's government of the time projected the image that it had emerged from semi-feudalism to become an industrialized state. Feudalism, a term first used in the early modern period (17th century in its most classic sense refers to a Medieval Europe Political system composed is a process of social and economic change whereby a human group is transformed from a Pre-industrial society into an industrial one, (pronounced
Hoxha was born in Gjirokastër, a city in southern Albania that has been home to many prominent families. Gjirokastër or Gjirokastra ( Albanian ɟɪɾokaˈstəɾ Ljurocastru Αργυρόκαστρο Argyrókastro) is a City Greek minority In Albania, Greeks are considered a "national minority" He was the son of a Sunni Islamic Tosk cloth merchant who traveled widely across Europe during his childhood, and the major influence on Enver during these years was his uncle, Hysen Hoxha (/hy'sɛn 'hɔʤa/). Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam. Sunni Islam is also referred to as Ahl as-Sunnah wa’l-Jamā‘h (Arabic A Muslim (مسلم pronounced Muslim, not Muzlim) is an adherent of the Religion Tosk is the southern dialect of the Albanian language. The line of demarcation between Tosk and Gheg (the northern dialect is the Shkumbin River. Hysen Hoxha was a militant who campaigned vigorously for the independence of Albania, which occurred when Enver was four years old. Enver took to these ideas very strongly, especially after King Zog came to power in 1928. Zog I Skanderbeg III of the Albanians ref> (born Ahmet Zogolli, later changed to Ahmet Zogu) (October 8 1895 &ndash April 9 1961 was King His uncle was among the independence proclaimers and subscribers. He is present in a photo of the celebration of the independence of Albania.
In 1930, Hoxha went to study at the University of Montpellier in France on a state scholarship given to him by the Queen Mother, but he soon dropped out. The University of Montpellier (Université Montpellier was a French University in Montpellier in the Languedoc-Roussillon région This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. HRH The Queen Mother of the Albanians Sadijé Toptani ( Nëna Mbretëreshë i Shqiptarëvet) was born on August 28, 1876 in Tirana as the daughter From 1934 to 1936 he was a secretary at the Albanian consulate in Brussels, attached to the personnel office of Queen Mother Sadia. Brussels (Bruxelles pronounced; Brussel pronounced) officially the Brussels Capital-Region, is He returned to Albania in 1936 and became a teacher in Korçë. Korçë (Korçë or Korça is a major city in the Korçë District of south-eastern Albania, located at near the border with
Hoxha was dismissed from his teaching post following the 1939 Italian invasion for refusing to join the Albanian Fascist Party. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest The Italian invasion of Albania ( April 7 &ndash April 12, 1939) was a brief military campaign by the Kingdom of Italy against the Albanian The Albanian Fascist Party (Albanian Partia Fashiste e Shqipërisë -- PFSh was a fascist movement which held nominal power in Albania from 1939 when He opened a tobacco shop in Tirana where soon a small communist group started gathering. Tobacco is an Agricultural product recognized as an addictive drug processed from the fresh Leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. Tirana (Tiranë or Tirana is the Capital and largest city of the Republic of Albania. Yugoslav communists helped him found and become leader of the Albanian Communist Party (called Party of Labour afterwards) in November 1941. See also Kingdom of Yugoslavia, Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Yugoslavia ( Serbo-Croatian They also helped him start the resistance movement (National Liberation Army), which took power on 28 November or 29 November 1944. For the town in Argentina, see 28 de Noviembre. Events Events 1777 - San Jose California, is founded as el Pueblo de San José de Guadalupe Year 1944 ( MCMXLIV) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Strong disagreement exists among leftist and rightist Albanian political factions with respect to the precise date of the day of liberation. In Politics, right-wing, the political right, and the Right are positions that uphold traditional values and/or authorities
After the liberation from the fascist occupation on 29 November 1944, several Albanian partisan divisions crossed the border into German occupied Yugoslavia and there contributed to the chasing out of the last pockets of German resistance alongside Tito's partisans and the Soviet Red Army. A partisan is a member of an Irregular military force formed to oppose control of an area by a foreign power or by an army of occupation The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 The Red Army ( Russian: Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия R aboche- K rest'yanskaya K rasnaya A rmiya This was during the last months of the German occupation of Yugoslavia. Marshal Josip Broz Tito, during a Yugoslavian conference in his latter years thanked Hoxha for the assistance the Albanian partisans gave during the War for National Liberation (Lufta Nacionalçlirimtare). The terms National Liberation Army or National Liberation War were used in both Albania and Yugoslavia. Albanians celebrate their independence day on November 28 (which is when they were declared independent from the Ottoman Empire in 1912), while the National Liberation festivity date is 29 November in the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Events 1777 - San Jose California, is founded as el Pueblo de San José de Guadalupe The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia ( Serbo-Croatian, Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian, Slovene, Macedonian:
Hoxha declared himself a Marxist-Leninist and strongly admired Joseph Stalin. Communism is a Socioeconomic structure that promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless, stateless Society based See also Marxian economics, Marxism Marxist philosophy or Marxist theory are terms which cover work in Philosophy Class struggle is the active expression of Class conflict looked at from any kind of socialist perspective International Socialism redirects here For the journal of the same name see International Socialism (journal Proletarian internationalism is a A Political party described as a communist party includes those that advocate the application of the social principles of Communism through a communist form of Marxism is the political philosophy and practice derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. Leninism refers to various related political and economic theories elaborated by Bolshevik revolutionary leader Vladimir Lenin. Trotskyism is the theory of Marxism as advocated by Leon Trotsky. Maoism, variably and officially known as Mao Zedong Thought ( is a variant of Marxism derived from the teachings of the late Chinese leader The Juche Idea (주체사상 Juche Sasang) is the official state Ideology of North Korea and the Political system based on it Left communism is the range of communist viewpoints held by the Communist Left, which opposes the political ideas of the Bolsheviks Council communism is a Far-left movement originating in Germany and the Netherlands in the 1920s Religious communism is a form of Communism centered on religious principles Eurocommunism was a new trend in the 1970s and 1980s within various Western European communist parties to develop a theory and practice of social transformation that National Communism, is an Islamic form of Communism which had a strong Nationalist element The Communist League was the first Marxist international organisation The Second International (1889-1916 was an organization of socialist and labour parties formed in Paris on July 14, 1889. The Comintern ( Com munist Intern ational also known as the Third International) was an international Communist organisation founded in Moscow The Fourth International ( FI) is a communist international organisation working in opposition to both Capitalism and Stalinism. Friedrich Engels (28 November 1820 – 5 August 1895 was a German social scientist and philosopher, who Rosa Luxemburg (Róża Luksemburg 5 March 1870 or 1871 15 January 1919 was a Polish-born Jewish German Marxist theorist, socialist Joseph Stalin ( ნამდვილი გვარი ჯუღაშვილი|Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili; March 5 1953 was General Secretary of the Communist Party Leon Trotsky ( Russian:, Lev Davidovich Trotsky, also transliterated Leo, Lyev, Trotskii, Trotski, Trotskij Mao Zedong ( 26 December 1893 – 9 September 1976) was a Chinese Military and political leader who led Anarchism is a Political philosophy encompassing theories and attitudes which support the elimination of all compulsory Government, i Anti-capitalism describes a wide variety of movements ideas and attitudes which oppose Capitalism. Anti-communism refers to opposition to Communism. Historically the word "communism" has been used to refer to several types of communal social organization and Communist state is a term used by many Political scientists to describe a Form of government in which the State operates under a one-party system Communist symbolism consists of a series of Symbols that represent (either literally or figuratively a variety of themes associated with communism Criticisms of Communism can be divided in two broad categories Those concerning themselves with the practical aspects of 20th century Communist state and those concerning Democratic centralism is the name given to the principles of internal organization used by Leninist political parties and the term is sometimes used as a synonym for any Leninist The " dictatorship of the proletariat " or workers' state is a term employed by Marxists that refers to what they see as a temporary state between the This article intentionally focuses only on the history of communism as a self-contained self-aware political movement Luxemburgism (also written Luxembourgism) is a specific revolutionary theory within Communism, based on the writings of Rosa Luxemburg. The New Class is a term to describe the privileged Ruling class of Bureaucrats and Communist party functionaries which typically arises in a Stalinist The New Left were the Left-wing movements in different countries in the 1960s and 1970s that unlike the earlier leftist focus on union activism instead adopted a Post-Communism is a name sometimes given to the period of political and economic Transition in former Communist states located in parts of Europe and Primitive communism is A term usually associated with Karl Marx, but most fully elaborated by Friedrich Engels (in The Origin of the Family 1884 and referring Socialism refers to a broad set of economic theories of social organization advocating state or collective ownership and administration of the Means of production and distribution Stalinism is the political regime named after Joseph Stalin, leader of the Soviet Union from 1929–1953 Socialist economics is a broad and sometimes controversial term Titoism is an adaptation of communist ideology named after Josip Broz Tito, leader of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, primarily used to describe The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 Joseph Stalin ( ნამდვილი გვარი ჯუღაშვილი|Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili; March 5 1953 was General Secretary of the Communist Party Molotov redirects here For other uses see Molotov (disambiguation. Marxism-Leninism is a Communist ideological stream that emerged as the mainstream tendency amongst the Communist parties in the 1920s as it was adopted Joseph Stalin ( ნამდვილი გვარი ჯუღაშვილი|Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili; March 5 1953 was General Secretary of the Communist Party He adopted the model of the Soviet Union and severed relations with his former Yugoslav communist allies following their ideological breach with Moscow in 1948. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia ( Serbo-Croatian, Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian, Slovene, Macedonian: Defence minister Koçi Xoxe (/'kɔʧi 'ʣɔʣɛ/) was executed a year later for alleged pro-Yugoslav activities. Koçi Xoxe (kɔtʃi dzɔdzɛ 1917&ndash June 11, 1949) was the Defence and Interior Minister of Albania for some time under Enver Hoxha until By 1949 the United States and British intelligence organizations were working with King Zog and the mountainmen of his personal guard. Zog I Skanderbeg III of the Albanians ref> (born Ahmet Zogolli, later changed to Ahmet Zogu) (October 8 1895 &ndash April 9 1961 was King They recruited Albanian refugees and émigrés from Egypt, Italy, and Greece; trained them in Cyprus, Malta, and the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany); and infiltrated them into Albania. Guerrilla units entered Albania in 1950 and 1952, but Albanian security forces killed or captured all of them. Kim Philby, a Soviet double agent working as a liaison officer between the British intelligence service and the United States Central Intelligence Agency, had leaked details of the infiltration plan to Moscow, and the security breach claimed the lives of about 300 infiltrators. Harold Adrian Russell "Kim" Philby or HAR Philby ( OBE: 1946-1965 ( 1 January, 1912 – 11 May, 1988)
By 1950, many reforms were instituted. Illiteracy gradually dropped from around 80-85% to that equal to the United States by 1985. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the  The regime confiscated farmland from wealthy landowners and consolidated it into collective farms, imprisoning and executing thousands in the process, though also averting famine and greatly improving the quality of agriculture, making Albania nearly self-sufficient in that regard. Collective farming is an organization of agricultural production in which the holdings of several farmers are run as a joint enterprise  The practice of blood feud was made illegal and by 1970, women, who previously were not allowed to hold paying jobs, were given equality and were encouraged to take up jobs in order to help the economy. In line with Albania 's ancient social code known as Kanuni i Lekë Dukagjinit or simply Kanun ( English: The Code of Lekë Dukagjini Industry, almost non-existent in 1944, contributed over 50% of the GDP by the 1980s. The 1980s was the decade spanning from January 1 1980 to December 31 1989.  Malaria-infested swamplands were drained, and life expectancy rose from 38 to 71 by 1985. The nation's first university, the University of Tirana, was founded in 1957. University of Tirana ( Universiteti i Tiranës) is located in Tirana, Albania. In 1969, direct taxation was abolished. 
However, telephone communication, long established in every household in Albania's neighboring countries, was rare in most areas. In fact, very few Albanians other than higher-echelon party apparatchiks had access to such services despite Communist party claims that telephones were present across Albania. Apparatchik ( Russian: аппара́тчик plural apparatchiki) is a Russian colloquial term for a full-time professional Functionary Hoxha's legacy also included a complex of 750,000 one-man concrete bunkers across a country of 3 million inhabitants, to act as look-outs and gun emplacements. A military bunker is a hardened shelter often buried partly or fully underground designed to protect the inhabitants from falling bombs or other attacks The bunkers were built strong and mobile, with the intention that they could be easily placed by a crane or a helicopter in a previously dug hole. The types of bunkers vary from machine gun pillboxes, beach bunkers, to naval underground facilities, and even Air Force Mountain and underground bunkers. There were over 700,000 pillboxes built and around 500,000 pillboxes were reported to still be in good condition and ready to serve in case of war.
Hoxha had remained a firm Stalinist despite new Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev's repudiation of Stalin's excesses in 1956 at the Twentieth Party Congress of the Soviet Communist Party, and this meant Albania's isolation from the rest of communist Eastern Europe. Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES Stalinism is the political regime named after Joseph Stalin, leader of the Soviet Union from 1929–1953 Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (April 17 1894 – September 11 1971 served as First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964 following The 20th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was held during February 14 26 1956. In 1960, Hoxha aligned Albania with the People's Republic of China, which also continued to uphold Stalin's legacy, in the Sino-Soviet split, severing relations with Moscow the following year. Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES The Sino-Soviet split was a gradual divergence of diplomatic ties between the People's Republic of China (PRC and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR Moscow (Москва́ romanised: Moskvá, IPA: see also other names) is the Capital and the largest city of In 1968, Albania withdrew from the Warsaw Pact in response to the Soviet-led invasion of Czechoslovakia. The Warsaw Pact (see Nomenclature) was an organization of Communist states in Central and Eastern Europe. Czechoslovakia may also refer to what is now the Czech Republic and Slovakia.
Hoxha's internal policies were true to the Stalinist paradigm he admired, and the personality cult organized around him bore a striking resemblance to that of Stalin. Internally, the "Sigurimi" Albanian secret police made sure to replicate the repressive methods of the NKVD, MGB, KGB, and Stasi. The NKVD ( НКВД, ru Народный Комиссариат Внутренних Дел ''Narodnyy Komissariat Vnutrennikh Del'') or People's Commissariat KGB ( Transliteration of "КГБ" is the Russian abbreviation of Committee for State Security ( Komityet Gosudarstvennoy Bezopasnosty For the regular police in East Germany see Volkspolizei. The Ministerium für Staatssicherheit ( Ministry for State Security Its activities permeated Albanian society to the extent that every third citizen had either served time in labor camps or been interrogated by Sigurimi officers. To eliminate dissent, the government resorted systematically to purges, in which opponents were dismissed from their jobs, imprisoned in forced-labour camps, and often executed. Travel abroad was forbidden to all but those on official business. Western-style dancing was banned, and art was made to reflect the styles of socialist realism. Socialist realism is a teleologically -oriented style of realistic art which has as its purpose the furtherance of the goals of Socialism and Communism
In 1967, following two decades of progressively harsher persecution of religion under his rule, Hoxha triumphantly declared his nation to be the first and only officially atheist state in history. A religion is a set of Tenets and practices often centered upon specific Supernatural and moral claims about Reality, the Cosmos Atheism Partly inspired by China's Cultural Revolution, he proceeded to confiscate mosques, churches, monasteries, and shrines. The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution in the People’s Republic of China was a struggle for power within the Communist Party of China that manifested into Many were immediately razed, others were turned into machine shops, warehouses, stables, and movie theaters. Parents were forbidden to give their children religious names. Anyone caught with the Qur'an, the Bible, icons, or religious objects faced long prison sentences. The Qur’an ( القرآن, literally "the recitation" also sometimes transliterated as Qur’ān, Koran, Alcoran Etymology According to the Online Etymology Dictionary, the word bible is from Latin biblia, traced from the same word through Medieval Latin and Late Latin An icon (from Greek εἰκών eikōn, "image" is a religious work of art most commonly a painting from Eastern Christianity. 
According to a landmark Amnesty International report published in 1984, Albania's human rights record was dismal under Hoxha. Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a Western based international Non-governmental organization which defines its mission as "to Human rights refers to the "basic Rights and freedoms to which all humans are entitled The regime denied its citizens freedom of expression, religion, movement, and association although the constitution of 1976 ostensibly guaranteed each of these rights. Freedom of speech is the freedom to speak freely without Censorship or Limitation. A constitution is a system for government often Codified as a written document that establishes the rules and principles of an autonomous political entity In fact, certain clauses in the constitution effectively circumscribed the exercise of political liberties that the regime interpreted as contrary to the established order. In addition, the regime denied the population access to information other than that disseminated by the government-controlled media. The Sigurimi routinely violated the privacy of persons, homes, and communications and made arbitrary arrests. The Drejtoria e Sigurimit të Shtetit (Directorate of State Security commonly called the Sigurimi, was Albania 's Secret police agency The courts ensured that verdicts were rendered from the party's political perspective instead of affording due process to the accused, who were often sentenced without even the formality of a trial.
Hoxha was unhappy with China's rapprochement with the United States in the early seventies, although he had himself normalized relations with Albania's neighbors immediately before Mao's death in 1976. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The defeat of the Gang of Four in China's subsequent inner-party struggle in 1977 and 1978 led to the Sino-Albanian split and Albania's retreat into political isolation, with Hoxha claiming the anti-revisionist mantle to criticize both Moscow and Beijing. The Gang of Four ( was the name given to a leftist political faction composed of four Chinese Communist party officials The Sino-Albanian split ( Chinese: 中阿破裂 Pinyin: Zhōng-Ā pòliè in 1978 saw the parting of the People's Republic of China (PRC and Socialist In the Marxist-Leninist movement an anti-revisionist is one who favors the line of theory and practice associated with Marx - Engels - Lenin Moscow (Москва́ romanised: Moskvá, IPA: see also other names) is the Capital and the largest city of Deprived of its last main trading partner, Hoxha's Albania became a near-autarky from 1976 onwards. An autarky is an economy that is self-sufficient and does not take part in International trade, or severely limits trade with the outside world It was not until economic growth stopped in the mid-1970s that he began to normalize relations with Yugoslavia and attempted to increase relations with Western Europe. The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia ( Serbo-Croatian, Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian, Slovene, Macedonian: Western Europe at its most general meaning means 'all the countries in the West of Europe '
In 1981, Hoxha ordered the execution of several party and government officials in a new purge. Prime Minister Mehmet Shehu was reported to have committed suicide following a further dispute within the Albanian leadership in December 1981, but it is widely believed that he was killed. Mehmet Ismail Shehu ( January 10, 1913 – December 17, 1981) was an Albanian Communist politician who served as premier of Albania Year 1981 ( MCMLXXXI) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981
Later, Hoxha withdrew into semi-retirement due to failing mental and physical health and turned most state functions over to Ramiz Alia. (born October 18, 1925) was the communist leader of Albania from 1985 to 1992 and President of the Republic of Albania from 1991 to 1992 He suffered from continuous dreams about the return of the Monarchy and King Zog. In his final days he was confined to a wheelchair and was suffering from diabetes, which he had suffered from since 1948. Diabetes mellitus (ˌdaɪəˈbiːtiːz or /ˌdaɪəˈbiːtəs/ /məˈlaɪtəs/ or /ˈmɛlətəs/ often referred to simply as diabetes ( Ancient Greek: grc Year 1948 ( MCMXLVIII) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
Hoxha's death on 11 April 1985 left Albania with a legacy of isolation, and fear of the outside world, despite progress made by Hoxha. Events 491 - Flavius Anastasius becomes Byzantine Emperor, with the name of Anastasius I. Year 1985 ( MCMLXXXV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link displays 1985 Gregorian calendar) As communist party rule weakened throughout Eastern Europe, his succession by Ramiz Alia led to some relaxation in internal and foreign policies, culminating in Albania's abandonment of one-party rule in 1990 and the reformed Socialist Party's defeat in the 1992 elections. (born October 18, 1925) was the communist leader of Albania from 1985 to 1992 and President of the Republic of Albania from 1991 to 1992 Year 1990 ( MCMXC) was a Common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar) Year 1992 ( MCMXCII) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar)
Enver Hoxha, a communist, embraced ideas of internationalism and brotherhood among different peoples. This point of view made Hoxha very close to Yugoslavian communists during World War II and afterwards until the break-up of 1948. Year 1948 ( MCMXLVIII) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Such ideals are thought to be the reason why Hoxha decided to fight against Albanian nationalists who pushed for a greater Albania. The term Greater Albania or Great Albania refers to land which is outside the borders of the Republic of Albania that Albanian nationalists claim as their own because However, especially in the 1980s, Hoxha used several speeches to gain popularity among Albanians in Yugoslavia. During the demonstrations in Kosovo in 1981, ethnic Albanians of Yugoslavia largely identified with Enver Hoxha as a symbol of nationalism. 
King Victor Emmanuel III (de jure)
|Leader of Albania|
|Chairman of the Council of Ministers of Albania|