|Born||29 September 1901|
|Died||November 28, 1954 (aged 53)|
Chicago, Illinois, U.S.
United States (1944-1954)
|Institutions||Scuola Normale Superiore in Pisa|
University of Göttingen
University of Leiden
University of Rome La Sapienza
University of Chicago
|Alma mater||Scuola Normale Superiore|
|Doctoral advisor||Luigi Puccianti|
|Doctoral students||Owen Chamberlain|
Jerome I. Friedman
Marvin Leonard Goldberger
|Known for||New radioactive elements produced by neutron irradiation|
Controlled nuclear chain reaction,
Theory of beta decay
|Notable awards||Nobel Prize for Physics (1938)|
Enrico Fermi (September 29, 1901 – November 28, 1954) was an Italian physicist most noted for his work on the development of the first nuclear reactor, and for his contributions to the development of quantum theory, nuclear and particle physics, and statistical mechanics. Events 522 BC - Darius I of Persia kills the Magian usurper Gaumâta securing his hold as king of the Persian Empire. Year 1901 ( MCMI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest For the town in Argentina, see 28 de Noviembre. Events Year 1954 ( MCMLIV) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1954 Gregorian calendar) Chicago (ʃɪˈkɑːgoʊ is the largest City by population in the state of Illinois and the American Midwest of the United States. The State of Illinois ( roughly ill-i-NOY is a state of the United States of America, the 21st to be admitted to the Union. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Physics (Greek Physis - φύσις in everyday terms is the Science of Matter and its motion. The Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa, also known in Italian as Scuola Normale (English Normal School) is a higher learning institution in Italy. Pisa is a city in Tuscany, central Italy, on the right bank of the mouth of the Arno River on the Ligurian Sea. The University of Göttingen ( German: Georg-August-Universität Göttingen) is a University in the city of Göttingen, Germany. Leiden University (Universiteit Leiden located in the city of Leiden, is the oldest University in The Netherlands. Sapienza University of Rome ( Italian Sapienza Università di Roma) is a coeducational autonomous state university in Rome, Italy Columbia University is a private University in the United States and a member of the Ivy League. The University of Chicago is a Private university located principally in the Hyde Park neighborhood of Chicago. Alma mater is Latin for "nourishing mother" It was used in Ancient Rome as a title for the mother Goddess, and in Medieval The Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa, also known in Italian as Scuola Normale (English Normal School) is a higher learning institution in Italy. A doctorate is an Academic degree that indicates the highest level of academic achievement Luigi Puccianti (1875 - 1952 is notable for having constructed a highly sensitive Spectrograph, with which he studied the infrared absorption of manycompounds and attempted Owen Chamberlain ( July 10, 1920 &ndash February 28, 2006) was an American Physicist, and Nobel laureate in physics Geoffrey Chew (born 1924 is an American Theoretical physicist. Mildred S Dresselhaus (born Mildred Spiewak on November 11 1930 in The Bronx, New York) is an Institute Professor Jerome Isaac Friedman (born March 28, 1930) is an American Physicist. Marvin Leonard Goldberger (born 22 October 1922 in Chicago Illinois is a theoretical Physicist and former president of the California Tsung-Dao Lee ( TD Lee,) (born November 24, 1926) is a Chinese -born American Physicist, well known for his work Ettore Majorana ( 5 August 1906, Catania, Sicily, Italy – 27 March 1938 presumed dead) was an Leo James Rainwater ( December 9, 1917 &ndash May 31, 1986) was an American physicist who shared the Nobel Prize for Physics Marshall Nicholas Rosenbluth ( 5 February 1927 – 28 September 2003) was an American plasma physicist and member of Emilio Gino Segrè ( February 1, 1905 – April 22, 1989) was an Italian Physicist and Nobel laureate in Jack Steinberger (born May 25, 1921) is a German - American Physicist currently residing near Geneva Switzerland } Sam Bard Treiman ( May 27, 1925 - November 30, 1999) was an American theoretical Physicist who produced important research in Radioactive decay is the process in which an unstable Atomic nucleus loses energy by emitting ionizing particles and Radiation. This article is a discussion of neutrons in general For the specific case of a neutron found outside the nucleus see Free neutron. A nuclear chain reaction occurs when one Nuclear reaction causes an average of one or more nuclear reactions thus leading to a self-propagating number of these reactions In Statistical mechanics, Fermi-Dirac statistics is a particular case of Particle statistics developed by Enrico Fermi and Paul Dirac that In Nuclear physics, beta decay is a type of Radioactive decay in which a Beta particle (an Electron or a Positron) is emitted The Nobel Prize in Physics (Nobelpriset i fysik is awarded once a year by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. Events 522 BC - Darius I of Persia kills the Magian usurper Gaumâta securing his hold as king of the Persian Empire. Year 1901 ( MCMI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting For the town in Argentina, see 28 de Noviembre. Events Year 1954 ( MCMLIV) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1954 Gregorian calendar) Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest This article is a subarticle of Nuclear power. A nuclear reactor is a device in which Nuclear chain reactions are initiated controlled Quantum mechanics is the study of mechanical systems whose dimensions are close to the Atomic scale such as Molecules Atoms Electrons Nuclear physics is the field of Physics that studies the building blocks and interactions of Atomic nuclei. Particle physics is a branch of Physics that studies the elementary constituents of Matter and Radiation, and the interactions between them Statistical mechanics is the application of Probability theory, which includes mathematical tools for dealing with large populations to the field of Mechanics Fermi was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1938 for his work on induced radioactivity and is today regarded as one of the top scientists of the 20th century. The Nobel Prize in Physics (Nobelpriset i fysik is awarded once a year by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. Induced radioactivity is when a previously stable material has been made Radioactive by exposure to specific Radiation. He is acknowledged as a unique physicist who was highly accomplished in both theory and experiment.  Fermium, a synthetic element created in 1952 is named after him. Fermium (ˈfɝmiəm is a Synthetic element with the symbol Fm and Atomic number 100 In chemistry the Chemical elements labeled as synthetic are too unstable to be found naturally on Earth. Year 1952 ( MCMLII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
Enrico Fermi was born in Rome, Italy. Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest His father was Alberto Fermi, a Chief Inspector of the Ministry of Communications, and his mother was Ida de Gattis, an elementary school teacher. As a young boy he enjoyed learning physics and mathematics and shared his interests with his older brother, Giulio. When Giulio died unexpectedly of a throat abscess in 1915, Enrico was distraught, and immersed himself into scientific study to distract himself. According to his own account, each day he would walk in front of the hospital where Giulio died until he became inured to the pain. Later, Enrico befriended another scientifically inclined student named Enrico Persico, and the two together engaged in scientific projects such as building gyroscopes, and measuring the magnetic field of the earth. Enrico Persico ( August 9, 1900 – June 17 1969) is an Italian physicist notable for propagating the field of Quantum mechanics in A gyroscope is a device for measuring or maintaining orientation, based on the principles of Angular momentum. In Physics, a magnetic field is a Vector field that permeates space and which can exert a magnetic force on moving Electric charges EARTH was a short-lived Japanese vocal trio which released 6 singles and 1 album between 2000 and 2001 Fermi's interest in physics was further encouraged when a friend of his father's gave him several books on physics and mathematics, which he read and assimilated. Physics (Greek Physis - φύσις in everyday terms is the Science of Matter and its motion. Mathematics is the body of Knowledge and Academic discipline that studies such concepts as Quantity, Structure, Space and
Fermi received his undergraduate and doctoral degree from the Scuola Normale Superiore in Pisa. The Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa, also known in Italian as Scuola Normale (English Normal School) is a higher learning institution in Italy. Pisa is a city in Tuscany, central Italy, on the right bank of the mouth of the Arno River on the Ligurian Sea. There was an entrance exam which candidates had to take in order to enter the prestigious institute, which included an essay. For his essay on the given theme Characteristics of Sound, 17-year-old Fermi chose to derive and solve the Fourier analysis based partial differential equation for waves on a string. The examiner interviewed Fermi and concluded that his essay would have been commendable even for a doctoral degree. At the Scuola Normale Superiore, Fermi teamed up with a fellow student named Franco Rasetti with whom he used to indulge in light hearted pranks. The Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa, also known in Italian as Scuola Normale (English Normal School) is a higher learning institution in Italy. Franco Dino Rasetti ( August 10, 1901 &ndash December 5, 2001) was an Italian scientist Later, Rasetti became Fermi's close friend and collaborator.
Fermi's Ph. D advisor was Luigi Puccianti. Luigi Puccianti (1875 - 1952 is notable for having constructed a highly sensitive Spectrograph, with which he studied the infrared absorption of manycompounds and attempted In 1924 Fermi spent a semester in Göttingen, and then stayed for a few months in Leiden with Paul Ehrenfest. Göttingen ( ˈgœtɪŋən, Low German: Chöttingen is a College town in Lower Saxony, Germany. "Leyden" redirects here For other uses see Leyden (disambiguation. Paul Ehrenfest ( January 18, 1880 – September 25, 1933) was an Austrian Physicist and Mathematician, who From January 1925 to the autumn of 1926 he stayed at the University of Florence. The University of Florence ( Università degli Studi di Firenze, UNIFI is one of the largest and oldest universities in Italy. In this period he wrote his work on the Fermi-Dirac statistics. In Statistical mechanics, Fermi-Dirac statistics is a particular case of Particle statistics developed by Enrico Fermi and Paul Dirac that When he was only 24 years old, Fermi took a professorship in Rome (the first for atomic physics in Italy, which he won in a competition created by professor Orso Mario Corbino, director of the Institute of Physics). The meaning of the word professor ( Latin: professor, person who professes to be an expert in some art or science teacher of highest rank) varies Sapienza University of Rome ( Italian Sapienza Università di Roma) is a coeducational autonomous state university in Rome, Italy Atomic physics (or atom physics) is the field of Physics that studies atoms as an isolated system of Electrons and an atomic nucleus. Orso Mario Corbino ( 30 April 1876, Augusta &ndash 23 January 1937, Rome) was an Italian Physicist Corbino helped Fermi in selecting his team, which soon was joined by notable minds like Edoardo Amaldi, Bruno Pontecorvo, Franco Rasetti and Emilio Segrè. Orso Mario Corbino ( 30 April 1876, Augusta &ndash 23 January 1937, Rome) was an Italian Physicist Edoardo Amaldi ( Carpaneto Piacentino 5 September 1908 - Roma 5 December 1989) was an Italian physicist Bruno Pontecorvo russian Бруно Понтекорво (Marina di Pisa Italy August 22, 1913 - Dubna Russia September 24, 1993 Franco Dino Rasetti ( August 10, 1901 &ndash December 5, 2001) was an Italian scientist Emilio Gino Segrè ( February 1, 1905 – April 22, 1989) was an Italian Physicist and Nobel laureate in For the theoretical studies only, Ettore Majorana also took part in what was soon nicknamed "the Via Panisperna boys" (after the name of the road in which the Institute had its labs). Ettore Majorana ( 5 August 1906, Catania, Sicily, Italy – 27 March 1938 presumed dead) was an The Via Panisperna boys (Italian I ragazzi di Via Panisperna) were a group of young scientists led by Enrico Fermi. The group went on with its now famous experiments, but in 1933 Rasetti left Italy for Canada and the United States, Pontecorvo went to France and Segrè left to teach in Palermo. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page The United States of America —commonly referred to as the This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Palermo ( Sicilian: Palermu, Greek: Panormus, al-Madinah during Muslim rule is a historic City in
During their time in Rome, Fermi and his group made important contributions to many practical and theoretical aspects of physics. Some of these include the theory of beta decay, and the discovery of slow neutrons, which was to prove pivotal for the working of nuclear reactors. In Nuclear physics, beta decay is a type of Radioactive decay in which a Beta particle (an Electron or a Positron) is emitted This article is a subarticle of Nuclear power. A nuclear reactor is a device in which Nuclear chain reactions are initiated controlled His group also systematically bombarded elements with slow neutrons, and during their experiments with uranium, narrowly missed observing nuclear fission. This article is a discussion of neutrons in general For the specific case of a neutron found outside the nucleus see Free neutron. Uranium (jʊˈreɪniəm is a silvery-gray Metallic Chemical element in the Nuclear fission is the splitting of the nucleus of an atom into parts (lighter nuclei) often producing Free neutrons and other smaller nuclei which may At that time, fission was thought to be improbable, if not impossible, mostly on theoretical grounds. While people expected elements with higher atomic number to form from neutron bombardment of lighter elements, nobody expected neutrons to have enough energy to actually split a heavier atom into two light element fragments. See also List of elements by atomic number In Chemistry and Physics, the atomic number (also known as the proton History See also Atomic theory, Atomism The concept that matter is composed of discrete units and cannot be divided into arbitrarily tiny However, the chemist Ida Noddack had criticised Fermi's work and had suggested that some of his experiments could have produced lighter elements. A chemist is a Scientist trained in the Science of Chemistry. Ida Noddack ( 25 February 1896 - 1978 Née Ida Tacke, was a German Chemist and Physicist. At the time, Fermi dismissed this possibility on the basis of calculations.
Fermi was well-known for his simplicity in solving problems. He began his inquiries with the simplest lines of mathematical reasoning, then later produced complete solutions to the problems he deemed worth pursuing. His abilities as the greatest combined theoretical and applied nuclear physicist of all time were acknowledged by and influenced many physicists who worked with him, such as Hans Bethe, who spent two semesters working with Fermi in the early 1930s. Hans Albrecht Bethe (/hans ˈalbʀɛçt ˈbeːtə/ ( July 2 1906 &ndash March 6, 2005) was a German - American Physicist From the time he was a boy, Fermi meticulously recorded his calculations in notebooks, and later used to solve many new problems that he encountered based on these earlier known problems.
When Fermi submitted his famous paper on beta decay to the prestigious journal Nature, the journal's editor turned it down because "it contained speculations which were too remote from reality". In Nuclear physics, beta decay is a type of Radioactive decay in which a Beta particle (an Electron or a Positron) is emitted Nature is a prominent Scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869 Editing Language, Images or Sound through correction condensation organization and other modifications in various media Thus, Fermi saw the theory published in Italian and in German before it was published in English. Italian ( or lingua italiana) is a Romance language spoken by about 63 million people as a First language, primarily in Italy. The German language (de ''Deutsch'') is a West Germanic language and one of the world's major languages. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States Nature eventually did publish Fermi's report on beta decay on January 16, 1939. Nature is a prominent Scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869 Events 27 BC - The title Augustus is bestowed upon Gaius Julius Caesar Octavian by the Roman Senate. Year 1939 ( MCMXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
Fermi remained in Rome until 1938.
In 1938, Fermi won the Nobel Prize in Physics at the age of 37 for his "demonstrations of the existence of new radioactive elements produced by neutron irradiation, and for his related discovery of nuclear reactions brought about by slow neutrons". The Nobel Prize in Physics (Nobelpriset i fysik is awarded once a year by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. Radioactive decay is the process in which an unstable Atomic nucleus loses energy by emitting ionizing particles and Radiation. Irradiation is the process by which an item is exposed to Radiation. In Nuclear physics, a nuclear reaction is the process in which two nuclei or nuclear particles collide to produce products different from the initial particles
After Fermi received the Nobel Prize in Stockholm, he, his wife Laura, and their children emigrated to New York. The Nobel Prize (Nobelpriset (Nobelprisen is a Swedish prize established in the 1895 will of Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel; it was first awarded in Peace, Literature ('stɔkhɔlm is Sweden 's Capital and its largest City. It is the site of the national Swedish government, the parliament, and the New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous This was mainly because of the anti-Semitic laws promulgated by the fascist regime of Benito Mussolini which threatened Laura, who was Jewish. Antisemitism (alternatively spelled anti-semitism or anti-Semitism; also rarely known as judeophobia) is the Prejudice against or hostility Fascism is a totalitarian nationalist and corporatist ideology Also, the new laws put most of Fermi's research assistants out of work.
Soon after his arrival in New York, Fermi began working at Columbia University. Columbia University is a private University in the United States and a member of the Ivy League.
In December 1938, the German chemists Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassmann sent a manuscript to Naturwissenschaften reporting they had detected the element barium after bombarding uranium with neutrons; simultaneously, they communicated these results to Lise Meitner. Otto Hahn (8 March 1879 &ndash 28 July 1968 was a German Chemist who received the 1944 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for discovering Nuclear fission Friedrich Wilhelm "Fritz" Strassman ( February 22, 1902 - April 22, 1980) was a German chemist who with Die Naturwissenschaften ( The Natural Sciences) is a weekly publication of the Max-Planck-Gesellschaft. Barium (ˈbɛəriəm is a Chemical element. It has the symbol Ba, and Atomic number 56 Uranium (jʊˈreɪniəm is a silvery-gray Metallic Chemical element in the This article is a discussion of neutrons in general For the specific case of a neutron found outside the nucleus see Free neutron. Lise Meitner (7 or 17 November 1878 &ndash 27 October 1968 was an Austrian born later Swedish physicist who studied Radioactivity and Meitner, and her nephew Otto Robert Frisch, correctly interpreted these results as being nuclear fission. Otto Robert Frisch ( 1 October 1904 &ndash 22 September 1979) Austrian British Physicist. Nuclear fission is the splitting of the nucleus of an atom into parts (lighter nuclei) often producing Free neutrons and other smaller nuclei which may  Frisch confirmed this experimentally on 13 January 1939.  In 1944, Hahn received the Nobel Prize for Chemistry for the discovery of nuclear fission. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry (Nobelpriset i kemi is awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to scientists in the various fields of Chemistry. Some historians have documented the history of the discovery of nuclear fission and believe Meitner should have been awarded the Nobel Prize with Hahn.   
Meitner’s and Frisch’s interpretation of the work of Hahn and Strassmann crossed the Atlantic Ocean with Niels Bohr, who was to lecture at Princeton University. Niels Henrik David Bohr (nels ˈb̥oɐ̯ˀ in Danish 7 October 1885 – 18 November 1962 was a Danish Physicist who made fundamental contributions to understanding Princeton University is a private Coeducational research university located in Princeton, New Jersey. Isidor Isaac Rabi and Willis Lamb, two Columbia University physicists working at Princeton, heard the news and carried it back to Columbia. Isidor Isaac Rabi ( July 29, 1898 &ndash January 11, 1988) Galician born Physicist, and Nobel laureate. Willis Eugene Lamb Jr ( July 12, 1913 &ndash May 15, 2008) was a Physicist who won the Nobel Prize in Physics in Columbia University is a private University in the United States and a member of the Ivy League. Rabi said he told Enrico Fermi; Fermi gave credit to Lamb. Bohr soon thereafter went from Princeton to Columbia to see Fermi. Not finding Fermi in his office, Bohr went down to the cyclotron area and found Herbert L. Anderson. Herbert L Anderson ( 24 May 1914 in New York City, New York &ndash 16 July, 1988 in Los Alamos, New Mexico Bohr grabbed him by the shoulder and said: “Young man, let me explain to you about something new and exciting in physics. ” It was clear to a number of scientists at Columbia that they should try to detect the energy released in the nuclear fission of uranium from neutron bombardment. On 25 January 1939, a Columbia University team conducted the first nuclear fission experiment in the United States, which was done in the basement of Pupin Hall; the members of the team were Herbert L. Anderson, Eugene T. Booth, John R. Dunning, Enrico Fermi, G. Norris Glasoe, and Francis G. Slack. Pupin Hall is the home of the physics and astronomy departments at Columbia University in New York City. Herbert L Anderson ( 24 May 1914 in New York City, New York &ndash 16 July, 1988 in Los Alamos, New Mexico Eugene Theodore Booth (1912 in Rome, Georgia &ndash 6 March 2004) was an American Nuclear physicist. John Ray Dunning ( September 24, 1907 in Shelby Nebraska - August 25, 1975 in Key Biscayne Florida) was an American G Norris Glasoe (1902 &ndash?) was an American Nuclear physicist. Francis Goddard Slack ( November 1, 1897 in Superior, Wisconsin &ndash 1985 was an American Physicist. The next day, at the Fifth Washington Conference on Theoretical Physics began in Washington, D.C. under the joint auspices of The George Washington University and the Carnegie Institution of Washington. Washington DC ( formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D The George Washington University ( GW or GWU) is a private coeducational university located in Washington D The Carnegie Institution for Science (also called the Carnegie Institution of Washington (CIW) is a organization in the United States established to support Scientific There, the news on nuclear fusion was spread even further, which fostered many more experimental demonstrations. 
Fermi then went to the University of Chicago and began studies that led to the construction of the first nuclear pile Chicago Pile-1. The University of Chicago is a Private university located principally in the Hyde Park neighborhood of Chicago. This article is a subarticle of Nuclear power. A nuclear reactor is a device in which Nuclear chain reactions are initiated controlled Chicago Pile-1 ( CP-1) was the world's first artificial Nuclear reactor.
Fermi recalled the beginning of the project in a speech given in 1954 when he retired as President of the American Physical Society:
In August of 1939 Leó Szilárd prepared and Albert Einstein signed the famous letter warning President Franklin D. Roosevelt of the probability that the Nazis were planning to build an atomic bomb. Leó Szilárd (Szilárd Leó February 11, 1898 – May 30, 1964) was an Hungarian - American Physicist who Albert Einstein ( German: ˈalbɐt ˈaɪ̯nʃtaɪ̯n; English: ˈælbɝt ˈaɪnstaɪn (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955 was a German -born theoretical The Einstein-Szilárd letter was a letter sent to President Franklin Delano Roosevelt on August 2 1939 signed by Albert Einstein but largely written by Leó A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from Nuclear reactions either fission or a combination of fission and fusion. Because of Hitler's September 1 invasion of Poland, it was October before they could arrange for the letter to be personally delivered. Hi and welcome to Wikipedia! Please understand that this article is frequently vandalized and vandalism is reverted immediately Events 462 - Possible start of first Byzantine indiction cycle. An invasion is a military offensive consisting of all or large parts of the Armed forces of one geopolitical entity aggressively entering territory Poland (Polska officially the Republic of Poland Roosevelt was concerned enough that the Uranium Committee was assembled and awarded Columbia University the first atomic energy funding of US$ 6,000. The S-1 Uranium Committee was a Committee of the National Defense Research Committee that superseded the Briggs Advisory Committee on Uranium and later evolved into Columbia University is a private University in the United States and a member of the Ivy League. However, due to bureaucratic fears of foreigners doing secret research, the money was not actually issued until Szilárd implored Einstein to send a second letter to the president in the spring of 1940. The money was used in studies which led to the first nuclear reactor — Chicago Pile-1, a massive "atomic pile" of graphite bricks and uranium fuel which went critical on December 2, 1942, built in a hard racquets court under Stagg Field, the football stadium at the University of Chicago. This article is a subarticle of Nuclear power. A nuclear reactor is a device in which Nuclear chain reactions are initiated controlled Chicago Pile-1 ( CP-1) was the world's first artificial Nuclear reactor. This article is a subarticle of Nuclear power. A nuclear reactor is a device in which Nuclear chain reactions are initiated controlled The Mineral graphite, as with Diamond and Fullerene, is one of the Allotropes of carbon. Uranium (jʊˈreɪniəm is a silvery-gray Metallic Chemical element in the A critical mass is the smallest amount of Fissile material needed for a sustained Nuclear chain reaction. Events 1409 - The University of Leipzig opens 1755 - The second Eddystone Lighthouse is destroyed by fire Year 1942 ( MCMXLII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Alonzo Stagg Field is the name of two different football fields for the University of Chicago. American football, known in the United States and Canada simply as football, is a competitive Team sport known for mixing strategy with The University of Chicago is a Private university located principally in the Hyde Park neighborhood of Chicago. Due to a mistranslation, Soviet reports on Enrico Fermi claimed that his work was performed in a converted "pumpkin field" instead of a "squash court", squash being an offshoot of hard racquets . Pumpkin is a Gourd -like squash of the genus Cucurbita and the family Cucurbitaceae (which also includes gourds Squash is a racquet sport that was formerly called squash racquets, a reference to the "squashable" soft ball used in the game (compared with the This experiment was a landmark in the quest for energy, and it was typical of Fermi's brilliance. Every step had been carefully planned, every calculation meticulously done by him. When the first self sustained nuclear chain reaction was achieved, a coded phone call was made by one of the physicists, Arthur Compton to James Conant, chairman of the National Defense Research Committee. Arthur Holly Compton (September 10 1892 &ndash March 15 1962 was an American physicist and Nobel laureate in physics for his discovery of the Compton effect James Bryant Conant ( March 26, 1893 &ndash February 11, 1978) was a Chemist, educational administrator and government official The conversation was in impromptu code:
This successful initiation of a chain-reacting pile was important not only for its help in assessing the properties of fission — needed for understanding the internal workings of an atomic bomb — but because it would serve as a pilot plant for the massive reactors which would be created in Hanford, Washington, which would then be used to produce the plutonium needed for the bombs used at the Trinity site and Nagasaki. The Hanford Site is a decommissioned nuclear production complex on the Columbia River in south-central Washington operated by the United States government Trinity was the first test of technology for a Nuclear weapon. ( is the Capital and the largest city of Nagasaki Prefecture in Japan. Eventually Fermi and Szilárd's reactor work was folded into the Manhattan Project. The World War II Manhattan Project developed the first Nuclear weapon (atomic bomb
Fermi moved to Los Alamos in the later stages of the Manhattan Project to serve as a general consultant. A consultant (from the Latin consultare means "to discuss" from which we also derive words such as consul and counsel) is a Professional He was sitting in the control room of the Hanford B Reactor when it first went critical in 1944. His broad knowledge of many fields of physics was useful in solving problems that were of an interdisciplinary nature.
He became a naturalized citizen of the United States of America in 1944. Naturalization is the acquisition of Citizenship or Nationality by somebody who was not a citizen or national of that country when he or she was born
|“||As the shock wave hit Base Camp, Aeby saw Enrico Fermi with a handful of torn paper. Jack W Aeby (born August 16 1923 is an American Engineer most famous for having taken the only well-exposed color Photograph of the first detonation "He was dribbling it in the air. When the shock wave came it moved the confetti. He thought for a moment. "|
Fermi had just estimated the yield of the first nuclear explosion. It was in the ball park. 
In Fermi's 1954 address to the APS he also said, "Well, this brings us to Pearl Harbor. The attack on Pearl Harbor (or Hawaii Operation, as it was called by the Imperial General Headquarters) was a surprise Military strike conducted by That is the time when I left Columbia University, and after a few months of commuting between Chicago and New York, eventually moved to Chicago to keep up the work there, and from then on, with a few notable exceptions, the work at Columbia was concentrated on the isotope separation phase of the atomic energy project, initiated by Booth, Dunning and Urey about 1940". Isotope separation is the process of concentrating specific Isotopes of a Chemical element by removing other isotopes for example separating Natural uranium
Fermi was widely regarded as the only physicist of the twentieth century who excelled both theoretically and experimentally (Snow, 1981) (see link below in 'References'). The well-known historian of physics, C. P. Snow, says about him, "If Fermi had been born a few years earlier, one could well imagine him discovering Rutherford's atomic nucleus, and then developing Bohr's theory of the hydrogen atom. Charles Percy Snow Baron Snow CBE ( 15 October 1905 &ndash 1 July 1980) was an English Physicist and Novelist Ernest Rutherford 1st Baron Rutherford of Nelson, OM, PC, FRS (30 August 1871 – 19 October 1937 was a New Zealand Physicist In Atomic physics, the Bohr model created by Niels Bohr depicts the Atom as a small positively charged nucleus surrounded by Electrons If this sounds like hyperbole, anything about Fermi is likely to sound like hyperbole". Fermi's ability and success stemmed as much from his appraisal of the art of the possible, as from his innate skill and intelligence. He disliked complicated theories, and while he had great mathematical ability, he would never use it when the job could be done much more simply. He was famous for getting quick and accurate answers to problems which would stump other people. An instance of this was seen during the first atomic bomb test in New Mexico on July 16 1945. New Mexico ( is a state located in the southwestern region of the United States of America. As the blast wave reached him, Fermi dropped bits of paper. By measuring the distance they were blown, he could compare to a previously computed table and thus estimate the bomb energy yield. He estimated that the blast was greater than 10 kilotons of TNT, the measured result was 18. Units of mass There are three similar units of Mass called the ton: Long ton (simply ton in countries such as the United Trinitrotoluene ( TNT) is a Chemical compound with the formula C6H2(NO23CH3 6. (Rhodes, page 674). Later on, this method of getting approximate and quick answers through back of the envelope calculations became informally known as the 'Fermi method'.
Fermi's most disarming trait was his great modesty, and his ability to do any kind of work, whether creative or routine. It was this quality that made him popular and liked among people of all strata, from other Nobel Laureates to technicians. Henry DeWolf Smyth, who was Chairman of the Princeton Physics department, had once invited Fermi over to do some experiments with the Princeton cyclotron. Henry DeWolf Smyth ( May 1, 1898 &ndash September 11, 1986) was an American Physicist, Diplomat, and a A cyclotron is a type of Particle accelerator. Cyclotrons accelerate Charged particles using a high- Frequency, alternating Voltage (potential Walking into the lab one day, Smyth saw the distinguished scientist helping a graduate student move a table, under another student's directions. Another time, a Du Pont executive made a visit to see him at Columbia. E I du Pont de Nemours and Company (,) is an American chemical company that was founded in July 1802 as a Gunpowder mill by Eleuthère Irénée Not finding him either in his lab or his office, the executive was surprised to find the Nobel Laureate in the machine shop, cutting sheets of tin with a big pair of shears. This is a list of Nobel Prize Laureates awarded for their outstanding contributions to Humanitarian causes for Peace, work in Literature
After the war, Fermi served for a short time on the General Advisory Committee of the Atomic Energy Commission, a scientific committee chaired by Robert Oppenheimer which advised the commission on nuclear matters and policy. The United States Atomic Energy Commission (AEC was an agency of the United States government established after World War II by Congress to foster and control After the detonation of the first Soviet fission bomb in August 1949, he, along with Isidor Rabi, wrote a strongly worded report for the committee which opposed the development of a hydrogen bomb on moral and technical grounds. Nuclear weapon designs are physical chemical and engineering arrangements that cause the physics package of a nuclear weapon to detonate Isidor Isaac Rabi ( July 29, 1898 &ndash January 11, 1988) Galician born Physicist, and Nobel laureate. But Fermi also participated in preliminary work on the hydrogen bomb at Los Alamos as a consultant, and along with Stanislaw Ulam, calculated that the amount of tritium needed for Edward Teller's model of a thermonuclear weapon would be prohibitive, and a fusion reaction could not be assured to propagate even with this large quantity of tritium. Stanisław Marcin Ulam ( April 13, 1909 &ndash May 13, 1984) was a Polish Mathematician who participated in the Manhattan Tritium (ˈtɹɪtiəm symbol or, also known as Hydrogen-3) is a radioactive Isotope of Hydrogen. Edward Teller (original Hungarian name Teller Ede) (January 15 1908 &ndash September 9 2003 was a Hungarian -American theoretical Physicist Nuclear weapon designs are physical chemical and engineering arrangements that cause the physics package of a nuclear weapon to detonate In Physics and Nuclear chemistry, nuclear fusion is the process by which multiple- like charged atomic nuclei join together to form a heavier nucleus
In his later years, Fermi did important work in particle physics, especially related to pions and muons. In Particle physics, pion (short for pi meson) is the collective name for three Subatomic particles, and. The muon (from the letter mu (μ--used to represent it is an Elementary particle with negative Electric charge and a spin of 1/2 He was also known to be an inspiring teacher at the University of Chicago, and was known for his attention to detail, simplicity, and careful preparation for a lecture. The University of Chicago is a Private university located principally in the Hyde Park neighborhood of Chicago. Later, his lecture notes, especially those for quantum mechanics, nuclear physics, and thermodynamics, were transcribed into books which are still in print. Quantum mechanics is the study of mechanical systems whose dimensions are close to the Atomic scale such as Molecules Atoms Electrons Nuclear physics is the field of Physics that studies the building blocks and interactions of Atomic nuclei. In Physics, thermodynamics (from the Greek θερμη therme meaning " Heat " and δυναμις dynamis meaning "
Also in these later years he mused about a proposition which is now referred to as the "Fermi Paradox". This absurd contradiction or proposition is this: that with the billions and billions of star systems in the universe, one would think that intelligent life would have contacted our civilization by now; yet this has not happened since it takes only about 600 years for a civilization to reach potential for annihilating itself with weapons of mass-destruction as it grows in knowledge exponentially.
Fermi died at age 53 of stomach cancer and was interred at Oak Woods Cemetery in Chicago, Illinois. Oak Woods Cemetery was established in 1854 – five years earlier than Rosehill and Calvary – on an area of 74  ha (183 Acres located at Chicago (ʃɪˈkɑːgoʊ is the largest City by population in the state of Illinois and the American Midwest of the United States. The State of Illinois ( roughly ill-i-NOY is a state of the United States of America, the 21st to be admitted to the Union. Two of his graduate students who assisted him in working on or near the nuclear pile also died of cancer. Fermi and his team knew that such work carried considerable risk but they considered the outcome so vital that they forged ahead with little regard for their own personal safety. 
As Eugene Wigner wrote: "Ten days before Fermi had died he told me, 'I hope it won't take long. Eugene Paul "EP" Wigner ( Hungarian Wigner Pál Jenő) ( November 17, 1902 &ndash January 1, 1995) was a ' He had reconciled himself perfectly to his fate".
A recent poll by Time magazine listed Fermi among the top twenty scientists of the century. Time (trademarked in capitals as TIME) is a weekly American Newsmagazine, similar to Newsweek and
The Fermilab particle accelerator and physics lab in Batavia, Illinois, is named after him in loving memory from the physics community. Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory ( Fermilab) located in Batavia near Chicago, Illinois, is a U Batavia is a city in DuPage and Kane Counties in the US state of Illinois.
Fermi 1 & Fermi 2 nuclear power plants in Newport, Michigan are also named after him, as are many schools such as Enrico Fermi High School in Enfield, Connecticut. The Enrico Fermi Nuclear Generating Station is a Nuclear power plant on the shore of Lake Erie near Monroe in Frenchtown Charter Township, Monroe Nuclear power is any Nuclear technology designed to extract usable Energy from atomic nuclei via controlled Nuclear reactions Berlin Charter Township is a Charter township of Monroe County in the U Michigan ( is a Midwestern state of the United States of America. Enfield is a town located in Hartford County, Connecticut, United States.
Fermi Court in Deep River, Ontario is named in his honour. Deep River (2006 population 4216 is a Town in Renfrew County, Ontario, Canada.
In 1952, element 100 on the periodic table of elements was isolated from the debris of a nuclear test. The periodic table of the chemical elements is a tabular method of displaying the Chemical elements Although precursors to this table exist its invention is In honor of Fermi's contributions to the scientific community, it was named fermium after him. Fermium (ˈfɝmiəm is a Synthetic element with the symbol Fm and Atomic number 100
Since the 1950s, the United States Atomic Energy Commission has named its highest honour, the Fermi Award, after him. The Enrico Fermi Award is a US government "Presidential" award honoring scientists of international stature for their lifetime achievement in the development use or production Recipients of the award include well-known scientists like Otto Hahn, Robert Oppenheimer, Freeman Dyson, John Wheeler and Hans Bethe. Otto Hahn (8 March 1879 &ndash 28 July 1968 was a German Chemist who received the 1944 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for discovering Nuclear fission Freeman John Dyson FRS (born December 15, 1923) is an English-born American theoretical Physicist and Mathematician, famous for his John Archibald Wheeler ( July 9, 1911 &ndash April 13, 2008) was an eminent American Theoretical physicist. Hans Albrecht Bethe (/hans ˈalbʀɛçt ˈbeːtə/ ( July 2 1906 &ndash March 6, 2005) was a German - American Physicist
Enrico Fermi's mother built her own pressure cooker ("Enrico Fermi, Physicist", Segre, University of Chicago Press, 1970) and perhaps this inspired Enrico to build the first nuclear reactor in 1942. A pressure cooker is metal containing steam pressure. Enrico's pile was graphite containing uranium from exploding (copyright Olivia Fermi 2001-2008, unpublished manuscript). In 1928, Fermi married Laura Capon. They had two children while living in Rome, Italy: a daughter Nella Fermi Weiner, PhD (1931–1995), artist and feminist; and a son Giulio ("Judd") Fermi, PhD (1936–1997). Laura and Enrico's son Giulio worked with the Nobel laureate Max Perutz on the structure of hemoglobin. Max Ferdinand Perutz, OM ( May 19 1914, Vienna, Austria – February 6 2002, Cambridge, Hemoglobin ( also spelled haemoglobin and abbreviated Hb or Hgb) is the Iron -containing Oxygen -transport Metalloprotein
Toward the end of his life, Enrico realized his faith in society at large to make wise choices about nuclear technology was questionable ("Fermi Remembered", Cronin, ed. , University of Chicago Press, 2004). Enrico Fermi said:
"Some of you may ask, what is the good of working so hard merely to collect a few facts which will bring no pleasure except to a few long-haired professors who love to collect such things and will be of no use to anybody because only few specialists at best will be able to understand them? In answer to such question[s] I may venture a fairly safe prediction.
History of science and technology has consistently taught us that scientific advances in basic understanding have sooner or later led to technical and industrial applications that have revolutionized our way of life. It seems to me improbable that this effort to get at the structure of matter should be an exception to this rule. What is less certain, and what we all fervently hope, is that man will soon grow sufficiently adult to make good use of the powers that he acquires over nature. " (Enrico Fermi, The Future of Nuclear Physics, unpublished address, Rochester, NY, January 10, 1953, EFP, box 53. )
His wife, Laura Fermi (1907–1977), early environmentalist, systems thinker, prolific writer and New York Times bestselling author of "Atoms in the Family: Life with Enrico Fermi, Architect of the Atomic Age" (University of Chicago Press, 1954) said, of our nuclear dilemma:
"But above all, there were the moral questions. I knew scientists had hoped that the bomb would not be possible, but there it was and it had already killed and destroyed so much. Was war or was science to be blamed? Should the scientists have stopped the work once they realized that a bomb was feasible? Would there always be war in the future? To these kinds of questions there is no simple answer. " (Laura Fermi, "Reminiscences of Los Alamos", edited by Lawrence Badash)
Rachel Fermi (1964–), photographer and teacher, Laura and Enrico Fermi's 3rd grandchild, continued to question the sanity of nuclear weapons in her book, published with Rachel Samra, introduction by Richard Rhodes: "Picturing the Bomb", Abrams pub, 1995). The authors juxtapose photos from the top secret world of the Manhattan Project with family photos from Los Alamos and Hanford.
Olivia Fermi (1957–), formerly Alice Caton, M. A. A. B. S. - Leadership in Human Systems, ConRes Cert, photoartist, writer and business consultant, Laura and Enrico's first grandchild, is currently researching the legacy of her grandparents for a series of books she plans to publish. http://fermieffect.com On September 29, 2001, shortly after the destruction of the World Trade Center in New York City, Olivia flew to Rome, Italy to deliver a speech to the International Conference: Enrico Fermi and the Universe of Physics. She had been invited to speak to this gathering of physicists as a representative of the Laura and Enrico Fermi family. Olivia said:
"All of us alive today, and all who will come after us, are heirs to Enrico Fermi’s scientific legacy. We all have a stake in it. Since the end of World War II, humanity has had knowledge of nuclear energy and its incredible potential for benefit as well as harm.
"Enrico Fermi gave us a lot. And there is more to be done. Enrico Fermi’s work, and the work of other scientists, exists in a world full of people who, in a certain way, are like Enrico. . . [funny anecdotes about occasional Enrico errors]. . . He, like all of us, was both brilliant and fallible.
"We have a collective, developmental task. We must learn to integrate our scientific knowledge and our human experience to find the answers to the nuclear dilemma, and to the many other dilemmas facing us today. . . . Our world has yet to find the right nuclear recipe – how to harness nuclear power for the benefit of all living things.
"We will need all of our human gifts to survive and flourish on this planet. From here, it looks to me like Enrico contributed all of his gifts. Now it’s up to us to contribute ours. We can look back to Enrico for inspiration, if we look to ourselves for the future. " (Olivia Fermi (formerly Alice Caton), "Enrico Fermi in the Family", Speech presented at: Proceedings of the International 'Enrico Fermi and the Universe of Physics' Rome, Sept 29 - Oct 2, 2001" Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei Istitutio Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, 2003). Her speech was translated into Italian and published by Promoteo, the Italian journal of arts and letters in the December 2001 issue. ("Fermi in Famiglia", Alice Caton (now Olivia Fermi), Promoteo Anno 19, Numero 76, Arnoldo Mondadori Editore, Dicembre 2001)
The two male grandchildren of Laura and Enrico are Olivia's brother: Paul Weiner, PhD (1959–), mathematician and professor; and Rachel's brother: Daniel Fermi (1971–). Between Paul and Rachel, there are four great-grandchildren of Laura and Enrico Fermi. These two children, four grandchildren and four great-grandchildren are all the direct descendents of Laura and Enrico Fermi.
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||Nobel Prize-winning physicist|
|DATE OF BIRTH||September 29, 1901|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Rome, Italy|
|DATE OF DEATH||November 28, 1954|
|PLACE OF DEATH||Chicago, Illinois, U.S.|
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