C is A's enclave and B's exclave.
D is an exclave of B, but not an enclave of A since it also shares a border with C.
In political geography, an enclave is a country or part of a country mostly surrounded by the territory of another country or wholly lying within the boundaries of another country, and an exclave is a part of a country which is geographically separated from the main part by surrounding "alien" territory. Political geography is the field of Human geography that is concerned with the study of both the spatially uneven outcomes of Political processes and the ways in which  Many entities are both enclaves and exclaves, but not all are simultaneously both.
Origin and usage
The word enclave crept into the jargon of diplomacy rather late in English, in 1868, coming from French, the lingua franca of diplomacy, with a sense inherited from late Latin inclavatus meaning 'shut in, locked up" (with a key, late Latin clavis). For Wikipedia jargon see WikipediaGlossary. For hacker slang see Jargon File. Diplomacy is the art and practice of conducting Negotiations between representatives of groups or states English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people A lingua franca (from Italian, literally meaning Frankish language, see etymology under Sabir and Italian below is any Language widely Diplomacy is the art and practice of conducting Negotiations between representatives of groups or states Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. The word exclave is a logical extension created three decades later.
Although the meanings of both words are close, an exclave may not necessarily be an enclave or vice versa. For example, Kaliningrad, an exclave of Russia, is not an enclave because it is surrounded not by one state, but by two: Lithuania and Poland; it also borders the Baltic Sea. Kaliningrad (Калининград is a Seaport and the administrative center of Kaliningrad Oblast, the Russian Exclave between Poland Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending Lithuania, officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika is a Country in Eastern often referred to as Northern Europe or in the Poland (Polska officially the Republic of Poland The Baltic Sea is a Brackish inland sea located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N Latitude and from 20°E to 26°E Longitude. On the other hand, Lesotho is an enclave in South Africa, but it is not politically attached to anything else, meaning that it is not an exclave. Lesotho (lɪˈsuːtuː) officially the Kingdom of Lesotho, is a Landlocked country and Enclave — entirely surrounded by the Republic of South The Republic of South Africa (also known by other official names) is a country located at the southern tip of the continent of Africa
In British administrative history, subnational enclaves were usually called detachments. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located In English ecclesiastic history, subnational enclaves were known as peculiars (see also Royal Peculiar). England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland Ecclesiology (from Greek grc ἐκκλησίᾱ ekklēsiā, "congregation church" and grc -λογία -logia) is the study of the History is the study of the past particularly the written record Those who study history as a Profession are called Historians Etymology A Royal Peculiar (or Royal Peculier) is a place of worship that falls directly under the jurisdiction of the British monarch, rather than a Diocese
A country almost surrounded by another but having access to the sea is not considered to be an enclave. For this reason, The Gambia is not an enclave of Senegal. Senegal (le Sénégal officially the Republic of Senegal, is a country south of the Sénégal River in western Africa.
Usage in other fields
In medicine, an exclave is a detached part of an organ, as of the pancreas, thyroid, or other gland.
Enclaves may be created for a variety of historical, political or geographical reasons. History is the study of the past particularly the written record Those who study history as a Profession are called Historians Etymology Politics Politics is the process by which groups of people make decisions Geography (from Greek γεωγραφία - geografia) is the study of the Earth and its lands features inhabitants and phenomena Some areas have been left as enclaves by changes in the course of a river.
Since living in an enclave can be very inconvenient and many agreements have to be found by both countries over mail addresses, power supply or passage rights, enclaves tend to be eliminated and many cases that existed before have now been removed.
Many exclaves today have an independence movement, especially if the exclave is far away from the mainland. Independence is the Self-government of a Nation, Country, or State by its residents and population or some portion thereof generally exercising
- See List of enclaves and exclaves. In Political geography, an enclave is a piece of land which is totally surrounded by a foreign territory and an exclave is one which is politically attached to a
This refers to those territories where a country is sovereign, but which cannot be reached without entering one particular other country. One example was West Berlin, before the reunification of Germany, which was de facto a West German exclave within East Germany, and thus an East German enclave (many small West Berlin land areas, such as Steinstücken, were in turn separated from the main one, some by only a few meters). West Berlin was the name given to the western part of Berlin between 1949 and 1990 Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. West Germany ( Inf German: Westdeutschland or West-Deutschland) was the common English name for the Federal Republic of Germany ( The German Democratic Republic ( GDR; Deutsche Demokratische Republik DDR; commonly known in English as East Germany) was a Socialist state Steinstücken, a small settlement with approximately 200 inhabitants is the southernmost territory of the Berlin borough of Steglitz-Zehlendorf. De jure all of Berlin was ruled by the four Allied powers; this meant that West Berlin could not send voting members to the German Parliament, and that its citizens were exempt from conscription. Conscription (also known as the draft, the call-up or national service) is a general term for involuntary labor demanded by some established authority
Most of the enclaves now existing are to be found in Asia, with a handful in Africa and Europe. While administrative enclaves are found frequently elsewhere, there are no nation-level enclaves in Australia or the Americas.
Position of Lesotho within South Africa
Some enclaves are countries in their own right, completely surrounded by another one, and therefore not exclaves. Three such sovereign countries exist:
- The republic of San Marino, an enclave in Italy
- Vatican City, an enclave in the city of Rome, Italy
- The Kingdom of Lesotho, an enclave in South Africa. The Most Serene Republic of San Marino (Serenissima Repubblica di San Marino is a country in the Apennine Mountains. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Vatican City, officially the State of the Vatican City (Stato della Città del Vaticano is a Landlocked sovereign City-state whose territory Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 Lesotho (lɪˈsuːtuː) officially the Kingdom of Lesotho, is a Landlocked country and Enclave — entirely surrounded by the Republic of South The Republic of South Africa (also known by other official names) is a country located at the southern tip of the continent of Africa
See also List of countries that border only one other country. This is a list of Countries that have a Land border with only one other country.
Related constructs and terms
"Practical" enclaves and exclaves and inaccessible districts
Some territories, attached to the motherland by a thin slice of land or territorial water, are more easily accessible by traveling through a foreign country. These territories may be called "practical exclaves" or "pene-exclaves".
Areas that are not geographically separated from the rest of the mother country, but do not have adequate transportation links between the territory and its mother country without going through a foreign country are called inaccessible districts.
Conversely, a territory that is an exclave but does not function as one (instead functioning as a contiguous part of the main nation) is deemed a "quasi-exclave". (Robinson 1959)
Subnational enclaves and exclaves
Sometimes, administrative divisions of a country, for historical or practical reasons, caused some areas to belong to a division while being attached to another one.
- Jervis Bay Territory in Australia is in some but not all administrative respects an exclave of the Australian Capital Territory. The Jervis Bay Territory is a territory of the Commonwealth of Australia. } The Australian Capital Territory (ACT is the Capital territory of the Commonwealth of Australia and its smallest self-governing internal territory
Ethnic enclaves are communities of an ethnic group inside an area where another ethnic group predominates. Jewish ghettos and shtetls, barrios and Chinatowns are examples. A ghetto is described as a "portion of a city in which members of a minority group live especially because of social legal or economic pressure A shtetl (שטעטל diminutive form of Yiddish shtot שטאָט "town" pronounced very similarly to the South German diminutive "Städtle" "little Barrio is a Spanish word meaning District or Neighborhood. The Word has come into use in English mostly through the large A Chinatown is a section of an urban area with a large number of Chinese outside the majority-Chinese countries of Greater China. These areas may have a separate language, culture and economic system.
Embassies and military bases are usually exempted from the jurisdiction of the host country, i. A diplomatic mission is a group of people from one State or an international Inter-governmental organization (such as the United Nations) present in e. , the laws of the host nation the embassy is in do not typically apply to the land of the embassy or base itself. This exemption from the jurisdiction of the host country is defined as extraterritoriality. Extraterritoriality is the state of being exempt from the Jurisdiction of local law usually as the result of diplomatic negotiations Areas of extraterritoriality are not true enclaves as they are still part of the host country. In addition to embassies some other areas have extraterritoriality.
Examples of this include:
- Pavillon de Breteuil in France, used by the General Conference on Weights and Measures. Pavillon de Breteuil is a building located in Sèvres, France near Paris. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. The General Conference on Weights and Measures is the English name of the Conférence générale des poids et mesures ( CGPM, never GCWM
- United Nations headquarters in the United States of America, used by the United Nations. The United Nations Headquarters is a distinctive complex in New York City that has served as the headquarters of the United Nations since its completion in 1950 The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security
- NATO (political) headquarters near Evere in Haren, a part of the City of Brussels, Belgium. The North Atlantic Treaty Evere is one of the nineteen municipalities located in the Brussels-Capital Region of Belgium. Haren ( Dutch and French, sometimes written Haeren in French is an old municipality of Brussels in Belgium, that was merged into the The City of Brussels ( French: Bruxelles-Ville or Ville de Bruxelles, Dutch: Stad Brussel) is the largest Municipality of The Kingdom of Belgium is a Country in northwest Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts its headquarters as well as those
- Headquarters Allied Command Operations (NATO) at the area designated as Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe (SHAPE), North of Mons, Belgium
- Palazzo Malta, the headquarters of Sovereign Order of the Knights of Malta in Rome. Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe ( SHAPE) is the central command of NATO Military forces The North Atlantic Treaty Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe ( SHAPE) is the central command of NATO Military forces Mons ( Dutch: Bergen, Picard: Mont) is a Walloon City and municipality located in the Belgian The Kingdom of Belgium is a Country in northwest Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts its headquarters as well as those Palazzo Malta, which is sometimes referred to as Palazzo di Malta or Palazzo dell'Ordine di Malta, is the more important of the two Headquarters of the The Knights Hospitaller (also known as the Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of St
- Properties of the Holy See. The properties of the Holy See in Italy are regulted by the 1929 Lateran Treaty signed with the Kingdom of Italy.
- Moldauhafen, a lot in the harbour of Hamburg leased for a period of 99 years to the Czech Republic
Land ceded to a foreign country
Some areas of land in a country are owned by another country and in some cases it has special privileges, such as being exempt from taxes. Moldauhafen ( Vltava port is a lot in the port of Hamburg, Germany, which has been leased in 1929 pursuant to the Treaty of Hamburg (English, German: ˈhambʊɐk local pronunciation Low German / Low Saxon: Hamborg) is the second-largest city in Germany The Czech Republic ( ˈt͡ʃɛskaː ˈrɛpuˌblɪka short form in Česko ˈt͡ʃɛskɔ also called Czechia, These lands are not enclaves and do not have extraterritoriality.
Examples of this include:
- Napoleon's original grave in Longwood, Saint Helena, ceded to France. Napoleon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821 was a French military and political leader who had a significant impact on the History of Europe. Longwood is a district of the British island of Saint Helena, where Napoleon was exiled from 1816 until his death on 5 May 1821. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics.
- Victor Hugo's house in St Peter Port, Guernsey, ceded to the city of Paris. Victor-Marie Hugo ( ( February 26, 1802 – May 22, 1885) was a French Poet, Playwright, Novelist St Peter Port is the Capital of Guernsey, as well as the main Port of the island The Bailiwick of Guernsey (Bailliage de Guernesey is a British Crown dependency in the English Channel off the coast of Normandy. Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city
- The Normandy American Cemetery and Memorial in Normandy, France which contains the graves of 9,386 American military dead, most of whom gave their lives during the landings and ensuing operations of World War II, ceded to the United States of America. The Normandy American Cemetery and Memorial is a World War II Cemetery and Memorial in Colleville-sur-Mer, Normandy, France This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the
- About 24 m² of land that surrounds the Suvorov memorial near Göschenen in central Switzerland, ceded to Russia. Alexander Vasilyevich Suvorov (Алекса́ндр Васи́льевич Суво́ров (sometimes transliterated as Aleksandr, Aleksander and Suvarov Göschenen is a municipality in the canton of Uri in Switzerland. Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending
- The Vimy Memorial in France, which commemorates the Battle of Vimy Ridge. The Canadian National Vimy Memorial is a Canadian National Historic Site and one of Canada 's most important overseas war memorials. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. The Battle of Vimy Ridge was a military offensive by the Canadian Corps against elements of the German Sixth Army in World War I. The French government permanently ceded a land area of about 1 km² to Canada as a war memorial in 1922 in recognition of Canada's military contributions in World War I in general and at Vimy Ridge in particular. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All
- Numerous Commonwealth WW I cemeteries in Belgium, of which the territory is ceded to the respective country.
- The land under the John F. Kennedy memorial at Runnymede, United Kingdom. John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy (May 29 1917&ndashNovember 22 1963 often referred to by his initials JFK, was the thirty-fifth President of Runnymede is a Water-meadow alongside the River Thames in the county of Surrey, England, associated with the signing of the Magna Carta The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Land ceded to the United States of America by the John F. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Kennedy Memorial Act, 1964. 
- Two cemeteries on North Carolina's Outer Banks ceded to the United Kingdom. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Both contain the graves of British sailors killed in U-Boat attacks during World War II.
- James Cook's grave on Hawaii, ceded to the United Kingdom. Captain James Cook FRS RN ( – 14 February 1779) was an English Explorer, Navigator and
- Ernst Thälmann Island; a Cuban island ceded by Fidel Castro in perpetuity to the German Democratic Republic in 1972. Ernst Thälmann Island (Ernst-Thälmann-Insel Cayo Ernesto Thaelmann or Cayo Blanco del Sur is a 15 Kilometre long and 500 metre wide Cuban Island The Republic of Cuba (ˈkjuːbə or) consists of the island of Cuba (the largest and second-most populous island of the Greater Antilles) Isla de la Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (born August 13 1926 is a Cuban revolutionary leader who was prime minister of Cuba from December 1959 to December 1976 and then president until The German Democratic Republic ( GDR; Deutsche Demokratische Republik DDR; commonly known in English as East Germany) was a Socialist state Current status is unclear since the GDR's absorption into the reunited Germany. The German Democratic Republic ( GDR; Deutsche Demokratische Republik DDR; commonly known in English as East Germany) was a Socialist state Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe.
- The Jaber Castle also known as "Türk's Tomb" (Turkish: Türk Mezarı) in Syria is the grave of Suleyman Shah (Turkish: Süleyman Şah). Caber Kalesi (Jaber Castle was a historical castle considered as a territory of Turkey within today's Syrian borders Syria ( سوريّة or) officially the Syrian Arab Republic (Arabic ar الجمهورية العربية السورية Suleyman Shah ( Ottoman Turkish: سليمان شاه Süleyman Şah ( d He was father of Ertuğrul, who was in turn, the father of Osman I, the founder of the Ottoman Empire. This article is about the Ottoman leader Ertuğrul. For the Ottoman frigate see Ertuğrul (Ottoman frigate. Osman I (1258 Sogut, Anatolia, Turkey &ndash1326 Sogut) Ottoman: عثمان بن أرطغرل Turkish: Osman The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish The land is ceded to Turkey by the Treaty of Ankara signed between her and France on 20 October 1921. Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Turkey has the right to have a squad/section of the army and to hoist the Turkish flag.
- Tihuinza in Peru. Peru (Perú Piruw Piruw officially the Republic of Peru ( reˈpuβlika del peˈɾu is a country in western South America. Land ceded to Ecuador without sovereign. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Ecuador topics.
- A portion of the CERN campus in France along the French-Swiss border, administered by Switzerland. The European Organization for Nuclear Research (Organisation Européenne pour la Recherche Nucléaire known as CERN
National railway passing through foreign territory
Changes in borders can make a railway that was previously located solely within a country criss-cross the new borders. Since railways are much more expensive than roads to rebuild to avoid this problem, the criss-cross arrangement tends to last a long time. With passenger trains this may mean that doors on carriages are locked and guarded to prevent illicit entry and exit while the train is momentarily in another country.
- Salzburg to Innsbruck (Austria) (passes Rosenheim, Germany). is the fourth-largest city in Austria and the capital of the federal state of Salzburg. Innsbruck is the capital city of the federal state of Tyrol in western Austria. Austria (Österreich ( officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich Rosenheim is a town in Bavaria ( Germany) at the confluence of the rivers Inn and Mangfall Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. A railway line within Austria exists as well, but trains take about 1. 5 hours longer than across German territory.
- Trains from Neugersdorf, Saxony to Zittau pass Czech territory at Varnsdorf, while Czech trains from Varnsdorf to Chrastava pass through German territory at Zittau, and then a small part of Polish territory near the village of Porajów. Neugersdorf is a town in the district Görlitz, in the Free State of Saxony, Germany. The Free State of Saxony (Freistaat Sachsen ˈzaksən Swobodny Stat Sakska is the easternmost federal state of Germany. Zittau ( Czech Žitava) is a city in the south east of the Free State of Saxony, Germany, close to the border triangle between Germany Varnsdorf (ˈvarnzdorf German: Warnsdorf) is a town in the Ústí nad Labem Region of the Czech Republic, with a population of around 16000 Chrastava (ˈxrastava Kratzau is a Town in northern Bohemia in the Czech Republic about 10 kilometre (6 mi northwest of the regional capital Poland (Polska officially the Republic of Poland Porajów (German Großporitsch) is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Bogatynia, within Zgorzelec County, Lower Silesian Voivodeship
- Trains from Görlitz to Zittau, Germany, pass several times the border river Neisse (see Oder-Neisse line); the train station for Ostritz, Germany, lies in Krzewina Zgorzelecka, Poland. Görlitz ( is a town in Germany on the Lusatian Neisse River in the Bundesland Zittau ( Czech Žitava) is a city in the south east of the Free State of Saxony, Germany, close to the border triangle between Germany Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Neisse redirects here for other meanings see Neisse (disambiguation The Lusatian Neisse (Lužická Nisa Lausitzer Neiße Nysa Łużycka The Oder-Neisse line (Granica na Odrze i Nysie Łużyckiej Oder-Neiße-Grenze was drawn in the aftermath of World War II as the eastern border of Germany and Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Poland (Polska officially the Republic of Poland
- Una railway (Unska pruga) connecting Zagreb and Split via Bihać crosses border between Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina many times. Zagreb (ˈzɑːgrɛb is the Capital and the largest city of Croatia. Split (Spalatum Ancient Greek: Aspálathos, Ασπάλαθος Spalato is the largest and most important Dalmatian city the second-largest Bihać is a town and municipality on the Una River in the north-western part of Bosnia and Herzegovina, center of the Una-Sana Canton of the Croatia (Hrvatska ˈxȓvatska officially the Republic of Croatia ( Republika Hrvatska) is a southern Central European country at the crossroads between Bosnia and Herzegovina ( Latin script: Bosna i Hercegovina, Cyrillic script: Босна и Херцеговина is a country on the Balkan
- Belgrade - Bar railway crosses into Bosnia and Herzegovina for 9 km, between stations Zlatibor and Priboj (both in Serbia). The Belgrade–Bar railway is a railway connecting the Serbian capital of Belgrade with the town of Bar, the main seaport in Montenegro. Bosnia and Herzegovina ( Latin script: Bosna i Hercegovina, Cyrillic script: Босна и Херцеговина is a country on the Balkan Serbia (Србија Srbija) officially the Republic of Serbia (Република Србија Republika Srbija) is a Landlocked Country There is one station, Štrpci, but there is no border crossing facilities and trains do not call at the station.
- During the era of the Iron Curtain, local trains between the north and south of Burgenland in Austria operated as "corridor trains" (Korridorzüge) along the border with Hungary – they had their doors locked as they traversed Hungarian territory (Győr-Sopron County [as it was then]).
- The line from Ventimiglia Italy to Limone Piemonte Italy via Breil sur Roya France
- Similarly, during the Cold War, underground lines in West Berlin ran under parts of East Berlin. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Cold War is the state of conflict tension and competition that existed between the United States and the Soviet Union (USSR and their respective allies from the West Berlin was the name given to the western part of Berlin between 1949 and 1990 East Berlin was the name given to the eastern part of Berlin between 1949 and 1990 Ghost stations (German: Geisterbahnhöfe) were stations on Berlin's U-Bahn and S-Bahn metro networks that were closed during this period of Berlin's division. Ghost stations is the usual English translation for the German word Geisterbahnhöfe. The German language (de ''Deutsch'') is a West Germanic language and one of the world's major languages. Berlin is the capital city and one of sixteen states of Germany. The Berlin de U-Bahn (de Untergrundbahn underground railway is a major part of the Public transport system of the German capital Berlin. The Berlin S-Bahn is a Rapid transit system operated by S-Bahn Berlin GmbH, a subsidiary of the Deutsche Bahn.
- The Belgian Vennbahn lies on a narrow strip of Belgian territory running through Germany, creating 5 German exclaves. The Vennbahn is a railway line that although it lay in Germany when first built is today entirely in Belgium &ndash even where parts of its route
- The railway between France and Monaco briefly leaves France to enter Monaco before entering France once more. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. For other uses see Monaco (disambiguation Monaco, officially the Principality of Monaco ( French: Principauté de Monaco; Monégasque This takes place underground for around 150 metres.
- The former Soviet Central Asian Republics have numerous examples.
- - Semikhody - Chernihiv line of Ukraine passes through Belarus territory. Chernihiv, also referred to as Chernigov (Чернігів Чернигов Чарнігаў is a historic city in northern Ukraine. Ukraine (Україна Ukrayina, /ukrɑˈjinɑ/ is a country in Eastern Europe. Belarus ( Belarusian Беларусь / Biełaruś is a Landlocked country in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the north and east 
- - Druzhba - Vorozhba line of Ukraine passes through Russian territory. Vorozhba (Ворожба is a city in Sumy Oblast, Ukraine. Population is 8384 ( 2001) Ukraine (Україна Ukrayina, /ukrɑˈjinɑ/ is a country in Eastern Europe. Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending 
- India and Bangladesh were formerly parts of a single country. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country ( Bengali: বাংলাদেশ inc-Latn Bangladesh) officially
- In Australia, the railway line forms part of the border between the state of New South Wales and the Australian Capital Territory. } The Australian Capital Territory (ACT is the Capital territory of the Commonwealth of Australia and its smallest self-governing internal territory
Also, borders have occasionally been shifted for the purpose of avoiding this sort of arrangement. The best-known example is the Gadsden Purchase, in which the United States bought land from Mexico on which it was planned to build a southern route for the transcontinental railroad. The Gadsden Purchase (known as Venta de La Mesilla or Treaty of La Mesilla in Mexico is a region of what is today southern Arizona and New Mexico The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The United Mexican States ( or commonly Mexico (ˈmɛksɪkoʊ () is a federal constitutional Republic in North America. Transcontinental Railroad is a Railroad that crosses a Continent from "coast-to-coast" Owing to the topography of the area, acquisition of the new land by New Mexico and Arizona would have been the only feasible way to construct such a railroad in the South. New Mexico ( is a state located in the southwestern region of the United States of America. The State of Arizona ( is a state located in the southwestern region of the United States.
National highway passing through foreign territory
This arrangement is less common as highways are more easily re-aligned as noted above. Examples include:
- Congo Pedicle road: built to provide access for Zambia's Luapula Province to the Copperbelt through 70 km of territory of the DR Congo, requiring a change in driving on the left to driving on the right. The Congo Pedicle road (at one time referred to as the 'Zaire Pedicle road' crosses the Congolese territory of the Congo Pedicle and was constructed by and is maintained The Republic of Zambia (ˈzæmbɪə is a Landlocked country in Southern Africa. Luapula Province is one of Zambia 's nine provinces, and is located in the north of the country The Copper Belt or Copperbelt (usually spelled as one word is the Copper mining area of Zambia, around the towns of Ndola, Kitwe, The Democratic Republic of the Congo (République démocratique du Congo often referred to as DR Congo, DRC or RDC, and formerly known or referred to
- Between 1963 and 2002 the N274 road from Roermond to Heerlen, part of Dutch territory, passed through the German Selfkant, which had been annexed by the Netherlands after the Second World War but returned to Germany in 1963. Roermond ( is a city a Municipality, and a diocese in the southeastern part of the Netherlands. Heerlen ( is a City and a Municipality in the southeastern Netherlands The municipality is the second largest in the province of Limburg. Selfkant (Dutch Selfkant or Zelfkant) is a municipality in the Heinsberg district, in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands
Several bridges cross the frontier rivers separating Germany and Poland. They can share the cost of maintaining these bridges, but it would be foolish to share the work. So they have divided the bridges between them, making each country totally responsible for some of the bridges, even though one end of each bridge is on the other's territory. 
Robinson, G. Railway Gazette International is a monthly business journal covering the Railway, metro, Light rail and Tram industries worldwide Railway Gazette International is a monthly business journal covering the Railway, metro, Light rail and Tram industries worldwide W. S. (September 1959). "Exclaves". Annals of the Association of American Geographers 49 (3, [Part 1]): 283–295. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8306.1959.tb01614.x. A digital object identifier ( DOI) is a permanent identifier given to an Electronic document. JSTOR.
External links In Political geography, an enclave is a piece of land which is totally surrounded by a foreign territory and an exclave is one which is politically attached to a A panhandle or salient is an informal geographic term for an elongated tail-like protrusion of a geo-political entity such as an A shoestring annexation is a term used in the United States for an annexation by a City, Town or other Municipality in which it acquires new A landlocked country is commonly defined as one enclosed or nearly enclosed by land This is a list of Countries that have a Land border with only one other country. This is a list of ethnic enclaves in North American cities. An ethnic enclave in this context denotes an area primarily populated by a population with similar ethnic or racial List of foreign enclaves in China International Shanghai International Settlement Beijing Legation Quarter Gulangyu
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