A central concept in science and the scientific method is that all evidence must be empirical, or empirically based, that is, dependent on evidence or consequences that are observable by the senses. Science (from the Latin scientia, meaning " Knowledge " or "knowing" is the effort to discover, and increase human understanding Scientific method refers to bodies of Techniques for investigating phenomena Evidence in its broadest sense includes anything that is used to determine or demonstrate the Truth of an assertion "Therefore" redirects here For the symbol see Therefore sign. In Physics, particularly in Quantum physics, a system observable is a property of the system state that can be determined by some sequence of physical Senses are the physiological methods of Perception. The senses and their operation classification and theory are overlapping topics studied by a variety of fields Empirical data is data that is produced by experiment or observation. Debt AIDS Trade in Africa (or DATA) is a Multinational non-government organization founded in January 2002 in London by U2 's In scientific inquiry an experiment ( Latin: Ex- periri, "to try out" is a method of investigating particular types of research questions or Observation is either an activity of a living being (such as a Human) which senses and assimilates the Knowledge of a Phenomenon, or the recording of data  It is usually differentiated from the philosophic usage of empiricism by the use of the adjective "empirical" or the adverb "empirically. In Philosophy, empiricism is a theory of Knowledge which asserts that knowledge arises from Experience. " "Empirical" as an adjective or adverb is used in conjunction with both the natural and social sciences, and refers to the use of working hypotheses that are testable using observation or experiment. In Science, the term natural science refers to a naturalistic approach to the study of the Universe, which is understood as obeying rules or law of The social sciences comprise academic disciplines concerned with the study of the social life of human groups and individuals including Anthropology, Communication studies A hypothesis (from Greek) consists either of a suggested explanation for a phenomenon (an event that is observable or of a reasoned proposal suggesting a possible Testability, a property applying to an Empirical Hypothesis, involves two components (1 the logical property that is variously described as Contingency Observation is either an activity of a living being (such as a Human) which senses and assimilates the Knowledge of a Phenomenon, or the recording of data In scientific inquiry an experiment ( Latin: Ex- periri, "to try out" is a method of investigating particular types of research questions or In this sense of the word, scientific statements are subject to and derived from our experiences or observations.
In a second sense "empirical" in science may be synonymous with "experimental. " In this sense, an empirical result is an experimental observation. In this context, the term semi-empirical is used for qualifying theoretical methods which use in part basic axioms or postulated scientific laws and experimental results. In traditional Logic, an axiom or postulate is a proposition that is not proved or demonstrated but considered to be either self-evident, or subject Such methods are opposed to theoretical ab initio methods which are purely deductive and based on first principles. Ab Initio Software Corporation was founded in the mid 1990's by the former CEO of Thinking Machines Corporation Sheryl Handler, and several other former employees Deductive reasoning is Reasoning which uses deductive Arguments to move from given statements ( Premises to Conclusions which must be true if the First Principles is also the title of a work by Herbert Spencer.
In statistics, "empirical" quantities are those computed from observed values, as opposed to those derived from theoretical considerations. Statistics is a mathematical science pertaining to the collection analysis interpretation or explanation and presentation of Data. In Probability and Statistics, a realization, or observed value, of a Random variable is the value that is actually observed (what actually happened
In economics, "empirical" generally refers to statistical or econometric analysis of numeric data. Economics is the social science that studies the production distribution, and consumption of goods and services. Other forms of observation-based hypothesis testing are not considered to be "empirics. "
The use of the adjective empirical, especially in scientific studies using statistics, may also indicate that a particular correlation between two parameters has been found, but that so far, no theory for the mechanism of the connection is known. Statistics is a mathematical science pertaining to the collection analysis interpretation or explanation and presentation of Data. In Probability theory and Statistics, correlation, (often measured as a correlation coefficient) indicates the strength and direction of a linear
In Chemistry the term empirical is used to refer to a molecular formula in its lowest common terms found in terms of element proportions and molar masses.