An emperor is a (male) monarch, usually the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. An empire (from the Latin " Imperium " denoting military Command within the ancient Roman government) is a State that Empress is the feminine form. As a title, "empress" may indicate the wife of an emperor (empress consort) or a woman who is a ruling monarch (empress regnant). A queen consort is the title given to the wife of a reigning king. List of current queens regnant A queen regnant (plural "queens regnant" is qualifying reference to a female Monarch possessing and exercising all of the monarchal Emperors are generally recognized to be above kings in honor and rank. A king is a male Monarch, or a Head of state, who may or may not depending on the style of government of a nation exercise monarchal powers over a territory usually Honor or Honour (see spelling differences) (the latter directly from the Latin word honos honoris) is the evaluation of a person's Traditional ranks among European royalty, peers, and Nobility are rooted in Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages.
Today the Emperor of Japan is the only remaining emperor on throne in the world. The of Japan is the country's Monarch. He is the head of the Japanese Imperial Family. The last year when there was more than one emperor on the throne was 1979 with three: Japan, Iran, and the Central African Empire. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics. The Central African Empire (Empire Centrafricain was the name of the short-lived self-declared autocratic Monarchy that replaced the Central African Republic The latter two were overthrown that same year.
Both kings and emperors are monarchs. Within the European context, "emperor" is considered the highest of monarchical titles, ironic in that it began as a military honorific in a staunchly anti-monarchical republic. Emperors were once given precedence over kings in international diplomatic relations; currently, precedence is decided by the length a head of state is continuously in office. An order of precedence is a sequential hierarchy of nominal importance of items Head of state is the generic term for the individual or collective office that serves as the chief public representative of a Monarchic or Republican Nation-state Some emperors claimed inheritance (translatio imperii) of the political and religious authority of the Roman Emperors such as an important role in the state church; see Imperial cult and Caesaropapism. Translatio imperii, Latin for "transfer of rule" is a concept invented in the Middle Ages for describing History as a Linear The Roman Emperor was the ruler of the Roman State during the imperial period (starting at about 27 BC A state religion (also called an official religion, established church or state church) is a religious body or Creed officially An Imperial cult is a form of State religion in which an Emperor, or a Dynasty of emperors (or rulers of another title are Worshiped as Caesaropapism is the idea of combining the power of secular government with or making it superior to the spiritual authority of the Christian Church; especially This inheritance has been claimed by, among others, the rulers of the Holy Roman Empire, the Byzantine Empire, and the Russian Empire; however, all types of monarchies have played religious roles; see divine right of kings and divine king. The Holy Roman Empire ( HRE; German Heiliges Römisches Reich (HRR, Latin Sacrum Romanum Imperium (SRI was a union of territories in The Russian Empire ( Pre-reform Russian: Pоссійская Имперія Modern Russian: Российская Империя translit: Rossiyskaya The Divine Right of Kings is a general term that refers to the philosophy and ideas used to justify the authority and legitimacy of Monarchs in Medieval and Territorial size was of no importance; the title was a conscious attempt by monarchs to link themselves to the institutions and traditions of the Romans as part of state ideology. In contrast, many republics have named a legislative chamber after the Roman Senate in remembrance of an era when assemblies still dominated. The Roman Senate was a political institution in Ancient Rome.
Outside the European context, "emperor" is a translation given to holders of titles who are accorded the same precedence as European emperors in diplomatic terms. In reciprocity, these rulers may accredit equal titles in their native languages to their European peers. Due to centuries of international convention, this has become the dominant rule to identifying an emperor in the modern era.
Also, historians have liberally used "emperor" and "empire" anachronistically and out of its Roman and European context to describe any large state and its ruler in the past and present. "Empire" became identified with vast territorial holdings rather than the title of its ruler by the mid-18th century. Voltaire sardonically described the Holy Roman Empire as "neither Holy, nor Roman, nor an Empire" since by his time it was little more than an informal association of German states and its "Emperor", though ruler of Austria and king of Hungary and Bohemia, had almost no authority within the non-Austrian parts of the territory. François-Marie Arouet ( 21 November 1694 30 May 1778) better known by the Pen name Voltaire, was a French The Holy Roman Empire ( HRE; German Heiliges Römisches Reich (HRR, Latin Sacrum Romanum Imperium (SRI was a union of territories in
In the Roman tradition a large variety in the meaning and importance of the imperial form of monarchy developed: in intention it was always the highest office, but it could as well fall down to a redundant title for nobility that had never been near to the "Empire" they were supposed to be reigning. Ancient Rome was a Civilization that grew out of a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 10th century BC Also the name of the position split in several branches of Western tradition, see below.
Importance and meaning of Coronation ceremonies and regalia also varied within the tradition: for instance Holy Roman Emperors could only be crowned emperor by the pope, which meant the coronation ceremony usually took place in Rome, often several years after these emperors had ascended to the throne (as "king") in their home country. A coronation is a ceremony marking the investiture of a Monarch with regal power specifically involving the placement of a crown upon his or her head and the Regalia is Latin Plurale tantum for the privileges and the insignia characteristic of a Sovereign. The Holy Roman Emperor (Römischer Kaiser or Römisch-Deutscher Kaiser Romanorum Imperator was the elected monarch ruling over the many varying numbers of states History See also History of the Papacy Catholics recognize the Pope as a successor to Saint Peter, who Jesus named as the "shepherd" and The first Latin Emperors of Constantinople on the other hand had to be present in the newly conquered capital of their Empire, because that was the only place where they could be granted to become Emperor. The Latin Empire or Latin Empire of Constantinople (original Latin name Imperium Romaniae, " Empire of Romania " is the
Early Roman Emperors on the other hand avoided any type of ceremony or regalia different from what was already usual for republican offices in the Roman Republic: the most intrusive change had been changing the color of their robe to purple. The Roman Emperor was the ruler of the Roman State during the imperial period (starting at about 27 BC The Roman Republic was the phase of the ancient Roman civilization characterized by a Republican form of government a period which began with the overthrow of the Later new symbols of worldly and/or spiritual power, like the orb became an essential part of the Imperial accessories. The globus cruciger ( Latin, "cross-bearing orb" is an orb (lat
Rules for indicating successors also varied: there was a tendency towards male inheritance of the supreme office, but as well election by noblemen, as ruling Empresses (for empires not too strictly under salic law) are known. Salic law ( Lat Lex Salica) was an important body of traditional Law codified for governing the Salian Franks in the Early Middle Ages Ruling monarchs could additionally steer the succession by adoption, as often occurred in the two first centuries of Imperial Rome. Of course, intrigue, murder and military force could also mingle in for appointing successors, the Roman Imperial tradition made no exception to other monarchical traditions in this respect. Probably the epoch best known for this part of the Imperial tradition is Rome's third century
When Republican Rome turned into a monarchy again, in the second half of the 1st century BC, at first there was no name for the title of the new type of monarch: ancient Romans abhorred the name Rex ("king"), and after Julius Caesar also Dictator (which was an acknowledged office in Republican Rome, Julius Caesar not being the first to hold it). The Crisis of the Third Century (also known as the Anarchy of the 3rd Century marked the end of the Principate, the early phase of Imperial Roman government The Roman Emperor was the ruler of the Roman State during the imperial period (starting at about 27 BC The Latin word Imperator was a title originally roughly equivalent to commander during the period of the Roman Republic. The Roman Republic was the phase of the ancient Roman civilization characterized by a Republican form of government a period which began with the overthrow of the A monarchy is a Form of government in which supreme power is actually or nominally lodged in an individual who is the Head of state, often for life or The King of Rome ( Latin: rex regis) was the Chief magistrate of the Roman Kingdom. Dictator was a Political office of the Roman Republic. The dictator was above the three branches of government in the Constitution of the Roman Republic
Augustus, who can be considered the first Roman Emperor, avoided naming himself anything that could be reminiscent of "monarchy" or "dictatorship". Augustus ( Latin: IMPERATOR·CAESAR·DIVI·FILIVS·AVGVSTVS September 23 63 BC – August 19 AD 14) born Gaius Octavius Thurinus, was The Roman Emperor was the ruler of the Roman State during the imperial period (starting at about 27 BC Instead, these first Emperors constructed their office as a complicated collection of offices, titles, and honours, that were consolidated around a single person and his closest relatives (while in the republic the "taking of turns", often in shared offices, had been the principle for passing on power). These early Roman emperors didn't need a specific name for their monarchy: they had enough offices and powers accumulated so that in any field of power they were "unsurpassable", and besides: it was clear who had supreme power. The supreme power could poison, exile, or try for treason any who did not obey.
As the first Roman Emperors did not rule by virtue of any particular republican or senatorial office, the name given to the office of "head of state" in this new monarchical form of government became different depending on tradition, none of these traditions consolidated in the early days of the Roman Empire:
After the problematic year 69, the Flavian Dynasty reigned for about half a century. The Year of the Four Emperors was a year in the history of the Roman Empire, AD 69 in which four emperors ruled in a remarkable succession The Flavian dynasty was a Roman imperial Dynasty, which ruled the Roman Empire between 69 and 96 AD encompassing the reigns of Vespasian (69&ndash79 The succeeding Nervan-Antonian Dynasty, ruling for most of the 2nd century, stabilised the Empire. This epoch became known as the era of the Five Good Emperors, and was followed by the short-lived Severan Dynasty. The Five Good Emperors is a term that refers to five consecutive emperors of the Roman Empire who represented a line of virtuous and just rule — Nerva, Trajan The Severan dynasty was a Roman imperial Dynasty, which ruled the Roman Empire between 193 and 235.
During the Crisis of the 3rd century, Barracks Emperors succeeded one another at short intervals. Crisis of the Third Century (or "Military Anarchy" or "Imperial Crisis" was the crumbling and near collapse of the Roman Empire between 235 A Barracks emperor was a Roman Emperor who seized power by virtue of his command of the army Three short lived secessionist attempts had their own emperors: the Gallic Empire, the Britannic Empire, and the Palmyrene Empire though the latter used rex more regularly. The Gallic Empire (in Latin Imperium Galliarum) is the modern name for the independent realm that existed from 260 to 273, during the Although in the past the style of British Emperor has been (retroactively applied to a few mythical and historical rulers of Britain or Great Britain, it is sometimes used as The Palmyrene Empire ( 260 &ndash 273) was a splinter empire that broke off the Roman Empire during the Crisis of the Third Century. The next period, known as the Dominate, started with the Tetrarchy installed by Diocletian. The Dominate was the ' despotic ' latter phase of government in the ancient Roman Empire between its establishment in 27 BC and the formal date of the collapse Tetrarchy ( Greek: "leadership of four " can be applied to any system of government where power is divided between four individuals Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus ( ca. December 22 244 The modern historian Timothy Barnes takes December 22 as his birthdate
Through most of the 4th century, there were separate emperors for the Western and Eastern part of the Empire. The Western Roman Empire refers to the western half of the Roman Empire, from its division by Diocletian in 285 the other half of the Roman Empire was the Eastern Although there were several dynastic relations between the Emperors of both parts, they also often were adversaries. The last Emperor to rule a unified Roman Empire was Theodosius. Flavius Theodosius (January 11 347 – January 17 395 also called Theodosius I and Theodosius the Great ( Greek: Θεοδόσιος Α΄ Less than a century after his death in 395, the last Emperor of the Western half of the Empire was driven out. The office of Roman Emperor underwent significant turbulence in the fourth and fifth centuries after assuming the trappings of Eastern despotism during the Dominate
Historians generally call the eastern part of the Roman Empire the Byzantine Empire due to its capital Constantinople, whose ancient name was Byzantium (now Istanbul). Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis, or gr ἡ Πόλις hē Polis, Latin: la CONSTANTINOPOLIS This article is about the city See also Byzantine Empire. Byzantium ( Greek: Βυζάντιον Latin: la BYZANTIVM Istanbul (historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see the other Names of Istanbul) is the largest city of Turkey After the fall of Rome to barbarian forces in 476, the title of "emperor" lived on in rulers of Constantinople (New Rome). "Barbarian" is a pejorative term for an uncivilized person either in a general reference to a member of a nation or Ethnos perceived The term " New Rome " has been used in the following contexts
The Byzantine Emperors completed the transition from the idea of the Emperor as a semi-republican official to the Emperor as a traditional monarch when Emperor Heraclius retained the title of Basileus, already a synonym for "Emperor" (but which had earlier designated "King" in Greek) in the first half of the seventh century. Heraclius, or Herakleios (Flavius Heraclius Augustus;) (c 575 - February 11, 641) was a Byzantine Emperor, who ruled the East "Basilissa" redirects here For the saint of this name see Julian and Basilissa. Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly A specifically Byzantine development of emperor's position was cesaropapism, position as leader of Christians. Caesaropapism is the idea of combining the power of secular government with or making it superior to the spiritual authority of the Christian Church; especially
In general usage, the Byzantine imperial title evolved from simply "emperor" (basileus), to "emperor of the Romans" (basileus tōn Rōmaiōn) in the 9th century, to "emperor and autocrat of the Romans" (basileus kai autokratōr tōn Rōmaiōn) in the 10th.  In fact, none of these (and other) additional epithets and titles had ever been completely discarded.
The Byzantine empire produced also three reigning empresses: Irene, Zoe, and Theodora. Irene Serantapechaina, known as Irene of Athens or Irene the Athenian ( Greek: Ειρήνη η Αθηναία Eirēnē) (c Zoe (in Greek: Ζωή Zōē, meaning "Life" (c 978&ndashJune 1050 was Empress of the Byzantine Empire with co-rulers November Theodora ( Greek: Θεοδώρα Theodōra, literally meaning "Gift of God" (984 &ndash after August 31, 1056) ruled as
In 1204, the Fourth Crusade captured Constantinople, and soon established a Latin Empire of Constantinople under one of the Crusader leaders. The Fourth Crusade (1202&ndash1204 was originally designed to conquer Muslim Jerusalem by means of an invasion through Egypt. The Latin Empire or Latin Empire of Constantinople (original Latin name Imperium Romaniae, " Empire of Romania " is the The Latin Empire was, however, unable to consolidate control of the whole of the former territories of the Byzantine Empire. Driven out of Constantinople in 1261, some territories in Greece still recognized their authority for some time. Eventually, the Imperial title became redundant and did not even contribute any longer to the prestige of the noblemen in their own country: it remained dormant after 1383. It produced three reigning empresses, two of which reigned outside of the city in the remnants of their empire.
In Asia Minor, after being driven out of Constantinople, relations of the last pre-Crusader emperors established the Empire of Nicaea and the Empire of Trebizond. The Empire of Nicaea ( Greek: Βασίλειον τῆς Νίκαιας Turkish: İznik İmparatorluğu) was the largest of the Byzantine The Empire of Trebizond ( was a Byzantine Greek successor state of the Byzantine Empire founded in 1204 as a result of the capture of Constantinople Similarly, the Despotate of Epirus was founded in the Western Balkans (the rulers of the latter took the title of Emperor for a short time following their conquest of Thessalonica in 1224). The Principality of Epirus can also refer to the pashalik of Ali Pasha The Despotate or Principality of Epirus (Δεσποτάτο της
Eventually, the Nicaean Emperors were successful in reclaiming the Byzantine imperial title. They managed to force Epirus into submission and retake Constantinople by 1261, but Trebizond remained independent. The restored Byzantine empire finally fell due to Ottoman invasion in 1453. The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish The Trapezuntines produced three reigning empresses before they too were defeated by the Ottomans in 1461. The Empire of Trebizond ( was a Byzantine Greek successor state of the Byzantine Empire founded in 1204 as a result of the capture of Constantinople
After the discontinuation of the title of Emperor in Western Europe in 476, it was revived in the Middle Ages. The Holy Roman Emperor (Römischer Kaiser or Römisch-Deutscher Kaiser Romanorum Imperator was the elected monarch ruling over the many varying numbers of states Western Europe at its most general meaning means 'all the countries in the West of Europe ' What connected these Emperors to "Rome" was that they were supposed to be crowned by the Pope, usually in Rome. History See also History of the Papacy Catholics recognize the Pope as a successor to Saint Peter, who Jesus named as the "shepherd" and Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 So in this branch of Roman Emperors, Roman had an implied connotation of Roman Catholic, hence the epithet Holy.
On 25 December 800, Charlemagne, King of the Franks, was crowned Emperor by Pope Leo III in Rome. Events 274 - Roman Emperor Aurelian Events By Place Europe September 15 - Oldest known mention of Monkey. Charlemagne (ˈʃɑrlɨmeɪn Carolus Magnus or Karolus Magnus meaning Charles the Great) (747 – 28 January 814 was King of the Franks from 768 to his The Franks were originally led by dukes (military leaders and reguli (petty kings Pope Leo III (died June 12, 816) was Pope from 795 to 816 Protected by Charlemagne from his enemies in Rome he subsequently strengthened Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 This was seen both as a reaction to the supposed vacancy of the Eastern Empire, due to the presence of a woman, Irene on the throne in Constantinople, and as a revival of the Western Roman Empire, and descendants of Charlemagne continued to be crowned in Rome until the late 9th century. Irene Serantapechaina, known as Irene of Athens or Irene the Athenian ( Greek: Ειρήνη η Αθηναία Eirēnē) (c The Western Roman Empire refers to the western half of the Roman Empire, from its division by Diocletian in 285 the other half of the Roman Empire was the Eastern After the death of Charles the Fat in 888, the Popes intermittently bestowed the imperial title upon whomever was momentarily the most powerful lord in northern Italy, and after Berengar of Friuli was deposed in 922, the title lay vacant for decades. Charles the Fat (Carolus Pinguis 13 June 839 – 13 January 888) was the King of Alemannia from 876 King of Italy from
In 962, Otto I, King of the Eastern Franks was crowned Emperor by the Pope. Otto I the Great ( 23 November 912 &ndash 7 May 973) son of Henry I the Fowler and Matilda of Ringelheim, was Duke East ( ern) Francia ( Regnum Francorum orientalium) known variously as Francia Orientalis or the Kingdom of the East Franks, was the The Holy Roman Empire, such as it was, consisted of the German Kingdoms, Italy, and Burgundy (including most of the Low Countries), but it continued to have theoretical claims of universal suzerainty over the Latin west. The Holy Roman Empire ( HRE; German Heiliges Römisches Reich (HRR, Latin Sacrum Romanum Imperium (SRI was a union of territories in This article lists the German monarchs, ruling over the territory of Germany from the creation of a separate Eastern Frankish Kingdom in 843 until the end of monarchy The following is a list of the Kings of Burgundy. Kings of the Burgundians The Burgundians had left Bornholm c The Low Countries, the historical region of de Nederlanden, are the countries on low-lying land around the delta of the Rhine, Scheldt
After the 13th century and the fall of the Hohenstaufen dynasty which led to a 62 year interregnum, the universalistic aspirations of the Emperors became increasingly theoretical, and their control over Italy, still seen as the locus of the proper empire, became increasingly tenuous. An interregnum (plural interregna or interregnums) is a period of discontinuity of a government organization or social order Rather than being hereditary, emperors were chosen by the prince-electors, in a process codified by the Golden Bull of 1356. The Prince-Electors (or simply Electors) of the Holy Roman Empire ( German: Kurfürst ( pl The Golden Bull of 1356 was a decree issued by a Reichstag in Nuremberg headed by Emperor Charles IV Holy Roman Emperor (see Diet
Coronations in Rome became rarer and rarer, until in 1508, King Maximilian I, after receiving permission from the pope, declared himself Emperor-Elect without having been crowned in Rome. Although Maximilian's grandson and successor, Charles V, was crowned in Bologna in 1530 by the Pope, he was the last, and thereafter the position of Holy Roman Emperor was a wholly German post until the Empire's dissolution in August 6, 1806. Charles V (24 February 1500 &ndash 21 September 1558 was Bologna (boloɲa from Latin Bononia, Bulåggna in Bolognese dialect is the capital city of Emilia-Romagna in northern Italy Events 1538 - Bogotá, Colombia, is founded by Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada. Year 1806 ( MDCCCVI) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common
Even in Germany itself, real control was increasingly tenuous, as various local princes increased their power, so that the Habsburg emperors who ruled almost continuously from 1438 until the end of the empire derived their power much more from their hereditary lands in the south-eastern part of the monarchy than from their position as emperor. As religious differences added to the tensions, compromise was needed (Peace of Augsburg, 1555). The Peace of Augsburg was a treaty between Ferdinand I, who replaced his brother Charles V as Holy Roman Emperor, and the forces of the Schmalkaldic The Habsburg dynasty attempted to reassert authority over the Empire in the Thirty Years' War, which ended with the Peace of Westphalia (1648) that recognized princes sort of sovereign instead of dependents. For the Mauritanian Thirty Years' War see Char Bouba war. For the band see The 30 Years War. The term Peace of Westphalia refers to the two peace treaties of Osnabrück and Münster, signed on May 15 and October 24 of
The impotence of the Emperors' position became most nakedly apparent during the brief reign of Charles VII from 1742 to 1745. Emperor Charles VII Albert ( Brussels August 6, 1697 &ndash January 20, 1745 in Munich) a member of the Wittelsbach As Duke of Bavaria, Charles was the only non-Habsburg emperor for the last three hundred fifty years of the empire's existence, and his utter inability even to protect his own hereditary lands from the forces of his enemy, Maria Theresa, the Habsburg heiress, showed how empty the position of Holy Roman Emperor had become. The following is a list of rulers during the History of Bavaria. Maria Theresa (Maria Theresia see also names in other languages; May 13, 1717 November 29 1780) was the Archduchess regnant
On 11 August 1804 anticipating the eventual collapse of the Holy Roman Empire at the behest of Napoleon I, Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor assumed the additional title of Emperor of Austria (as Francis I thereof). The phrase Emperor of Austria describes an Hereditary Imperial title and position proclaimed in 1804 by the Austrian Habsburg Events 2492 BC - Traditional date of the defeat of Bel by Hayk, progenitor and founder of the Armenian nation Year 1804 ( MDCCCIV) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a The Holy Roman Empire ( HRE; German Heiliges Römisches Reich (HRR, Latin Sacrum Romanum Imperium (SRI was a union of territories in Francis II (Franz II Heiliger Römischer Kaiser ( 12 February 1768 &ndash 2 March 1835) was the last Holy Roman Emperor, ruling The precaution was a wise one, because two years later on August 6, 1806 he was obliged to proclaim the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire. Events 1538 - Bogotá, Colombia, is founded by Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada. Year 1806 ( MDCCCVI) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common
Emperor Karl of Austria, the last ruling hereditary monarch in that country, "relinquished every participation in the administration of the State" on November 11, 1918. "Karl I" redirects here For the prince of Liechtenstein see Karl I of Liechtenstein. Events 308 - The Congress of Carnuntum: Attempting to keep peace within the Roman Empire, the leaders of the Tetrarchy declare Year 1918 ( MCMXVIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common
Following victory after the Franco-Prussian war and the founding of the German Empire, the Prussian king had himself crowned German Emperor or Kaiser as Wilhelm I on January 18, 1871, as part of the competition with the Emperor of Austria (whose Habsburg dynasty was the heir of the Holy Roman Empire) for dominance in the German-speaking lands. The Franco-Prussian War or Franco-German War, often referred to in France as the 1870 War ( 19 July, 1870 — 10 May, 1871 The German Empire is the name commonly used in English to describe Germany from 1871 to 1918 when it was a semi- Constitutional monarchy: beginning with the Unification The Kingdom of Prussia (Königreich Preußen was a German kingdom from 1701 to 1918 and from 1871 was the leading state of the German Empire, comprising Kaiser is the German title meaning " Emperor " with Kaiserin being the female equivalent " Empress " Events 350 - Generallus Magnentius deposes Roman Emperor Constans and proclaims himself Emperor Year 1871 ( MDCCCLXXI) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common
When the Empire was formed, there was much debate about how to precisely phrase the title of the monarch. One of the contributions to this debate was Kaiser von Deutschland ("Emperor of Germany"), another one being Kaiser der Deutschen ("Emperor of the Germans"). Finally, Deutscher Kaiser ("German Emperor"), the version expressing the least degree of superiority to the rulers of the other principalities, was agreed upon.
With defeats in World War I and revolution breaking out, Emperor Wilhelm II abdicated on 9 November 1918 and a republic was established. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All Events 694 - Egica, a king of the Visigoths of Hispania, accuses Jews of aiding Muslims sentencing all Year 1918 ( MCMXVIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common The term Weimar Republic ( ˈvaɪmarɐ repuˈbliːk is used by historians to signify the democratic and Republican period of Germany from 1919 to 1933
Byzantium's close cultural and political interaction with its Balkan neighbors Bulgaria and Serbia, and with Russia (Kievan Rus', then Muscovy) led to the adoption of Byzantine imperial traditions in all of these countries. The state of Bulgaria (България transliterated bg-Latn ''Balgaria'' The country preserves the traditions (in ethnic name language and alphabet of the First Bulgarian Serbia (Србија Srbija) officially the Republic of Serbia (Република Србија Republika Srbija) is a Landlocked Country
In 913 Simeon I of Bulgaria was crowned Emperor (Tsar) by the Patriarch of Constantinople and imperial regent Nicholas Mystikos outside of the Byzantine capital. Simeon (also Symeon) I the Great (Симеон I Велики transliterated Simeon I Veliki; simɛˈɔn ˈpɤrvi vɛˈliki ruled over Bulgaria Tsar csar and tzar redirect here For other uses see Tsar (disambiguation. "Patriarch of Constantinople" redirects here For the institutional church itself see Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople. Nicholas I Mystikos or Nicholas I Mysticus ( Greek: Νικόλαος Α΄ Μυστικός Nikolaos I Mystikos) (852 &ndash May 15, 925 In its final simplified form, the title read "Emperor and Autocrat of all Bulgarians and Romans" (Tsar i samodăržec na vsički bălgari i gărci in the modern vernacular). The "Roman" component in the Bulgarian imperial title indicateed both rulership over Greek speakers and the derivation of the imperial tradition from the Romans (represented by the "Roman" Byzantines).
Byzantine recognition of Simeon's imperial title was revoked by the succeeding Byzantine government. The decade 914–924 was spent in destructive warfare between Byzantium and Bulgaria over this and other matters of conflict. The Bulgarian monarch, who had further irritated his Byzantine counterpart by claiming the title "Emperor of the Romans" (basileus tōn Rōmaiōn), was eventually recognized, as "Emperor of the Bulgarians" (basileus tōn Boulgarōn) by the Byzantine Emperor Romanos I Lakapenos in 924. Romanos I Lekapenos or Romanus I Lecapenus ( Greek: Ρωμανός Α΄ Λακαπήνος Rōmanos I Lakapēnos; Րոմանոս Ա Ղակապենոս Byzantine recognition of the imperial dignity of the Bulgarian monarch and the patriarchal dignity of the Bulgarian patriarch was again confirmed at the conclusion of permanent peace and a Bulgarian-Byzantine dynastic marriage in 927. The Patriarch of All Bulgaria is the Patriarch of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church. In the meantime, the Bulgarian imperial title may have been also confirmed by the Pope. History See also History of the Papacy Catholics recognize the Pope as a successor to Saint Peter, who Jesus named as the "shepherd" and The Bulgarian imperial title "Tsar" was adopted by all Bulgarian monarchs up to the fall of Bulgaria under Ottoman rule. 14th century Bulgarian literary compositions clearly denote the Bulgarian capital (Tărnovo) as a successor of Rome and Constantinople, in effect, the "Third Rome". Veliko Tarnovo (Велико Търново sometimes transliterated as Veliko Turnovo) is a city in north central Bulgaria and the administrative centre of Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis, or gr ἡ Πόλις hē Polis, Latin: la CONSTANTINOPOLIS
It should be noted that after Bulgaria obtained full independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1908, its monarch, who was previously styled "Knyaz", i. The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish e Prince, took the traditional title of "Tsar", but was recognized internationally only as a King.
In 1345 the Serbian King Stefan Uroš IV Dušan proclaimed himself Emperor (Tsar) and was crowned as such at Skopje on Easter 1346 by the newly created Patriarch of Serbia, and by the Patriarch of Bulgaria and the autocephalous Archbishop of Ohrid. Stefan Uroš IV Dušan ( c.1308 – 20 December 1355) called Silni ("the Mighty" was the King of Serbia (from Tsar csar and tzar redirect here For other uses see Tsar (disambiguation. Skopje (Скопје; Shkup or Shkupi is the Capital and largest city in the Republic of Macedonia, with more than a quarter of the population Easter ( Greek: Πάσχα Pascha or Pasxa) is the most important religious feast in the Christian Liturgical year. His imperial title was recognized by Bulgaria and various other neighbors and trading partners but not by the Byzantine Empire. In its final simplified form, the Serbian imperial title read "Emperor of Serbians and Greeks" (car srbljem i grkom in the modern vernacular). It was only employed by Stefan Uroš IV Dušan and his son Stefan Uroš V in Serbia (until his death in 1371), after which it became extinct. A half-brother of Dušan, Simeon Uroš, and then his son Jovan Uroš, claimed the same title, until the latter's abdication in 1373, while ruling as dynasts in Thessaly. Simeon Uroš or Siniša Uroš, also Symeon Ouresis Palaiologos ( Serbian Cyrillic: Симеон Урош Greek: Συμεών Ούρεσης Παλαιολόγος John Uroš or John Oureses Doukas Palaiologos ( Greek: Ιωάννης Ούρεσης Δούκας Παλαιολόγος Iōannēs Ouresēs Doukas Palaiologos Thessalia redirects here For the Butterfly Genus, see Thessalia (butterfly. The "Greek" component in the Serbian imperial title indicates both rulership over Greeks and the derivation of the imperial tradition from the Romans (represented by the "Greek" Byzantines).
In 1472, the niece of the last Byzantine emperor, Sophia Palaiologina, married Ivan III, grand prince of Moscow, who began championing the idea of Russia being the successor to the Byzantine Empire. Zoe Palaiologina ( Greek Ζωή Παλαιολόγου, Russian Софья Фоминична Палеолог, c Ivan III Vasilevich (Иван III Васильевич ( 22 January 1440, Moscow – 27 October 1505, Moscow also known as Ivan the Great This idea was represented more emphatically in the composition of the monk Filofej addressed their son Vasili III. Vasili III Ivanovich (Василий III Иванович, also Basil) ( March 25[[ 479]] – December 3[[ 533]] Moscow was the Grand Prince of Moscow After ending Muscovy's dependence on its Mongol overlords in 1480, Ivan III began the usage of the titles Emperor (Tsar) and Autocrat (samoderžec' ). Tsar csar and tzar redirect here For other uses see Tsar (disambiguation. His insistence on recognition as such by the emperor of the Holy Roman Empire since 1489 resulted in the granting of this recognition in 1514 by Emperor Maximilian I to Vasili III. The Holy Roman Empire ( HRE; German Heiliges Römisches Reich (HRR, Latin Sacrum Romanum Imperium (SRI was a union of territories in His son Ivan IV emphatically crowned himself Emperor (Tsar) on 16 January 1547. Tsar csar and tzar redirect here For other uses see Tsar (disambiguation. Events 27 BC - The title Augustus is bestowed upon Gaius Julius Caesar Octavian by the Roman Senate.
On 31 October 1721 Peter I was crowned Emperor with a new style, "Imperator", which is a westernizing form equivalent to the traditional Slavic title "Tsar". Events 445 BC – Ezra reads the Book of the Law to the Israelites in Jerusalem (see Nehemiah 91 NLTse Year 1721 ( MDCCXXI) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a He based his claim partially upon a letter discovered in 1717 written in 1514 from Maximilian I to Vasili III, Sophia's son and Ivan IV's father, in which the Holy Roman Emperor used the term in referring to Vasili. Vasili III Ivanovich (Василий III Иванович, also Basil) ( March 25[[ 479]] – December 3[[ 533]] Moscow was the Grand Prince of Moscow The title has not been used in Russia since the abdication of Emperor Nicholas II on 15 March 1917. Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending Events 44 BC - Julius Caesar, Dictator of the Roman Republic, is stabbed to death by Marcus Junius Brutus, Year 1917 ( MCMXVII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year The apparent distinction between the titles of "Tsar" and "Imperator" in post-1721 usage have led to the false impression that the title of "Tsar" is an intermediate rank between those of "Emperor" and "King", or else equivalent to the latter.
Imperial Russia produced four reigning Empresses, all in the eighteenth century. The Russian Empire ( Pre-reform Russian: Pоссійская Имперія Modern Russian: Российская Империя translit: Rossiyskaya
Ottoman rulers held the title padishah, equivalent to the Persian shahanshah. The Ottoman Dynasty (or the Imperial House of Osman) ( Turkish: Osmanlı Hanedanı) ruled the Ottoman Empire from 1299 to 1922 beginning with Padishah, Padshah, Padeshah, Badishah or Badshah ( Persian پادشاه Pādeshāh) is a very prestigious Shah is an Iranian term for a Monarch (leader that has been adopted in many other languages The Ottomans frequently adopted styles from conquered peoples, presenting themselves as successors in law, such as Hakan, as well as loftier styles like Sultan of Sultans. After conquering the last vestige of the Byzantine Empire in 1453, Mehmed II also took the title of Roman Emperor (Kayser-i-Rûm). The monarchy fell in 1922.
The kings of the Ancien Régime and the July Monarchy used the title Empereur de France in diplomatic correspondence and treaties with the Ottoman emperor from at least 1673 onwards. Ancien Régime ( pronounced: /ɑ̃sjɛ̃ ʁeʒim/ refers primarily to the aristocratic social and political system established in The July Monarchy (1830-1848 was a period of liberal monarchy rule of France under Louis-Philippe The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish The Ottomans insisted on this elevated style while refusing to recognize the Holy Roman Emperors or the Russian tsars due to their rival claims of the Roman crown. Translatio imperii, Latin for "transfer of rule" is a concept invented in the Middle Ages for describing History as a Linear In short, it was an indirect insult by the Ottomans to the HRE and the Russians. The French kings also used it for Morocco (1682) and Persia (1715). Morocco (المغرب "al-Maghrib" officially the Kingdom of Morocco (المملكة المغربية is a country located in North Africa The Persian Empire was a series of Iranian empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the original Persian homeland and beyond in Western Asia
Napoleon Bonaparte who was already First Consul of the French Republic (Premier Consul de la République française) for life, declared himself Emperor of the French (Empereur des Français) on May 18, 1804. Napoleon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821 was a French military and political leader who had a significant impact on the History of Europe. List of Queens and Empresses of France Wikipedia_talkFeatured_lists#Proposed_change_to_all_featured_lists for an explanation of this and other inclusion tags below Events 1152 - Henry II of England marries Eleanor of Aquitaine. Year 1804 ( MDCCCIV) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Despite being ruled by an emperor, it continued to be the French Republic (République Française) until 1808, when it was renamed the French Empire (Empire Français). The First Republic in France, officially the French Republic (République française was proclaimed on 21 September 1792 during the French Revolution. The Empire of the French (1804-1814 also known as the Empire of France, Greater French Empire, First French Empire, French Empire, or
Napoleon relinquished the title of Emperor of the French on 6 April and again on April 11, 1814. Events 46 BC - Julius Caesar defeats Caecilius Metellus Scipio and Marcus Porcius Cato in the Battle of Thapsus Events 491 - Flavius Anastasius becomes Byzantine Emperor, with the name of Anastasius I. Year 1814 ( MDCCCXIV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Napoleon's infant son, Napoleon II, was recognized by the Council of Peers, as Emperor from the moment of his father's abdication, and theoretically reigned as "Emperor" for fifteen days, June 22 to July 7 of 1815. Events 217 BC - Battle of Raphia: Ptolemy IV of Egypt defeats Antiochus III the Great of the Seleucid kingdom. Events 1456 - A retrial verdict acquits Joan of Arc of heresy 25 years after her death
Since 3 May 1814, the Sovereign Principality of Elba was created a miniature non-hereditary Monarchy under the exiled French Emperor Napoleon I. Events 1491 - Kongo monarch Nkuwu Nzinga is baptised by Portuguese missionaries adopting the baptismal name of João Year 1814 ( MDCCCXIV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Elba (Ilva is an island in Tuscany, Italy, from the coastal town of Piombino. Napoleon I was allowed, by the treaty of Fontainebleau with (27 April), to enjoy, for life, the imperial title. Events 1124 - David I becomes King of Scotland. 1296 - Battle of Dunbar: The Scots are defeated The islands were not restyled an empire.
On 26 February 1815, Napoleon abandoned Elba for France, reviving the French Empire for Hundred Days; as this broke the terms of his parole, the Allies declared an end to Napoleon's sovereignty over Elba on 25 March 1815, and on 31 March 1815 Elba was ceded to the restored Grand Duchy of Tuscany by the Congress of Vienna. Events 747 BC - Epoch (origin of Ptolemy 's Nabonassar Era 364 - Valentinian I is proclaimed Year 1815 ( MDCCCXV) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year The Hundred Days was the period between Napoleon Bonaparte 's return from exile on Elba to Paris on 20 March 1815 and the restoration Events 1199 - Richard I is wounded by a crossbow bolt while fighting France which leads to his death on April 6. Year 1815 ( MDCCCXV) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Events 307 - After divorcing his wife Minervina, Constantine marries Fausta, the daughter of the retired Roman Emperor Year 1815 ( MDCCCXV) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year The Grand Duchy of Tuscany (Granducato di Toscana Magnus Ducatus Tusciae was a state in central Italy that existed from 1569 to 1859 replacing the Duchy of Florence After his final defeat, Bonaparte was stripped of every imperial privilege during his second exile to Atlantic Isle of St. Helena. Saint Helena (pronounced saint he-LEE-na) named after St Helena of Constantinople, is an island of volcanic origin and a British overseas territory
Napoleon I's nephew Napoleon III resurrected the title on December 2, 1852 after establishing the Second French Empire in a presidential coup. The Second French Empire or Second Empire was the Imperial Bonapartist regime of Napoleon III from 1852 to 1870 between the Second Napoléon III, also known as Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte (full name Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte) (20 April 1808 9 January 1873 was the first President Events 1409 - The University of Leipzig opens 1755 - The second Eddystone Lighthouse is destroyed by fire Year 1852 ( MDCCCLII) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year The Second French Empire or Second Empire was the Imperial Bonapartist regime of Napoleon III from 1852 to 1870 between the Second He reigned as a constitutional Monarch. His endeavours to return to France its imperial status included setting up a Habsburg Archduke as vassal emperor in Mexico, but failed. The United Mexican States ( or commonly Mexico (ˈmɛksɪkoʊ () is a federal constitutional Republic in North America. He lost the throne when he was deposed on September 4, 1870 by the Third Republic in the aftermath of the defeat in the Franco-Prussian War. Events 476 - Romulus Augustus, last emperor of the Western Roman Empire, is deposed when Odoacer proclaims himself Year 1870 ( MDCCCLXX) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common The French Third Republic (in French, La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe The Franco-Prussian War or Franco-German War, often referred to in France as the 1870 War ( 19 July, 1870 — 10 May, 1871
The origins of the title Imperator totius Hispaniae (Latin for Emperor of All the Spains) is murky. The title of Imperator (totius Hispaniae ( Latin for Emperor of Spain) was borne traditionally by the monarchs of León Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. Hispania was the name given by the Romans to the whole of the Iberian Peninsula (modern Portugal, Spain, Andorra, Gibraltar It was associated with the Leonese monarchy perhaps as far back as Alfonso the Great (r. In the reign of Ordoño I of Asturias ( 850 - 866) the kingdom began to be known as that of León. Alfonso III (c 848– 20 December 910 ? called the Great, was the king of Galicia and Asturias from 866 until his death 866-910). The last two kings of its Pérez Dynasty were called emperors in a contemporary source. The Pérez Dynasty (from the Spanish for son of Peter) is the family of kings which ruled in Asturias, Galicia, and León from the
King Sancho III of Navarre conquered Leon in 1034 and began using it. Sancho III Garcés (late 10th century &ndash 18 October 1035) called the Great ( Spanish: el Mayor or el Grande) was His son, Ferdinand I of Castile also took the title in 1039. Ferdinand I, called the Great (in his time El Magno) (1017&ndash León, 1065 son of Sancho III of Navarre and Mayor of Castile Ferdinand's son, Alfonso VI of Castile took the title in 1077. Alfonso VI (before June 1040 &ndash June 29 / July 1, 1109) nicknamed the Brave, was King of León from 1065 to 1109 and King of It then passed to his son-in-law, Alfonso I of Aragon in 1109. Alfonso I (1073/1074 &ndash 8 September 1134) called el Batallador, the Battler or the Warrior, was the king of Aragón His stepson and Alfonso VI's grandson, Alfonso VII was the only one who actually had an imperial coronation in 1135. Alfonso VII ( 1 March 1105 &ndash 21 August 1157) called the Emperor, became the King of Galicia in 1111 and King
The title was not exactly hereditary but self proclaimed by those who had, wholly or partially, united the Christian northern part of the Iberian peninsula, often at the expense of killing rival siblings. The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra The popes and Holy Roman emperors protested at the usage of the imperial title as a usurpation of leadership in western Christendom. After Alfonso VII's death in 1157, the title was abandoned.
After the fall of the Byzantine Empire, the legitimate heir to the throne, Andreas Palaiologos, willed away his claim to Ferdinand and Isabella in 1503. Andreas Palaiologos (or Palaeologus) (1453 - 1502 De jure Byzantine emperor and Despot of Morea from 1465 until death in 1502 The Catholic Monarchs (los Reyes Católicos is the collective title used in history for Queen Isabella I of Castile and King Ferdinand II of Aragon This claim seems to have been forgotten or abandoned quietly for the last 300 years.
In the late 3rd century, by the end of the epoch of the barracks emperors in Rome, there were two Britannic Emperors, reigning for about a decade. Although in the past the style of British Emperor has been (retroactively applied to a few mythical and historical rulers of Britain or Great Britain, it is sometimes used as For a simplified list see Concise list of Roman Emperors. For more information see History of the Roman Empire. After the Roman departure from Britain, the Imperator Cunedda forged the Kingdom of Gwynedd in northern Wales however all his successors were titled kings and princes. The Roman departure from Britain was completed by 410. The Archaeological records of the final decades of Roman rule show undeniable signs of decay Cunedda ap Edern (c 386–c 460 AD; reigned from the 440s or 450s (Cunetacius Kenneth also known as Cunedda Wledig ("holder of lands" Gwynedd (pr) is one of several Welsh Successor states that emerged in 5th-century post-Roman Britain.
There was no set title for the king of England before 1066 and monarchs chose to style themselves as they pleased. Imperial titles were used inconsistently beginning with Athelstan in 930 and ended with the Norman conquest of England.
Henry VIII began claiming his crown was an Imperial Crown during the Reformation; however, this did not lead to the creation of the title of Emperor in England. Henry VIII (28 June 1491 &ndash 28 January 1547 was King of England and Lord of Ireland, later King of Ireland and claimant to the Kingdom of Imperial Crown was also a model of car from Imperial, the luxury division of the Chrysler Corporation. The Protestant Reformation was a reform movement in Europe that began in 1517 though its roots lie further back in time
In 1801, George III rejected the title of Emperor when offered. George III (George William Frederick 4 June 1738 George III's long reign was marked by a series of military conflicts involving his kingdom much of the rest of Europe and places The only period when British monarchs were given the title of Emperor in a dynastic succession started when the title Empress of India was created for Queen Victoria. Emperor/Empress of India ( Badishah -e-Hind in Hindustani) was used as a Title by the last Mughal emperor Bahadur Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901 was from 20 June 1837 the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland When a royal marriage made it obvious to the British in 1877 that their Queen Victoria would be outranked by her own daughter who would someday become German Empress, the British government led by Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli, conferred the additional title Empress of India by an Act of Parliament; it was also formally justified as the expression of Britain succeeding as paramount ruler of the subcontinent the former Mughal 'Padishah of Hind', using indirect rule through hundreds of princely states formally under protection, not colonies, but accepting the British Sovereign as their 'feudal' suzerain. The Princess Victoria Princess Royal (Victoria Adelaide Mary Louisa 21 November 1840 &ndash 5 August 1901) was the eldest child and daughter The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the political leader of the United Kingdom Benjamin Disraeli 1st Earl of Beaconsfield, KG, PC, FRS (born Benjamin D'Israeli; 21 December 1804 &ndash 19 April 1881 was Emperor/Empress of India ( Badishah -e-Hind in Hindustani) was used as a Title by the last Mughal emperor Bahadur The term Paramount Ruler, or sometimes Paramount King, is a generic description though occasionally also used as an actual title for a number of rulers' position in relative Padishah, Padshah, Padeshah, Badishah or Badshah ( Persian پادشاه Pādeshāh) is a very prestigious For other uses see Principality, Other princely states A Princely State (also called Native State or Indian State) was a That title was relinquished by the last Kaisar-i-Hind George VI when India was granted independence on August 15, 1947. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country Events 778 - The Battle of Roncevaux Pass, at which Roland is killed Year 1947 ( MCMXLVII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
Two decades earlier the Royal and Parliamentary Titles Act 1927 had stated that the United Kingdom and the dominions were "equal in status, in no way subordinate one to another in any aspect of their domestic or external affairs, though united by common allegiance to the Crown, and freely associated as members of the British Commonwealth of Nations". Passed on April 12, 1927, the Royal and Parliamentary Titles Act 1927 ( 17 Geo 5 c Along with the Statute of Westminster, 1931 this changed the way the British parliamentary monarchy ruled the overseas dominions, moving from a colonial British Empire towards a new structure for the interaction between the Commonwealth Realms and the Crown. The Statute of Westminster 1931 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom (22 & 23 Geo A Commonwealth realm is any one of 16 sovereign states within the Commonwealth of Nations that each have Elizabeth II as their respective Monarch
Napoleon ordered the invasion of Portugal in 1807 because the country openly refused to join the Continental System. Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa is a country on the Iberian Peninsula. The Continental System was the Foreign policy of Napoleon I of France in his struggle against the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland during the
To avoid the same that happened to the Spanish Bourbons (they were arrested and Napoleon imposed his brother as King), the Portuguese Braganças decided to transferred the capital to Rio de Janeiro. History Dukes Afonso, Count of Barcelos, was an illegitimate son of King João I of Portugal. Rio de Janeiro ("River of January" ˈhiw dʒi ʒʌˈnejɾu in Brazilian Portuguese, /ˈriːoʊ di ʒəˈnɛroʊ/ in English is the second largest city of Brazil When Junot arrived in Lisbon, the Portuguese fleet had just left with all the local elite. Jean-Andoche Junot, 1st Duc d' Abrantès ( October 23, 1771 &ndash July 29, 1813) was a French General Lisbon (Lisboa liʒˈboɐ is the Capital and largest city of Portugal.
In 1808, with British escort, the fleet arrived in Brazil. |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld Later, in 1815, the portuguese Prince Regent (since 1816 king John VI) proclaimed the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarve, as an union of three kingdoms. John VI (13 May 1767 &ndash 10 March 1826 ( Portuguese João, ʒʊˈɐ̃ũ the Clement ( Port Brazil had just left its colony status.
After the Napolean fall and the Liberal revolution in Portugal, the Portuguese Royals had to turn back to Europe (1820). Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa is a country on the Iberian Peninsula. Prince Peter of Braganza (King John’s older son) stayed in South America acting as regent of the local kingdom, but two years later, in 1822, he proclaimed himself as Peter I, first Emperor of Brazil. Pedro I (ˈpedɾuin Brazilian Portuguese and in European Portuguese; English: Peter of Alcantara Francis Anthony John Charles Xavier of Paula To his father John VI, however, was recognise the use, until his death (1826), of the honorific title of Titular Emperor of Brazil.
The empire came to an end in 1889, with the overthrow of Emperor Pedro II (Pedro I son and successor), when the republic was proclaimed. Pedro II, (ˈpedɾu seˈgũdu December 2, 1825 December 5, 1891) was the second and last Emperor of Brazil.
Haiti was declared an empire by its ruler, Jean-Jacques Dessalines, who made himself Jacques I, in 20 May 1805. Haiti ( English: ˈheɪ·tiː or haɪ·ˈjiː·tiː French Haïti a·i·ti Haitian Creole: Jean-Jacques Dessalines ( September 20, 1758 – 17 October 1806 was a leader of the Haitian Revolution and the first ruler of an independent Events 325 - The First Council of Nicaea &ndash the first Ecumenical Council of the Christian Church is held Year 1805 ( MDCCCV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or He was assassinated the next year. Haiti again became an empire from 1849 to 1859 under Faustin Soulouque. Faustin I (1782 - 1867 was born Faustin-Élie Soulouque. He was a career officer and general in the Haïtian army when he was elected President of Haïti
In Mexico, there were two short-lived attempts to create an Empire. The United Mexican States ( or commonly Mexico (ˈmɛksɪkoʊ () is a federal constitutional Republic in North America. Agustín de Iturbide, the general who helped secure Mexican independence from Spanish rule, was proclaimed Emperor Agustín I in 12 July 1822, but was overthrown the next year. Agustín Cosme Damián de Iturbide y Arámburu ( September 27, 1783 &ndash July 19, 1824) was Emperor of Mexico as Augustin Events 1191 - Saladin 's garrison surrenders ending the two-year Siege of Acre. Year 1822 (MDCCCXXII was a Common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting on Sunday of the
In 1863, the invading French under Napoleon III (see above), in alliance with Mexican conservatives, proclaimed an empire and invited Archduke Maximilian, younger brother of the Austrian Emperor Franz Josef I, to become emperor as Maximilian I. Franz Joseph I Karl (- German, in English Francis Joseph I Charles, see the name in other languages) (18 August 1830 &ndash 21 November Maximilian I Emperor of Mexico (Emperador Maximiliano I de México (6 July 1832 – 19 June 1867 (born Ferdinand Maximilian Joseph was a member of Austria The childless Maximilian and his consort Empress Carlota of Mexico, born a Belgian princess, also adopted Agustín's grandson as his heir to bolster his claim. Charlotte of Belgium ( Princess Marie Charlotte Amélie Augustine Victoire Clémentine Léopoldine of Belgium) ( 7 June, 1840 &ndash 19 January After the withdrawal of French protection in 1867, Maximilian was captured and executed by liberal forces.
In 1976, President Jean-Bédel Bokassa of the Central African Republic, proclaimed the country to be the Central African Empire, and made himself Emperor as Bokassa I. Jean-Bédel Bokassa (ʒɑ̃ bedɛl bɔkasa 22 February 1921 &ndash 3 November 1996) also known as Bokassa I of Central Africa Central Africa|Central African FederationThe Central African Republic ( CAR) République Centrafricaine ʀepyblik sɑ̃tʀafʀikɛn or Centrafrique) is a Landlocked The Central African Empire (Empire Centrafricain was the name of the short-lived self-declared autocratic Monarchy that replaced the Central African Republic The expenses of his coronation ceremony actually bankrupted the country. He was overthrown three years later and the republic was restored.
The East Asian tradition is different from the Roman tradition, having arisen separately. What links them together is the use of the Chinese logographs 皇 (huáng) and 帝 (dì) which together or individually are imperial. Due to the cultural influence of China, China's neighbors adopted these titles or had their native titles conform in hanzi. A Chinese character, also known as a Han character ( is a Logogram used in writing Chinese (hanzi Japanese (
In 221 BC, Ying Zheng, who was king of Qin at the time, proclaimed himself shi huangdi (始皇帝), which translates as "first emperor". Qin Shi Huang ( (259 BC – September 10 210 BC personal name Yíng Zhèng, was king of the Chinese State of Qin from 247 BCE to 221 BCE (during the Chinese sovereign is the ruler of a particular period in ancient China. Not to be confused with the Qing Dynasty, the last dynasty of China Qin Shi Huang ( (259 BC – September 10 210 BC personal name Yíng Zhèng, was king of the Chinese State of Qin from 247 BCE to 221 BCE (during the Huangdi is composed of huang ("august one", 皇) and di ("sage-king", 帝), and referred to legendary/mythological sage-emperors living several millennia earlier, of which three were huang and five were di. The Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors ( were mythological rulers of China during the period from c Thus Zheng became Qin Shi Huang, abolishing the system where the huang/di titles were reserved to dead and/or mythological rulers. Qin Shi Huang ( (259 BC – September 10 210 BC personal name Yíng Zhèng, was king of the Chinese State of Qin from 247 BCE to 221 BCE (during the Although not as popular, the title 王 wang (king or prince) was still used by many monarchs and dynasties in China up to the Taipings in the 19th century. The Taiping Rebellion or Rebellion of Great Peace was a large-scale Revolt against the authority and forces of the Qing Government in China 王 is pronounced vuong in Vietnamese, ō in Japanese, and wang in Korean.
The imperial title continued in China until the Qing dynasty was overthrown in 1912. China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National Not to be confused with Qin Dynasty, the first dynasty of Imperial China The title was briefly revived from December 12, 1915 to March 22, 1916 by President Yuan Shikai and again in early July, 1917 when General Zhang Xun attempted to restore last Qing emperor Puyi to the throne. Events 627 - Battle of Nineveh: A Byzantine army under Emperor Heraclius defeats Emperor Khosrau II 's Persian Year 1915 ( MCMXV) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Events 238 - Gordian I and his son Gordian II are proclaimed Roman emperor. Year 1916 ( MCMXVI) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year Yuan Shikai ( Courtesy Weiting 慰亭 Pseudonym: Rong'an 容庵 ( September 16, 1859 &ndash June 6, Zhang Xun ( 1854-1923 Qing -loyalist general who attempted to restore the abdicated emperor Puyi in 1917 Puyi ( ( February 7, 1906 &ndash October 17, 1967) of the Manchu Aisin-Gioro ruling family was the last Emperor Puyi retained the title and attributes of a foreign emperor, as a personal status, until 1924. After the Japanese occupied Manchuria in 1931, they proclaimed it to be the Empire of Manchukuo, and Puyi became emperor of Manchukuo. Manchuria ( Romanized Manchu: Manju,, Маньчжурия Mongolian: Манж is a historical name given to a vast geographic region in northeast Manchukuo (ja [[wikt満州国 満州国]] Manshūkoku lit "State of Manchuria " was a Puppet state in Manchuria and eastern This Empire ceased to be when it was occupied by Soviet troops in 1945. A soviet (сове́т, "council" originally was a workers' local council in late Imperial Russia.
In general, an emperor would have one empress (Huanghou, 皇后) at one time, although posthumous entitlement to empress for a concubine was not uncommon. Concubinage is the state of a woman or youth in an ongoing quasi-matrimonial relationship with a man of higher social status The earliest known usage of huanghou was in the Han Dynasty. The Han Dynasty ( 206 BC–220 AD followed the Qin Dynasty and preceded the Three Kingdoms in China. The emperor would generally select the empress from his harem. HAREM is the first evaluation contest of Named entity recognition (NER for Portuguese and its call for participation was announced in September 2004 In subsequent dynasties, when the distinction between wife and concubine became more accentuated, the crown prince would have chosen an empress-designate before his reign. Crown Princess redirects here for the ship see Crown Princess (ship. Imperial China produced only one reigning empress, Wu Zetian, and she used the same Chinese title as an emperor (Huangdi, 皇帝). Chinese civilization originated in various city-states along the Yellow River ( valley in the Neolithic era Wu Zetian ( (625 – December 16, 705 In 705 she was overthrown in a coup and Emperor Zhongzong was returned to the throne Wu Zetian then reigned for about 15 years.
In Japan, the earliest titles for the sovereign were either ヤマト大王/大君 (yamato ōkimi, Grand King of Yamato), 倭王/倭国王 (waō/wakokuō, King of Wa, used externally), or 治天下大王 (amenoshita shiroshimesu ōkimi, Grand King who rules all under heaven, used internally). For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. As early as the 7th century the word 天皇 (which can be read either as sumera no mikoto, divine order, or as tennō, Heavenly Emperor, the latter being derived from a Tang Chinese term referring to the Pole star around which all other stars revolve) began to be used. The earliest attested use of this term is on a wooden slat, or mokkan, that was unearthed in Asuka-mura, Nara Prefecture in 1998 and dated back to the reign of Emperor Temmu and Empress Jitō. (c 631 - October 1 686) was the 40th Emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession (645 &ndash December 22 702 was the 41st imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession The reading 'Tennō' has become the standard title for the sovereign of Japan up to and including the present age. The term 帝 (mikado, Emperor) is also found in literary sources.
Japanese monarchs placed themselves from 607 on equal footing with Chinese emperors in titulary terms, but rarely was the Chinese-style "Son of Heaven" term used. The Emperor of China ( refers to any sovereign of Imperial China reigning since the founding of the Qin Dynasty in 221 BC until the fall of The Emperor of China ( refers to any sovereign of Imperial China reigning since the founding of the Qin Dynasty in 221 BC until the fall of In the Japanese language, the word tennō is restricted to Japan's own monarch; kōtei (皇帝) is used for foreign emperors. Historically, retired emperors have kept power over a child-emperor as de facto Regent. Taishang-huang ( was a Chinese title sometimes translated in English as Retired Emperor, Grand Emperor or Emperor Emeritus used throughout For a fairly long time, a shōgun (formally the imperial generalissimo, but made hereditary) or regent wielded actual political power. is a military rank and historical title in Japan. The Japanese word for "general" it is made up of two Kanji words sho, meaning "commander" In Japan, Sesshō (摂政 was a title given to a Regent who was named to assist either a child emperor before his Coming of age, or an In fact, through much of Japanese history, the emperor has been little more than a figurehead.
After World War II, all claims of divinity were dropped (see Ningen-sengen). World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including Parliamentary government has wielded the power, reducing the office of emperor again to a mere ceremonial function.  By the end of the 20th century, Japan was the only country with an emperor on the throne.
As of the early 21st century, Japan's succession law prohibits a female from ascending the throne. However, with the birth of a daughter as the first child of the current Crown Prince, Naruhito, Japan is considering abandoning that rule. Crown Princess redirects here for the ship see Crown Princess (ship. Education He received bachelor's and Master's degrees in history from Gakushuin University in 1982 and 1988 respectively Education He received bachelor's and Master's degrees in history from Gakushuin University in 1982 and 1988 respectively Princess Kiko gave birth to a son on 6 September 2006, although it is still uncertain if the young prince or Aiko will ascend the throne; however many believe the new prince of Japan will. Historically, Japan has had eight reigning empresses who used the genderless title Tennō, rather than the female consort title kōgō (皇后) or chūgū (中宮). There is ongoing discussion of the Japanese Imperial succession controversy. The Japanese imperial succession controversy refers to desires to change the Laws of succession to the Japanese Imperial Throne which is currently limited to males of the imperial Although current Japanese law prohibits female succession, all Japanese emperors claim to trace their lineage to Amaterasu, the Sun Goddess of the Shintō religion. or is in Japanese mythology a sun goddess and perhaps the most important Shinto. is the native religion of Japan and was once its State religion. A religion is a set of Tenets and practices often centered upon specific Supernatural and moral claims about Reality, the Cosmos
Although the Vietnamese rulers acknowledged the supremacy of China, and were known to the Chinese emperors as simply King of Annam, domestically they took on a full Chinese-style imperial regalia in 1806 and have inconsistently used the title hoang de for a century though many were raised to that status posthumously so as not to antagonize relations with China. Axis-occupied Vietnam was declared an empire by the Japanese in March 1945. The Axis powers also known as the Axis alliance Axis nations Axis countries or sometimes just the Axis were those Countries The line of emperors came to an end with Bao Dai, who was deposed after the war, although he later served as head of state of South Vietnam from 1949 to 1955. Bảo Đại ( Hán tự: vi-nom [[wikt保 保]][[wikt大 大]] Nguyễn Phúc Vĩnh Thụy 22 October 1913 &ndash 30 July 1997 "RVN" redirects here RVN is also the former callsign of a TV station in Wagga Wagga New South Wales Australia
Some early dynasties of Korea, often considered to be legendary, used the title Dangun (단군, 檀君: Dan meaning "birch", gun meaning "emperor"). The Korean Dynasties are listed in the order of their fall This list includes the monarchs' romanized posthumous or Temple names and reign dates The Korean Dynasties are listed in the order of their fall This list includes the monarchs' romanized posthumous or Temple names and reign dates Korea is a geographic area composed of two sovereign countries a civilization and a former state situated on the Korean Peninsula in East Asia. Birch is the name of any Tree of the genus Betula ( Bé-tu-la) in the family Betulaceae, closely related to the The rulers of Goguryeo and Silla used the title of Taewang (태왕, 太王), literally translated as the Greatest of the Kings but often to signify emperor. Goguryeo or Koguryo was an ancient Korean kingdom located in the northern and central parts of the Korean peninsula, southern Manchuria, and Silla (57 BC – 935 AD was one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. Taewang meaning "The Great King" was the title used by the rulers of Goguryeo (고구려 the northermost
Rulers of the Goryeo Dynasty (from Gwangjong onward) took the title of emperor as a means of enhancing the prestige of the monarchy. The Goryeo Dynasty ( 918 - 1392) (also spelled Koryŏ was a Sovereign state established in 918 by Taejo Wang Kon. Gwangjong (949-975 was the fourth emperor of the Goryeo which ruled Korea from the fall of Silla in 935 until the founding of Joseon in 1392 The title was relinquished in the 13th century, however, after the agreement of peace with the Mongols, when the Korean rulers were pressured into use the title of Kings and as such tributary ally of Kublai Khan's China-based Mongol Yuan Dynasty. Early years Kublai Khan studied Chinese culture and became enamoured of it The Yuan Dynasty ( Pinyin: Yuáncháo Dai Ön Ulus (Дай Юан Улс was a ruling Dynasty founded by the Mongol leader Kublai
The full style of the ruler of the Joseon Dynasty called Jusang Jeonha("His Majesty") and Joseon Guk-wang ("King of the Realm of Joseon") until 1895. Year 1895 ( MDCCCXCV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year
Following the Chinese defeat by Japan in 1895, Korea declared its total independence from China (see Treaty of Shimonoseki) and King Gojong took the title of Daehan Hwangje, translated as 'Emperor of the Great Han'. The Treaty of Shimonoseki ( Japanese: 下関条約 "Shimonoseki Jōyaku") known as the Treaty of Maguan ( in China was signed at There are various names of Korea in use today derived from ancient kingdoms and dynasties also Emperor Gojong used the Yeonho (era names, a very strong indication of sovereignty), were adopted on 1 January 1896. Korean Era names were used during the period of Silla, Goguryeo, Balhae, Taebong, Goryeo, Joseon, and New Year See also New Year The Ancient Romans began their consular year on January 1st since 153 BC Year 1896 ( MDCCCXCVI) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap year
The full style of the ruler (7 January 1895 - 12 October 1897) called Daegunju Pyeha ("His Majesty the Great Monarch"), Joseon Guk-wang ("King of the Joseon State"). Events 1325 - Alfonso IV becomes King of Portugal. 1558 - France takes Calais, the last continental Year 1895 ( MDCCCXCV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Events 539 BC - The army of Cyrus the Great of Persia takes Babylon. Year 1897 ( MDCCCXCVII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common In the Korean Empire, since 12 October 1897, the full imperial style was Daehan Hwangje ("Emperor of Great Korean"). The Korean Empire was a former small empire of Korea that lasted from the Gwangmu Restoration of 1897 until Japan 's annexation of Korea in 1910 Events 539 BC - The army of Cyrus the Great of Persia takes Babylon. Year 1897 ( MDCCCXCVII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common
The Sanskrit word for emperor is Samrāṭ or Chakravarti(word stem: samrāj). This word has been used as an epithet of various Vedic deities, like Varuna, and has been attested in the Holy Rig Veda, possibly the oldest compiled book among the Indo-Europeans. Chakravarti refers to the king of kings. A Chakravarti is not only a sovereign ruler but also has feudatories.
Typically, in the later Vedic age, a Hindu king (Maharajah) was only called Samrāṭ after performing the Vedic Rājasūya sacrifice, enabling him by religious tradition to claim superiority over the other kings and princes. Another word for emperor is sārvabhaumā. The title of Samrāṭ has been used by many rulers of the Indian subcontinent as claimed by the Hindu mythologies. In proper history, most historians call Chandragupta Maurya the first samrāṭ (emperor) of the Indian subcontinent, because of the huge empire he ruled. The most famous Hindu emperor was his grandson Ashoka the Great. Other dynasties that are considered imperial by the historians are the Kushanas, Guptas, Vijayanagara, Hoysala and the Cholas. Vijayanagara (ವಿಜಯನಗರ is in Bellary District, northern Karnataka. The Hoysala Empire ( Kannada: ಹೊಯ್ಸಳ ಸಾಮ್ರಾಜ್ಯ ( pronunciation: in Kannada was a prominent South Indian Kannadiga
After India was invaded by the Mongol Khans and Turkic Muslims, the rulers of their major states on the subcontinent were titled Sultān, In this manner, the only empress-regnant ever to have actually sat on the throne of Delhi was Razia Sultan. Razia al-Din (1205-1240 ( Persian / Urdu: رضیہ سلطانہ) throne name Jalâlat ud-Dîn Raziyâ (Persian / Urdu جلالۃ For the episode from 1877 to 1947 when British Emperors ruled colonial India as the pearl in the crown of the British Empire, see above.
The Aztec and Inca traditions are unrelated to one another. Both were conquered under the reign of King Charles I of Spain who was simultaneously emperor-elect of the Holy Roman Empire during the fall of the Aztecs and fully emperor during the fall of the Incas. Charles V (24 February 1500 &ndash 21 September 1558 was The Holy Roman Empire ( HRE; German Heiliges Römisches Reich (HRR, Latin Sacrum Romanum Imperium (SRI was a union of territories in Incidentally by being king of Spain, he was also Roman (Byzantine) emperor in pretence through Andreas Palaiologos. Andreas Palaiologos (or Palaeologus) (1453 - 1502 De jure Byzantine emperor and Despot of Morea from 1465 until death in 1502 The translations of their titles were provided by the Spanish.
The only pre-Columbian North American rulers to be commonly called emperors were the Hueyi Tlatoani of the Aztec Empire (1375–1521). The pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences Tlatoani (tlàtoāni tɬaʔtoˈaːni plural nci tlàtòquê,) is the Nahuatl term for the ruler of an Altepetl, a Pre-Hispanic Aztec is a term used to refer to certain ethnic groups of central Mexico, particularly those groups who spoke the Nahuatl language and who achieved political It was an elected monarchy chosen by the elite. An elective monarchy is a Monarchy ruled by someone generally from a Royal house, who is elected by a group Spanish conquistador Hernán Cortés slew Emperor Cuauhtémoc and installed puppet rulers who became vassals for Spain. This article is about the Spanish explorer soldiers of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuriesfor other uses see Conquistador (disambiguation A Conquistador Hernán Cortés de Monroy y Pizarro 1st Marqués del Valle de Oaxaca ( 1485&ndash December 2, Cuauhtémoc (also known as Cuauhtemotzin, Guatimozin or Guatemoc; c Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Mexican Emperor Maximilian built his palace, Chapultepec Castle, over the ruins of an Aztec one. Maximilian I Emperor of Mexico (Emperador Maximiliano I de México (6 July 1832 – 19 June 1867 (born Ferdinand Maximilian Joseph was a member of Austria Chapultepec Castle ( Castillo de Chapultepec in Spanish is located on top of Chapultepec Hill.
The only pre-Columbian South American rulers to be commonly called emperors were the Sapa Inca of the Inca Empire (1438–1533). The God Emperor of the Inca Empire ( Quechua: Inka Qhapaq) of the Andes (the area including modern Peru, Ecuador, and The Inca Empire (or Inka Empire) was the largest empire in Pre-Columbian America. Spanish conquistador Francisco Pizarro, conquered the Inca for Spain, killed Emperor Atahualpa, and installed puppets as well. Francisco Pizarro González 1st Marqués de los Atabillos (c 1471 or 1476 &ndash 26 June 1541 was a Spanish Conquistador, conqueror of the Incan Empire Atahualpa, Atahuallpa, Atabalipa, or Atawallpa ( Quito – Cajamarca, August 29, 1533) was the last sovereign Atahualpa may actually be considered a usurper as he had achieved power by killing his half-brother and he did not perform the required coronation with the imperial crown mascaipacha by the Huillaq Uma (high priest).
In Ethiopia, the Solomonic dynasty used, beginning in 1270, the title of "[nəgusä nägäst]" which is literally "King of Kings". The Emperor ( Ge'ez: ንጉሠ ነገሥት nəgusä nägäst " King of Kings " of Ethiopia was the hereditary NOTE This intro is the result of careful NPOV work Please do not make potentially controversial edits to it without first discussing on the talk page The Solomonic dynasty is the traditional royal house of Ethiopia, claiming descent from King Solomon and the Queen of Sheba, who is said The use of the king of kings style began a millennium earlier in this region, however, with the title being used by the Kings of Aksum, beginning with Sembrouthes in the 3rd century. The Aksumite Empire or Axumite Empire (sometimes called the Kingdom of Aksum or Axum ( Ge'ez: አክሱም was an important trading Sembrouthes was a king of Axum. He is known only from a single inscription in Greek that was found at Deqemhare or Deqqi Mehari in modern Eritrea Another title used by this dynasty was "Itegue Zetopia".
"Itegue" translates as Empress, and was also used by the only female reigning Empress, Zauditu, along with the official title Negiste Negest (Queen of Kings). Zewditu (also spelled Zawditu or Zauditu; Ge'ez ዘውዲቱ April 29, 1876 - April 2, 1930) was
In 1936, the Italian king Victor Emmanuel III claimed the title of Emperor of Ethiopia after Ethiopia was occupied by Italy during the Second Italo-Abyssinian War. Victor Emmanuel III (Vittorio Emanuele III 11 November, 1869 – 28 December, 1947) was a member of the House of Savoy and The Emperor ( Ge'ez: ንጉሠ ነገሥት nəgusä nägäst " King of Kings " of Ethiopia was the hereditary See also First Italo-Ethiopian War. The Second Italo–Abyssinian War (also referred to as the Second Italo-Ethiopian War) was a After the defeat of the Italians by the British in 1941, Haile Selassie was restored to the throne but Victor Emmanuel did not relinquish his claim to the title until 1943. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Haile Selassie I ( Ge'ez: am ኃይለ፡ ሥላሴ "Power of the Trinity " 23 July 1892 &ndash 27 August 1975 born Tafari Makonnen, was
The Rastafari claimed Selassie as God incarnate before and even more so after the Second World War (see Rastafari movement) which he did not endorse, though he was sympathetic. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including The Rastafari movement (also known as Rastafari, Rastafarianism or simply Rasta) is a monotheistic, Abrahamic, New Testament He was deposed in 1974, the imperial title ending the next year when his son, who had succeeded him, was deposed and exiled.
The title Khagan (khan of khans or grand khan) was held by Genghis Khan, founder of the Mongol Empire in 1206. For other titles related to and uses of Khan, see that article Origin The title Genghis Khan ( or;, Chinggis Khaan, ʧiŋgɪs χaːŋ Činggis Qaɣan; 1162–1227 born (meaning "ironworker" was the Mongol founder The Mongol Empire ( Mongolyn Ezent Güren or mn Их Mонгол улс Ikh Mongol Uls; 1206–1368 was the largest contiguous Empire When the empire fragmented, the emperors of the Yuan dynasty in China (who also took the Chinese title huangdi) continued to be nominal Great Khans of the whole Mongol empire. The Yuan Dynasty ( Pinyin: Yuáncháo Dai Ön Ulus (Дай Юан Улс was a ruling Dynasty founded by the Mongol leader Kublai Only the Khagans from Genghis Khan to the fall of the Yuan dynasty in China in 1368 are normally referred to as Emperors in English.
In Persia, from the time of Darius the Great, Persian rulers used the title "King of Kings" (Shahanshah in modern Iranian) since they had dominion over peoples from India to Greece. Shah is an Iranian term for a Monarch (leader that has been adopted in many other languages King of Kings is a lofty title that has been used by several monarchies (usually empires in the informal sense of great powers throughout history and in many cases the literal title For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics. Darius I the Great (c 549 BC&ndash486 BC 𐎭𐎠𐎼𐎹𐎺𐎢𐏁 Dārayavahuš: "Possessing goodness" Having ascended to power amidst controversy and bloodshed King of Kings is a lofty title that has been used by several monarchies (usually empires in the informal sense of great powers throughout history and in many cases the literal title Shah is an Iranian term for a Monarch (leader that has been adopted in many other languages Alexander the Great probably crowned himself shahanshah after conquering Persia, bringing the phrase basileus toon basileoon to Greek. Alexander the Great ( or, Mégas Aléxandros; July 20 356 BC June 10 or June 11 323 BC also known as Alexander III of Macedon (el Ἀλέξανδρος Γ' It is also known that Tigranes the Great, king of Armenia, was named as the king of kings when he made his empire after defeating the Parthians. This article is about a king of Armenia in the 1st century BCE. Parthia ( Middle Persian: اشکانیان Ashkâniân) was an Iranian civilization situated in the northeastern part of modern Iran
The last shahanshah was ousted in 1979 following the Iranian Revolution. The Iranian Revolution' (mostly known as the Islamic Revolution, Persian: انقلاب اسلامی Enghelābe Eslāmi was the Revolution that transformed Shahanshah is usually translated as king of kings or simply king for ancient rulers of the Achaemenid, Arsacid, and Sassanid dynasties, and often shortened to shah for rulers since the Safavid dynasty in the 16th century. The Achaemenid Empire or Achaemenid Persian Empire ( haχɒmaneʃijɒn (558–330 BC was the first of the Persian Empires to rule over significant portions of The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Dynasty or Sassanian Dynasty (ساسانیان) is the name used for the third Iranian dynasty and the second Persian empire The Safavids ( صفوی) were an Iranian ref>Helen Chapin Metz
There have been many fictional emperors in movies and books. To see a list of these emperors, see Category of fictional emperors and empresses.