The Emancipation Proclamation consists of two executive orders issued by United States President Abraham Lincoln during the American Civil War. For the facility at the World Trade Center in New York which was proposed and withdrawn see International Freedom Center The National Underground Railroad Freedom Center executive order in the United States is a Directive issued by the President, the head of the executive branch of the federal government Abraham Lincoln (February 12 1809 &ndash April 15 1865 the sixteenth President of the United States, successfully led his country through its greatest internal Causes of the war See also Origins of the American Civil War, Timeline of events leading to the American Civil War The coexistence of a slave-owning South The first one, issued September 22, 1862, declared the freedom of all slaves in any state of the Confederate States of America that did not return to Union control by January 1, 1863. Events 66 - Emperor Nero creates the Legion I Italica. 1236 - The Lithuanians Year 1862 was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting on Monday The Confederate States of America (also called the Confederacy, the Confederate States, and CSA) formed as the government set up from 1861 New Year See also New Year The Ancient Romans began their consular year on January 1st since 153 BC Year 1863 ( MDCCCLXIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common The second order, issued January 1, 1863, named the specific states where it applied. New Year See also New Year The Ancient Romans began their consular year on January 1st since 153 BC Year 1863 ( MDCCCLXIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common
The Emancipation Proclamation was widely attacked at the time as freeing only the slaves over which the Union had no power, but in practice, it committed the Union to ending slavery, which was controversial in the North. It was not a law passed by Congress, but a presidential order empowered, as Lincoln wrote, by his position as "Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy" under Article II, section 2 of the United States Constitution. The Constitution of the United States of America is the supreme Law of the United States.
The proclamation did not free any slaves of the border states (Kentucky, Missouri, Maryland, Delaware, and West Virginia), or any southern state (or part of a state) already under Union control. The Commonwealth of Kentucky ( is a state located in the East Central United States of America. Missouri ( or) is a state in the Midwestern region of the United States bordered by Iowa, Illinois, Kentucky, Tennessee Delaware ( is a state located on the Atlantic Coast in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States. West Virginia ( is a state in the Appalachian Upland South, and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States, bordered by It first directly affected only those slaves that had already escaped to the Union side, but as the Union armies conquered the Confederacy, thousands of slaves were freed each day until nearly all (approximately 4 million, according to the 1860 census ) were freed by July of 1865.
After the war there was concern that the proclamation, as a war measure, had not made the elimination of slavery permanent. Several former slave states had prohibited slavery; however, some slavery continued to exist until the entire institution was finally wiped out by the ratification of the Thirteenth Amendment on December 18, 1865. The Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution officially abolished and continues to prohibit Slavery, and with limited exceptions such as those Events 218 BC - Second Punic War: Battle of the Trebia - Hannibal 's Carthaginian forces defeat those of the Year 1865 ( MDCCCLXV) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year
An application of the Fugitive Slave Law of 1850 would have required the return of fugitive slaves to their owners. The Fugitive Slave Law or Fugitive Slave Act was passed by the United States Congress on September 18, 1850, as part of the Compromise of Initially this did not occur because some Union generals declared slaves in re-occupied areas were contraband of war. Contraband was a term commonly used in the United States during the American Civil War to describe a new status for certain escaped slaves or those who came into the This was controversial because it could imply some recognition of the Confederacy as a separate nation under international law, a notion that Lincoln steadfastly denied; as a result, he never promoted the contraband designation. Some generals also declared the slaves to be free and were replaced when they refused to rescind such declarations. On March 13, 1862, Lincoln forbade all Union Army officers from returning fugitive slaves. Events 1138 - Cardinal Gregorio Conti is elected Antipope as Victor IV, succeeding Anacletus II. Year 1862 was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting on Monday On April 10, 1862, Congress declared that the federal government would compensate slave owners who freed their slaves. Events 879 - Louis III becomes King of the Western Franks. 1407 - the lama Year 1862 was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting on Monday All slaves in the District of Columbia were freed in this way on April 16, 1862. Washington DC, USA, is located at (the coordinates of the Zero Milestone, on the Ellipse Events 1178 BC - A Solar eclipse may have marked the return of Odysseus, legendary King of Ithaca, to his kingdom Year 1862 was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting on Monday On June 19, 1862, Congress prohibited slavery in United States territories, thus opposing the 1857 opinion of the Supreme Court of the United States in the Dred Scott Case that Congress was powerless to regulate slavery in U. Events 1179 - The Norwegian Battle of Kalvskinnet outside Nidaros. Year 1862 was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting on Monday The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the federal judiciary. Dred Scott v Sandford —whether or not they were slaves—could never be Citizens of the United States, and that the United States Congress S. territories.
In January 1862, Thaddeus Stevens, the Republican leader in the House, called for total war against the rebellion, arguing that emancipation would ruin the rebel economy. Thaddeus Stevens ( April 4, 1792 – August 11, 1868) of Pennsylvania, was a Republican leader and one of the most powerful The History of the United States Republican Party is an account of the second oldest currently existing Political party in the United States The United States House of Representatives is one of the two chambers of the United States Congress; the other is the Senate. In July 1862, Congress passed and Lincoln signed the "Second Confiscation Act. " It liberated the slaves held by "rebels".  It provided:
|“||SEC. 2. And be it further enacted, That if any person shall hereafter incite, set on foot, assist, or engage in any rebellion or insurrection against the authority of the United States, or the laws thereof, or shall give aid or comfort thereto, or shall engage in, or give aid and comfort to, any such existing rebellion or insurrection, and be convicted thereof, such person shall be punished by imprisonment for a period not exceeding ten years, or by a fine not exceeding ten thousand dollars, and by the liberation of all his slaves, if any he have; or by both of said punishments, at the discretion of the court. |
. . .
Abolitionists had long been urging Lincoln to free all slaves. Abolitionism was a political movement of the 18th and 19th century which sought to make Slavery illegal particularly in the United States and British West Indies A mass rally in Chicago on September 7, 1862, demanded an immediate and universal emancipation of slaves. Chicago (ʃɪˈkɑːgoʊ is the largest City by population in the state of Illinois and the American Midwest of the United States. Events 1251 BC - A Solar eclipse on this date might mark the birth of legendary Heracles at Thebes Greece. Year 1862 was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting on Monday A delegation headed by William W. Patton met the President at the White House on September 13. Rev William Weston Patton ( 19 October, 1821, New York City - 1889 was president of Howard University, a fierce Abolitionist and See also Executive Office of the President of the United States The White House, formerly known as the Executive Mansion, is the Official residence Events 509 BC - The Temple of Jupiter on Rome 's Capitoline Hill is dedicated on the ides of September Lincoln had declared in peacetime that he had no constitutional authority to free the slaves. Even used as a war power, emancipation was a risky political act. Public opinion as a whole was against it.  There would be strong opposition among Copperhead Democrats and an uncertain reaction from loyal border states. The Copperheads were a vocal group of Democrats in the Northern United States (see also Union (American Civil War) who opposed the American Civil
Lincoln first discussed the proclamation with his cabinet in July 1862, but he felt that he needed a Union victory on the battlefield so it would not look like an act of desperation. The Battle of Antietam, in which Union troops turned back a Confederate invasion of Maryland, gave him the opportunity to issue a preliminary proclamation on September 22, 1862. Events 66 - Emperor Nero creates the Legion I Italica. 1236 - The Lithuanians Year 1862 was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting on Monday The final proclamation was then issued in January of the following year, 100 days later. Although implicitly granted authority by Congress, Lincoln used his powers as Commander-in-Chief of the Army and Navy, "as a necessary war measure" as the basis of the proclamation, rather than the equivalent of a statute enacted by Congress or a constitutional amendment.
The Emancipation Proclamation did not immediately free many slaves. Secretary of State William H. Seward commented, "We show our sympathy with slavery by emancipating slaves where we cannot reach them and holding them in bondage where we can set them free. This article is about the New York Governor and Secretary of State " Had any seceding state rejoined the Union before January 1, 1863, it could have kept slavery, at least temporarily. New Year See also New Year The Ancient Romans began their consular year on January 1st since 153 BC Year 1863 ( MDCCCLXIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common The Proclamation only gave Lincoln the legal basis to free the slaves in the areas of the South that were still in rebellion. Thus, it initially freed only some slaves already behind Union lines. However, it also took effect as the Union armies advanced into the Confederacy.
The Emancipation Proclamation also allowed for the enrollment of freed slaves into the United States military. Nearly 200,000 blacks did join, most of them ex-slaves. This gave the North an additional manpower resource that the Confederacy would not emulate until the final months before its defeat.
Though the counties of Virginia that were soon to form West Virginia were specifically exempted from the Proclamation, a condition of its admittance to the Union was that the new state's constitution at least gradually abolish slavery. West Virginia ( is a state in the Appalachian Upland South, and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States, bordered by Slaves in the border states of Maryland, Missouri were also emancipated by separate state action before the Civil War ended. Missouri ( or) is a state in the Midwestern region of the United States bordered by Iowa, Illinois, Kentucky, Tennessee In early 1865, Tennessee adopted an amendment to its constitution prohibiting slavery.  Slaves in Kentucky and Delaware were not emancipated until the Thirteenth Amendment was ratified. The Commonwealth of Kentucky ( is a state located in the East Central United States of America. Delaware ( is a state located on the Atlantic Coast in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States.
The Proclamation was issued in two parts. The first part, issued on September 22, 1862, was a preliminary announcement outlining the intent of the second part, which officially went into effect 100 days later on January 1, 1863, during the second year of the Civil War. Events 66 - Emperor Nero creates the Legion I Italica. 1236 - The Lithuanians Year 1862 was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting on Monday New Year See also New Year The Ancient Romans began their consular year on January 1st since 153 BC Year 1863 ( MDCCCLXIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common It was Abraham Lincoln's declaration that all slaves would be permanently freed in all areas of the Confederacy that had not already returned to federal control by January 1863. The ten affected states were individually named in the second part. Not included were the Union slave states of Maryland, Delaware, Missouri and Kentucky. During the American Civil War, the Union was a name used to refer to the federal government of the United States, which was supported by the twenty-three A slave state was a US state in which Slavery of African Americans was legal Delaware ( is a state located on the Atlantic Coast in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States. Missouri ( or) is a state in the Midwestern region of the United States bordered by Iowa, Illinois, Kentucky, Tennessee The Commonwealth of Kentucky ( is a state located in the East Central United States of America. Also not named was the state of Tennessee, which Union armies already controlled. Tennessee ( is a state located in the Southern United States. Specific exemptions were stated for areas also under Union control on January 1, 1863, namely 48 counties that would soon become West Virginia, seven other named counties of Virginia, New Orleans and 13 named parishes nearby. New Year See also New Year The Ancient Romans began their consular year on January 1st since 153 BC Year 1863 ( MDCCCLXIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common West Virginia ( is a state in the Appalachian Upland South, and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States, bordered by The Commonwealth of Virginia ( is an American state New Orleans (nʲuːˈɔrliənz nʲuːˈɔrlənz French: La Nouvelle-Orléans) is a major United States port city and the largest city in Louisiana
As the great day drew nearer, there was more singing in the slave quarters than usual. Booker Taliaferro Washington (April 5 1856 &ndash November 14 1915 was an American educator orator author and leader of the African-American community It was bolder, had more ring, and lasted later into the night. Most of the verses of the plantation songs had some reference to freedom. . . . Some man who seemed to be a stranger (a United States officer, I presume) made a little speech and then read a rather long paper—the Emancipation Proclamation, I think. After the reading we were told that we were all free, and could go when and where we pleased. My mother, who was standing by my side, leaned over and kissed her children, while tears of joy ran down her cheeks. She explained to us what it all meant, that this was the day for which she had been so long praying, but fearing that she would never live to see.
The Emancipation took place without violence by masters or ex-slaves. The proclamation represented a shift in the war objectives of the North—reuniting the nation would no longer become the sole outcome. It represented a major step toward the ultimate abolition of slavery in the United States and a "new birth of freedom". Slavery in the United States began soon after English colonists first settled Virginia in 1607 and lasted until the passage of the Thirteenth
Some slaves were freed immediately by the proclamation. Harper's Weekly ( A Journal of Civilization) was an American political Magazine based in New York City. Runaway slaves who had escaped to Union lines were being held by the Union Army as "contraband of war" in contraband camps; when the proclamation took effect, they were told at midnight that they were free to leave. The Sea Islands off the coast of Georgia had been occupied by the Union Navy earlier in the war. The Sea Islands are a chain of tidal and Barrier islands on the Atlantic Ocean coast of the United States. The State of Georgia ( is a state in the United States and was one of the original Thirteen Colonies that revolted against British rule The whites had fled to the mainland while the blacks stayed, and an early program of Reconstruction was set up for them. Naval officers read the proclamation to them and told them they were free.
In the military, the reaction to this proclamation varied widely, with some units nearly ready to mutiny in protest, and desertions were attributed to it. Other units were inspired with the adoption of a cause that seemed to them to ennoble their efforts, such that at least one unit took up the motto "For Union and Liberty".
Slaves had been part of the "engine of war" for the Confederacy. They produced and prepared food; sewed uniforms; repaired railways; worked on farms and in factories, shipping yards, and mines; built fortifications; and served as hospital workers and common laborers. News of the Proclamation spread rapidly by word of mouth, arousing hopes of freedom, creating general confusion, and encouraging many to escape.
The Proclamation was immediately denounced by Copperhead Democrats who opposed the war and tolerated both secession and slavery. It became a campaign issue in the 1862 elections, in which the Democrats gained 28 seats in the House as well as the governorship of New York. The US House election 1862 was an election for the United States House of Representatives in 1862 that occurred in the middle of President Abraham Lincoln New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous Many War Democrats who had supported Lincoln's goal of saving the Union, balked at supporting emancipation. War Democrats were those who broke with the majority of the Democratic Party and supported the military policies of President Abraham Lincoln during the Lincoln's Gettysburg Address in November of 1863 made indirect reference to the Proclamation and the ending of slavery as a war goal with the phrase "new birth of freedom". The Gettysburg Address is a speech by US President Abraham Lincoln and one of the most quoted speeches in United States history. The Proclamation solidified Lincoln's support among the rapidly growing abolitionist element of the Republican Party, and ensured they would not block his re-nomination in 1864. 
Abroad, as Lincoln hoped, the Proclamation turned foreign popular opinion in favor of the Union for its new commitment to end slavery. That shift ended any hope the Confederacy might have had of gaining official recognition, particularly from the United Kingdom. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located If Britain or France, both of which had abolished slavery, continued to consider supporting the Confederacy, it would seem as though they were supporting slavery. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Prior to Lincoln's decree, Britain's actions had favored the Confederacy, especially in its construction of warships such as the CSS Alabama and CSS Florida. History Construction Alabama was built in secrecy by British shipbuilders John Laird Sons and Company in Liverpool, Merseyside As Henry Adams noted, "The Emancipation Proclamation has done more for us than all our former victories and all our diplomacy. Henry Brooks Adams ( February 16 1838 &ndash March 27 1918) was an American Novelist, Journalist, Historian " Giuseppe Garibaldi hailed Lincoln as "the heir of the aspirations of John Brown". Garibaldi redirects here for other meanings see Garibaldi (disambiguation. John Brown (May 9 1800 December 2 1859 was an American Abolitionist who advocated and practiced armed Insurrection as a means to end all Slavery Alan Van Dyke, a representative for workers from Manchester, England, wrote to Lincoln saying, "We joyfully honor you for many decisive steps toward practically exemplifying your belief in the words of your great founders: 'All men are created free and equal. '" This eased tensions with Europe that had been caused by the North's determination to defeat the South at all costs, even if it meant upsetting Europe, as in the Trent Affair. Britain in the American Civil War The Trent Affair, also known as the Mason and Slidell Affair, was an international diplomatic incident that occurred during the
Near the end of the war, abolitionists were concerned that the Emancipation Proclamation would be construed solely as a war act and thus no longer apply once fighting ended. They were also increasingly anxious to secure the freedom of all slaves, not just those freed by the Emancipation Proclamation. Thus pressed, Lincoln staked a large part of his 1864 presidential campaign on a constitutional amendment to abolish slavery uniformly throughout the United States. Lincoln's campaign was bolstered by separate votes in both Maryland and Missouri to abolish slavery in those states. Maryland's new constitution abolishing slavery took effect in November 1864. Slavery in Missouri was ended by executive proclamation of its governor, Thomas C. Fletcher, on January 11, 1865. Events 1055 - Theodora is crowned Empress of the Byzantine Empire. Year 1865 ( MDCCCLXV) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year
Winning re-election, Lincoln pressed the lame duck 38th Congress to pass the proposed amendment immediately rather than wait for the incoming 39th Congress to convene. A lame duck is an elected official who loses political power or is no longer responsive to the Electorate as a result of losing an election or retiring The Thirty-eighth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government consisting of the United States Senate and The Thirty-ninth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government consisting of the United States Senate and In January 1865, Congress sent to the state legislatures for ratification what became the Thirteenth Amendment, banning slavery in all U.S. states and territories. The Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution officially abolished and continues to prohibit Slavery, and with limited exceptions such as those A US state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of the United States of America that share Sovereignty with the federal government The amendment was ratified by the legislatures of enough states by December 6, 1865. Events 1060 - Béla I of Hungary is crowned king of Hungary 1240 - Mongol invasion of Rus: Kiev Year 1865 ( MDCCCLXV) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year There were about 40,000 slaves in Kentucky and 1,000 in Delaware who were then also liberated. 
The proclamation was lauded in the years after Lincoln's death. The anniversary of its issue was celebrated as a black holiday for more than 50 years; the holiday of Juneteenth was created to honor it. Juneteenth, also known as Freedom Day or Emancipation Day, is an official annual holiday in 29 Twelve other states list it as an official holiday including  In 1913, the fiftieth anniversary of the Proclamation, there were particularly large celebrations. As the years went on and American life continued to be deeply unfair towards blacks, cynicism towards Lincoln and the Emancipation Proclamation increased.
Some 20th century black intellectuals, including W.E.B. Du Bois, James Baldwin and Julius Lester, have described the proclamation as essentially worthless. William Edward Burghardt Du Bois (duːˈbɔɪz ( February 23, 1868 August 27, 1963) was an American Civil rights activist James Arthur Baldwin ( August 2, 1924 – November 30, 1987) was an American Novelist, Writer, Playwright Julius Lester (born January 27 1939) also known as Julius Bernard Lester or by his Hebrew name Yaakov Daniel, is an award winning Perhaps the strongest attack was Lerone Bennett's Forced into Glory: Abraham Lincoln's White Dream, which claimed that Lincoln was a white supremacist who issued the Emancipation Proclamation in lieu of the real racial reforms that radical abolitionists were pushing for. Lerone Bennett Jr (born October 17 1928) is an American Scholar, Author and Historian. Forced into Glory Abraham Lincoln's White Dream, commonly abbreviated to the title Forced into Glory is a controversial
In his Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation, Allen C. Guelzo notes the professional historians' lack of substantial respect for the document, since it has been the subject of few major scholarly studies. He argues that Lincoln was America's "last Enlightenment politician" and as such was dedicated to removing slavery strictly within the bounds of law.
The Emancipation Proclamation was on display at the William J. Clinton Presidential Center and Park in Little Rock, Arkansas, from September 22-25, 2007 as part of the Little Rock Central High School 50th anniversary of integration. The William J Clinton Presidential Center and Park includes the Clinton Presidential library and the offices of the Clinton Foundation and the University of Arkansas Little Rock is the Capital and the most populous city of the U Little Rock Central High School is a secondary school Central is located at the intersection of Daisy L
By the President of the United States of America
I, Abraham Lincoln, President of the United States of America, and Commander-in-Chief of the Army and Navy thereof, do hereby proclaim and declare that hereafter, as heretofore, the war will be prosecuted for the object of practically restoring the constitutional relation between the United States, and each of the states, and the people thereof, in which states that relation is, or may be suspended or disturbed.
That it is my purpose, upon the next meeting of Congress to again recommend the adoption of a practical measure tendering pecuniary aid to the free acceptance or rejection of all slave-states, so called, the people whereof may not then be in rebellion against the United States, and which states [and] may then have voluntarily adopted, or thereafter may voluntarily adopt, immediate, or gradual abolishment of slavery within their respective limits; and that the effort to colonize persons of African descent [with the consent] upon this continent, or elsewhere, [with the previously obtained consent of the governments existing there elsewhere,] will be continued.
That on the first day of January in the year of our Lord, one thousand eight hundred and sixty-three, all persons held as slaves within any state, or designated part of a state, the people whereof thenceforward, and forever free; and the executive government of the United States [including the military and naval authority thereof] will, during the continuance in office of the present incumbents, recognize [and maintain the freedom of] such persons, as being free, and will do no act or acts to repress such persons, or any of them, in any efforts they may make for their actual freedom.
That the executive will, on the first day of January aforesaid, by proclamation, designate the States, and parts of states, if any, in which the people thereof respectively, shall then be in rebellion against the United States; and the fact that any state, or the people thereof shall, on that day be, in good faith represented in the Congress of the United States, by members chosen thereto, at elections wherein a majority of the qualified voters of such state shall have participated, shall, in the absence of strong countervailing testimony, be deemed conclusive evidence that such state, and the people thereof, are not then in rebellion against the United States.
That attention is hereby called to an Act of Congress entitled "An Act to make an additional Article of War" Approved March 13, 1862, and which act is in the words and figure following:
Also to the ninth and tenth sections of an act entitled "An Act to suppress Insurrection, to punish Treason and Rebellion, to seize and confiscate property of rebels, and for other purposes," approved July 17, 1862, and which sections are:
And I do hereby enjoin upon and order all persons engaged in the military and naval service of the United States to observe, obey, and enforce, within their respective spheres of service, the act and sections above recited.
And the executive will [in due time] [at the next session of congress] recommend that all citizens of the United States who shall have remained loyal thereto throughout the rebellion, shall (upon the restoration of the constitutional relation between the United States, and their respective states, and people, if that relation shall have been suspended or disturbed) be compensated for all losses by acts of the United States, including the loss of slaves.
Abraham Lincoln [signature]