|Queen of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms (more...)|
|Elizabeth II in 2007|
|Reign||6 February 1952 – present|
|Coronation||2 June 1953|
|Heir Apparent||Charles, Prince of Wales|
|Consort||Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh|
|Prince Charles, Prince of Wales|
Princess Anne, Princess Royal
Prince Andrew, Duke of York
Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex
|Elizabeth Alexandra Mary|
|HM The Queen|
HRH The Princess Elizabeth, Duchess of Edinburgh
HRH The Princess Elizabeth
HRH Princess Elizabeth of York
|Royal house||House of Windsor|
|Royal anthem||"God Save the Queen"|
|Born||21 April 1926 |
Mayfair, London, UK
|Baptised||29 May 1926|
Buckingham Palace, London
Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary; born 21 April 1926) is the Queen regnant of sixteen independent states and their overseas territories and dependencies. This is a list of awards decorations honours orders and titles belonging to Queen Elizabeth II. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located A Commonwealth realm is any one of 16 sovereign states within the Commonwealth of Nations that each have Elizabeth II as their respective Monarch The precise style of British Sovereigns has varied over the years Events 46 BC - Julius Caesar defeats the combined army of Pompeian followers and Numidians under Metellus Scipio Year 1952 ( MCMLII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Events 455 - The Vandals enter Rome, and plunder the city for two weeks Year 1953 ( MCMLIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. A royal house or royal dynasty is a familial designation or Family name of sorts used by Royalty. The House of Windsor is the current Royal House of the United Kingdom and each of the other Commonwealth realms The older part is a branch of the Saxe-Coburg A royal anthem is a patriotic song much like a National anthem but specifically praising or praying for a Monarch or royal dynasty "God Save the Queen", or "God Save the King", is an anthem used in a number of Commonwealth realms It is the National Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon (Elizabeth Angela Marguerite 4 August 1900 &ndash 30 March 2002 was the Queen Consort of King George Events 753 BC - Romulus and Remus found Rome ( traditional date) Year 1926 ( MCMXXVI) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Mayfair is an area of central London, England, within the City of Westminster. London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Events 363 - Roman Emperor Julian defeats the Sassanid army in the Battle of Ctesiphon, under the walls of the Year 1926 ( MCMXXVI) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Buckingham Palace is the official London residence of the British monarch. London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. Events 753 BC - Romulus and Remus found Rome ( traditional date) Year 1926 ( MCMXXVI) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. List of current queens regnant A queen regnant (plural "queens regnant" is qualifying reference to a female Monarch possessing and exercising all of the monarchal A dependent territory dependent area or dependency is a territory that does not possess full political Independence or Sovereignty as a Though she holds each crown and title separately and equally, she is resident in and most directly involved with the United Kingdom, her oldest realm, over parts of whose territories her ancestors have reigned for more than a thousand years. Throughout the Commonwealth realms The Crown is an abstract metonymic concept which represents the legal authority for the existence of any government This is a list of awards decorations honours orders and titles belonging to Queen Elizabeth II. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Queen Elizabeth II, present sovereign of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms, is the daughter of George VI, the second-eldest son of She ascended the thrones of seven countries in February 1952 on the death of her father King George VI. This article is about royal thrones for the order of Angels by the same name see Thrones. (See Context below. )
In addition to the United Kingdom, Elizabeth II is also Queen of Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Jamaica, Barbados, the Bahamas, Grenada, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, Tuvalu, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Belize, Antigua and Barbuda, and Saint Kitts and Nevis, in each of which she is represented by a Governor-General. TalkCommonewalth realm.-->The monarchy of TalkCommonewalth realm.-->The monarchy TalkCommonewalth realm.--> New Zealand TalkCommonewalth realm.--> The monarchy TalkCommonewalth realm.-->The monarchy of The Bahamas, officially the Commonwealth of The Bahamas, is an independent sovereign English -speaking country consisting of two thousand Cays and Grenada (grɪˈneɪdə is an Island nation that includes the southern Grenadines in the southeastern Caribbean Sea. Papua New Guinea (or ˈpæpjuːə in Tok Pisin: Papua Niugini) officially the Independent State of Papua New Guinea, is a country in Oceania TalkCommonewalth realm.--> The Head of Tuvalu, formerly known as the Ellice Islands, is a Polynesian Island nation located in the Pacific Ocean midway between Hawaii and Saint Lucia (ˌseɪnt ˈluːʃɪə is an Island nation in the eastern Caribbean Sea on the boundary with the Atlantic Ocean. Saint Vincent and the Grenadines is an island nation in the Lesser Antilles chain of the Caribbean Sea. TalkCommonewalth realm.--> The monarchy Antigua and Barbuda ( Spanish for "Ancient" and "Bearded" is an Island nation located on the eastern boundary of the Caribbean Sea The Federation of Saint Kitts and Nevis (also known as the Federation of Saint Christopher and Nevis) located in the Leeward Islands, is a federal two-island The term governor general or governor-general refers to a vice-regal representative of a Monarch in an independent realm or a major colonial circonscription The 16 countries of which she is Queen are known as Commonwealth realms, and their combined population, including dependencies, is over 129 million. A Commonwealth realm is any one of 16 sovereign states within the Commonwealth of Nations that each have Elizabeth II as their respective Monarch In theory her powers are vast; in practice (and in accordance with convention) she herself rarely intervenes in political matters. In the United Kingdom at least, however, she is known to take an active behind-the-scenes interest in the affairs of state, meeting regularly to establish a working relationship with her government ministers.
Elizabeth II holds a variety of other positions, among them Head of the Commonwealth, Supreme Governor of the Church of England, Duke of Normandy, Lord of Mann, and Paramount Chief of Fiji. Queen Elizabeth II is the second person to be recognised as Head of the Commonwealth (which currently has 53 members The Supreme Governor of the Church of England is a title held by the British Monarchs which signifies their titular leadership over the Church of England. Duke of Normandy is a Title held or claimed by various Norman, French, English and British rulers from the 10th century until the The title Lord of Mann (Chiarn Vanninagh is used on the Isle of Man to refer to Queen Elizabeth II, who is the Island's Lord Proprietor and Head The Paramount Chief of Fiji (Fijian Ilisapeci-Na Radi ni Viti kei Peritania or Ilisapeci-Na Tui Viti) is the name given to Queen Elizabeth Her long reign has seen sweeping changes in her realms and the world at large, perhaps most notably the dissolution of the British Empire (a process that began in the last years of her father's reign) and the consequent evolution of the modern Commonwealth of Nations. The British Empire was the largest empire in history and for over a century was the foremost global power.
Since 1947, the Queen has been married to Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, born a prince of Greece and Denmark but after naturalisation known as Philip Mountbatten and subsequently created Duke of Edinburgh. Greece (Ελλάδα transliterated: Elláda, historically, Ellás,) officially the Hellenic Republic (Ελληνική Δημοκρατία The Kingdom of Denmark ( ˈd̥ænmɑɡ̊ (archaic ˈd̥anmɑːɡ̊ commonly known as Denmark, is a country in the Scandinavian region of northern Europe The Duke of Edinburgh is a Dukedom associated with Edinburgh, Scotland. To date the couple have four children and eight grandchildren; the eighth (Viscount Severn) was born on 17 December 2007 to Prince Edward and Sophie, Countess of Wessex. James Viscount Severn (James Alexander Philip Theo born 17 December 2007 is a member of the British Royal Family. Events 546 - Gothic War (535–554: The Ostrogoths of King Totila Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Sophie Countess of Wessex ( née Rhys-Jones, born 20 January 1965 is a member of the British Royal Family, the wife of Prince Edward Earl of Wessex 
Elizabeth became Queen of the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Pakistan and Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) upon the death of her father, George VI, on 6 February 1952. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. New Zealand is an Island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses (the North Island and the South Island The Republic of South Africa (also known by other official names) is a country located at the southern tip of the continent of Africa Pakistan () officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country located in South Asia, Southwest Asia, Middle East and Sri Lanka, officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka ( Sinhalese:, இலங்கை known as Ceylon before 1972 is an Island Events 46 BC - Julius Caesar defeats the combined army of Pompeian followers and Numidians under Metellus Scipio Year 1952 ( MCMLII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. As other colonies of the British Empire attained independence from the UK during her reign, she acceded to the newly created thrones as Queen of each respective realm so that throughout her 56 years on the throne she has been the sovereign of 32 nations, half of which subsequently became republics. The British Empire was the largest empire in history and for over a century was the foremost global power. A republic is a State or Country that is not led by a hereditary Monarch, but in which the people (or at least a part of its people have impact on its She is currently the only monarch of more than one independent state.
Elizabeth II is currently the second longest reigning monarch of the United Kingdom ranking behind Victoria (who reigned over the UK for 63 years). The number of states headed by Queen Elizabeth II has varied during her years on the throne all-together seeing her as Head of state of a total of thirty-three countries during Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901 was from 20 June 1837 the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located She is also one of the longest-reigning monarchs of any of its predecessor states, ranking behind George III (who reigned over Great Britain and subsequently the UK for 59) and James VI (who reigned over Scotland for 57). Succession of states is a theory in International relations regarding the recognition and acceptance of a newly created State by other states based on George III (George William Frederick 4 June 1738 George III's long reign was marked by a series of military conflicts involving his kingdom much of the rest of Europe and places The Kingdom of Great Britain, also known as the United Kingdom of Great Britain, was a State in northwest Europe, in existence from 1707 to 1800 The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located James VI and I (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625 was King of Scotland as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James Scotland ( Gaelic: Alba) is a Country in northwest Europethat occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain. In March 2008 she surpassed Henry III of England. Henry III (1 October 1207 &ndash 16 November 1272 was the son and successor of John "Lackland" as King of England, reigning for fifty-six years from 1216
Following tradition, she is also styled Duke of Lancaster and Duke of Normandy. There were several Dukes of Lancaster in the 14th and early 15th Centuries Duke of Normandy is a Title held or claimed by various Norman, French, English and British rulers from the 10th century until the She is also Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces of many of her realms (and Lord Admiral of the United Kingdom), and is styled Defender of the Faith in various realms for differing reasons. A commander-in-chief is the Commander of a nation's Military forces or significant element of those forces The Admiralty was formerly the authority in the United Kingdom responsible for the command of the Royal Navy. "Defender of the Faith" redirects here For the 1984 platinum album of British heavy metal group Judas Priest, see Defenders of the Faith
|British Royal Family|
HM The Queen
Elizabeth was born at 17 Bruton Street, in Mayfair, London, on 21 April 1926, the first child of Prince Albert, Duke of York (the future King George VI) and the Duchess of York (born the Hon. Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon, later Queen Elizabeth, and, after her daughter's accession to the throne, the Queen Mother), and the third grandchild and first granddaughter of King George V and Queen Mary
She was baptised in the Private Chapel on the grounds of Buckingham Palace (it no longer exists, as it was destroyed during World War II) by Cosmo Lang, the Archbishop of York. The British Royal Family is the group of close relatives of the monarch of the United Kingdom. For actual Princes of Wales called Henry see Henry Prince of Wales. Princess Beatrice of York (Beatrice Elizabeth Mary born 8 August 1988 is a member of the British Royal Family. Princess Eugenie of York ( Eugenie Victoria Helena;; born 23 March 1990 is a member of the British Royal Family and a granddaughter of Queen Elizabeth II Sophie Countess of Wessex ( née Rhys-Jones, born 20 January 1965 is a member of the British Royal Family, the wife of Prince Edward Earl of Wessex James Viscount Severn (James Alexander Philip Theo born 17 December 2007 is a member of the British Royal Family. The Lady Louise Windsor (Louise Alice Elizabeth Mary born 8 November 2003 is a member of the British Royal Family. Prince Richard Duke of Gloucester (Richard Alexander Walter George born 26 August 1944 is a member of the British Royal Family, the youngest grandchild of King George Birgitte Duchess of Gloucester (Birgitte Eva (bree-gee-tae; formerly van Deurs born Henriksen 20 June 1946 is a member of the British Royal Family, the wife Prince Edward Duke of Kent (Edward George Nicholas Patrick Paul born 9 October 1935 is a member of the British Royal Family, a grandchild of George V. Katharine Duchess of Kent (Katharine Lucy Mary née Worsley 22 February 1933 is a member of the British Royal Family, the wife of Prince Edward Duke of Kent, "Prince Michael" redirects here For other people named Prince Michael see Prince Michael (disambiguation. Princess Michael of Kent (Marie Christine née Baroness Marie Christine Agnes Hedwig Ida von Reibnitz 15 January 1945 is a member of the British Royal Family. Mayfair is an area of central London, England, within the City of Westminster. London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. Events 753 BC - Romulus and Remus found Rome ( traditional date) Year 1926 ( MCMXXVI) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon (Elizabeth Angela Marguerite 4 August 1900 &ndash 30 March 2002 was the Queen Consort of King George Queen mother is defined as "a Queen dowager who is the mother of the reigning sovereign" Mary of Teck (Victoria Mary Augusta Louise Olga Pauline Claudine Agnes 26 May 1867 – 24 March 1953 was the queen-empress consort of George V of the United Kingdom World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including Cosmo Gordon Lang 1st Baron Lang of Lambeth (31 October 1864 &ndash 5 December 1945 was a bishop in the Church of England. The Archbishop of York is a high-ranking cleric in the Church of England, second only to the Archbishop of Canterbury. Her godparents were her paternal grandparents, King George V and Queen Mary; the Princess Royal; the Duke of Connaught; her maternal grandfather, the Earl of Strathmore; and Lady Elphinstone. Mary of Teck (Victoria Mary Augusta Louise Olga Pauline Claudine Agnes 26 May 1867 – 24 March 1953 was the queen-empress consort of George V of the United Kingdom The Princess Mary Princess Royal and Countess of Harewood (Victoria Alexandra Alice Mary Lascelles née Windsor 25 April 1897 &ndash 28 March The Prince Arthur Duke of Connaught and Strathearn (Arthur William Patrick Albert 1 May 1850 &ndash 16 January 1942) was a member of Claude George Bowes-Lyon 14th Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne KG, KT, GCVO, TD (14 March 1855 – 7 November 1944 was a landowner and Mary Frances Buller-Fullerton-Elphinstone Lady Elphinstone and Baroness Elphinstone, DCVO ( August 30 1883 &ndash February 8 1961)
Elizabeth was named after her mother, while her two middle names are those of her paternal great-grandmother, Queen Alexandra, and grandmother, Queen Mary, respectively. Alexandra of Denmark (Alexandra Carolina Marie Charlotte Louise Julia 1 December 1844 – 20 November 1925 was Queen Consort to Edward VII of the United Kingdom As a child, her close family knew her as "Lilibet".  She had a close relationship with her grandfather, George V, and was credited for aiding his recovery from illness in 1929.  On 29 April 1929, the young "P'incess Lilybet" appeared on the cover of TIME magazine, in an article that described her third birthday. Events 1429 - Joan of Arc arrives to relieve the Siege of Orleans. Year 1929 ( MCMXXIX) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Time (trademarked in capitals as TIME) is a weekly American Newsmagazine, similar to Newsweek and 
Princess Elizabeth's only sibling was the late Princess Margaret, who was born in 1930. The two young princesses were educated at home, under the supervision of their mother. Their governess was Marion Crawford, better known as "Crawfie". A governess is a female employee of a family who teaches children within their home For the American author F Marion Crawford see Francis Marion Crawford and for the fictional character Marion Crawford (EastEnders Marion Crawford  She studied history with C. H. K. Marten, Provost of Eton, and also learned modern languages; she speaks French fluently. Eton College, or just Eton, is a world-famous British Independent school for boys founded in 1440 by King Henry VI. French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people  She was instructed in religion by the Archbishop of Canterbury and has remained a devout member of the Church of England. The Archbishop of Canterbury is the chief bishop and principal leader of the Church of England, the symbolic head of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the The Church of England is the officially established Christian church in England, the Mother Church of the worldwide Anglican 
As a granddaughter of the British sovereign in the male line, she held the title of a British princess, with the style "Her Royal Highness," her full style being "Her Royal Highness Princess Elizabeth of York". This is a list of British princesses from the accession of King George I in 1714 At the time of her birth, she was third in the line of succession to the throne, behind her uncle, the Prince of Wales (later King Edward VIII), and her father. The line of succession to the British Throne is a partial list of the people in line to succeed to the throne Although her birth generated public interest, there was no reason at the time to believe that she would ever become queen, as it was widely assumed that the Prince of Wales would marry and have children in due course. However, Edward did not have any children, and Elizabeth's parents had no sons (who would have taken precedence over her). Therefore, she would eventually have become queen whether Edward had abdicated or not.
When her father became King in 1936 upon the abdication of her uncle, King Edward VIII, she became heiress presumptive and was thenceforth known as "Her Royal Highness The Princess Elizabeth". Abdication (from the Latin abdicatio, disowning renouncing from ab, away from and dicare, to declare to proclaim as not belonging to one An heir presumptive is the person provisionally scheduled to inherit a throne peerage or other hereditary honor but whose position can be displaced by the birth of an Heir apparent There was some demand in Wales for her to be created The Princess of Wales, but the King was advised that this was the title of the wife of the Prince of Wales, not a title in its own right. Princess of Wales is a Courtesy title held by the wife of the Prince of Wales since the first "English" Prince of Wales in 1283 Some feel the King missed the opportunity to make an innovation in royal practice by re-adopting King Henry VIII's idea. Henry VIII (28 June 1491 &ndash 28 January 1547 was King of England and Lord of Ireland, later King of Ireland and claimant to the Kingdom of In 1525 Henry had proclaimed his eldest daughter, Lady Mary, Princess of Wales in her own right. Mary I (18 February 1516 &ndash 17 November 1558 was Queen of England and Queen of Ireland from 19 July 1553 until her death  But the possibility, however remote, remained that Elizabeth's father could have a son, who would have been heir apparent, supplanting Elizabeth in the line of succession to the throne.
Elizabeth was thirteen years old when the Second World War broke out, and she and her younger sister, Princess Margaret, were evacuated to Windsor Castle, Berkshire. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including Evacuations of civilians in Britain during World War II were designed to save the population of urban or military areas from German aerial bombing Windsor Castle, in Windsor in the English county of Berkshire, is the largest inhabited Castle in the world and dating back to the time of Berkshire (ˈbɑːkʃə or /ˈbɑːkʃɪə/ say Baak-shuh/-sheer sometimes abbreviated to Berks) is a Home County in the South There was some suggestion that the two princesses be evacuated to Canada, where they were to live at Hatley Castle in British Columbia. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page Hatley Park National Historic Site is located in Colwood British Columbia in Greater Victoria British Columbia (ˌbrɪtɨʃ kəˈlʌmbiə ( BC) ( (la Colombie-Britannique C To this proposal their mother made the famous reply, "The children won't go without me. I won't leave the King. And the King will never leave. " While at Windsor, Princess Elizabeth and her sister staged pantomimes at Christmas when family and friends were invited with the children of members of staff of the Royal Household. Pantomime (informally panto) (not to be confused with a Mime artist, referring to a theatrical performer of mime is a performance genre traditionally found The royal household in all the early medieval monarchies of Western Europe formed the basis for the general government of the country In 1940, Princess Elizabeth made her first radio broadcast during the BBC's Children's Hour, addressing other children who had been evacuated. See also The Children's Hour (disambiguations Children's Hour &mdashat first " The Children's Hour" from a verse by Longfellow When she was 13 years old, she first met her future husband Prince Philip.  She fell in love with him and began writing to him when he was in the Royal Navy. The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore known as the Senior Service)
Elizabeth made her first official overseas visit in 1947, when she accompanied her parents to South Africa. The Republic of South Africa (also known by other official names) is a country located at the southern tip of the continent of Africa During her visit to Cape Town, she and her father were accompanied by Prime Minister Jan Smuts when they went to the top of Table Mountain by cable car. Cape Town (Kaapstad Xhosa: Ikapa) is the second most populous city in South Africa, forming part of the metropolitan municipality of the Field Marshal Jan Christiaan Smuts, OM, CH, PC, ED, KC, FRS (24 May 1870 &ndash 11 September 1950 was a prominent Table Mountain is a flat-topped Mountain forming a prominent landmark overlooking the city of Cape Town in South Africa, and is featured in the On her 21st birthday, she made a broadcast to the British Commonwealth and Empire, pledging
|“||I declare before you all that my whole life, whether it be long or short, shall be devoted to your service and the service of our great imperial family to which we all belong. The British Empire was the largest empire in history and for over a century was the foremost global power.||”|
During the Second World War, plans were developed to counter the growing Welsh Nationalist influence of Plaid Cymru in Wales, which included "rolling out" a member of the British Royal Family to "smooth things over," according to a report by then constitutional expert Edward Iwi. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including See also Plaid Cymru The Party of Wales Plaid Cymru The Party of Wales (IPA/plaɪd ˈkəmri/ often referred in common speech simply as The British Royal Family is the group of close relatives of the monarch of the United Kingdom.  In a report he gave to then Home Secretary Herbert Morrison, Iwi proposed to make the then Princess Elizabeth as Constable of Caernarfon Castle (a post then held by the Earl Lloyd George of Dwyfor), and patroness of Urdd Gobaith Cymru and a touring of Wales as Urdd's patroness. The Secretary of State for the Home Department, commonly known as the Home Secretary, is the minister in charge of the United Kingdom Home Office Herbert Stanley Morrison Baron Morrison of Lambeth, CH PC ( 3 January 1888 &ndash 6 March 1965) was a British For the ship see RMS Queen Elizabeth 2 Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Context States headed by Elizabeth II A constable is a person holding a particular office most commonly in law enforcement. Caernarfon Castle (Castell Caernarfon was constructed at Caernarfon in Gwynedd, north-west Wales, by King Edward I of England, following his Earl Lloyd George of Dwyfor is a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. Urdd Gobaith Cymru, literally the Welsh League of Hope, but normally translated as the Welsh League of Youth, or merely referred to as the Urdd, is a 
The idea of posting the princess as constable of Caernarfon Castle was rejected by the Home Secretary as it might cause conflict between north and south Wales, and King George VI refused to let the then princess tour Wales as to not add undue pressure on her.  Additionally, the plan to make the princess patroness of Urdd Gobaith Cymru was dropped as two of the leading members were conscientious objectors. A conscientious objector (CO is an individual who on religious moral or ethical grounds refuses to participate as a combatant in war or in some cases to take any role that would support 
In 1945, 18-year-old Princess Elizabeth convinced her father that she should be allowed to contribute directly to the war effort. She joined the Women's Auxiliary Territorial Service, where she was known as No 230873 Second Subaltern Elizabeth Windsor, trained as a driver, and drove a military truck while she served. The Auxiliary Territorial Service ( ATS; often pronounced as an Acronym) was the women's branch of the British Army during the Second World War A subaltern is a Military term for a junior officer. Literally meaning " Subordinate," subaltern is used to describe commissioned officers  This training was the first time she had been taught together with other students. It is said that she greatly enjoyed this and that this experience led her to send her own children to school rather than have them educated at home. She was the first, and so far only, female member of the royal family to actually serve in the armed forces, although every monarch is nominally the Commander-in-Chief of both the British and Canadian Armed Forces, and other royal women have been given honorary ranks. A commander-in-chief is the Commander of a nation's Military forces or significant element of those forces The Armed forces of the United Kingdom, commonly known as the British Armed Forces or Her Majesty's Armed Forces, and sometimes legally the Armed Forces The Canadian Forces (CF ( French: Forces canadiennes) are the unified Armed forces of Canada, governed by the National Defence During the VE Day celebrations in London, she and her sister, Princess Margaret, mingled with the crowd after midnight to celebrate with everyone. Victory in Europe Day ( V-E Day or VE Day) was May 7 and May 8, 1945, the dates when the World War II Allies 
Elizabeth married Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh (born Prince Philip of Greece and Denmark) on 20 November 1947. Events 284 - Diocletian was chosen as Roman Emperor. 762 - Bögü Khan of the Uyghurs, Year 1947 ( MCMXLVII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The couple are second cousins once removed: they are both descended from Christian IX of Denmark – Elizabeth II is a great-great-granddaughter through her paternal great-grandmother Alexandra of Denmark, and the Duke is a great-grandson through his paternal grandfather George I of Greece. cousin in Kinship terminology is a relative with whom one shares a common Ancestor, but in modern usage the term is rarely used when referring to a Christian IX ( April 8, 1818 - January 29, 1906) was King of Denmark from November 16, 1863 to January 29 Alexandra of Denmark (Alexandra Carolina Marie Charlotte Louise Julia 1 December 1844 – 20 November 1925 was Queen Consort to Edward VII of the United Kingdom George I King of the Hellenes (Γεώργιος A' Βασιλεύς των Ελλήνων Georgios A' Vasileus ton Ellinon; 24 December 1845 &ndash 18 March 1913 was As well as second cousins once removed, the couple are third cousins: they share Queen Victoria as a great-great-grandmother. Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901 was from 20 June 1837 the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Elizabeth's great-grandfather was Edward VII, while Edward's sister Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse and by Rhine was the Duke's great-grandmother. The Princess Alice (Alice Maud Mary 25 April 1843 &ndash 14 December 1878) was a member of the British Royal Family, the third Prince Philip had renounced his claim to the Greek throne and was simply referred to as Lieutenant Philip Mountbatten before being created Duke of Edinburgh prior to their marriage. Greece (Ελλάδα transliterated: Elláda, historically, Ellás,) officially the Hellenic Republic (Ελληνική Δημοκρατία The Duke of Edinburgh is a Dukedom associated with Edinburgh, Scotland. As a Greek royal, Philip is a member of the house of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg, the Danish royal house and a line of the House of Oldenburg. "Mountbatten" was an anglicisation of his mother's titular designation, Battenberg. The marriage was controversial; Philip was Greek Orthodox, with no financial resources behind him, and had sisters who had married Nazi supporters. The Greek Orthodox Church ( Greek: Ἑλληνορθόδοξη Ἐκκλησία Hellēnorthódoxē Ekklēsía) is formed by several autocephalous churches The, officially National Socialist German Workers' Party, ( abbreviated NSDAP) was a Political party in Germany between 1919 and 1945 Elizabeth's mother was reported in later biographies to have strongly opposed the marriage, even referring to Philip as "the Hun".  Still, the wedding was seen as the first glimmer of hope in a post-war Commonwealth, and, though the royal couple received over 2,500 wedding gifts from around the world, rationing required that the Princess save up her ration coupons to buy the material for her wedding dress. Rationing in the United Kingdom is the series of Food rationing policies put in place by the government of the United Kingdom during certain wartime periods of 
At the wedding itself, the Princess' bridesmaids were her sister, Princess Margaret; her cousin, Princess Alexandra of Kent; Lady Caroline Montagu-Douglas-Scott, a cadet relative via their mutual aunt; the Duchess of Gloucester; her second cousin, Lady Mary Cambridge; Lady Elizabeth Mary Lambart (now Longman), daughter of the 10th Earl of Cavan; The Hon. Participants in wedding ceremonies, also known as the wedding party, include the bride and groom (or bridegroom) the maid of honor cousin in Kinship terminology is a relative with whom one shares a common Ancestor, but in modern usage the term is rarely used when referring to a Princess Alice Duchess of Gloucester (born The Lady Alice Christabel Montagu-Douglas-Scott; 25 December 1901 &ndash 29 October 2004 was the wife of Prince Henry Duke Lady Mary Whitley ( Mary Ilona Margaret) née Cambridge ( 24 September 1924 - 13 December 1999) was a descendant of the Field Marshal Frederick Rudolph Lambart 10th Earl of Cavan KP, GCB, GCMG, GCVO, GBE ( 16 October Pamela Mountbatten (now Hicks), Prince Philip's cousin; and two maternal cousins, The Hon. Margaret Elphinstone (now Rhodes) and The Hon. Margaret The Hon Mrs Rhodes, LVO, (b 9 June 1925) is a first cousin and close friend of Queen Elizabeth II. Diana Bowes-Lyon (now Somervell). John Herbert Bowes-Lyon ( 1 April 1886 &ndash 7 February 1930) (known as "Jock" was the second son of the 14th Earl of Strathmore  The Princess' page boys were her young paternal first cousins, Princes William of Gloucester and Michael of Kent. Prince William of Gloucester (William Henry Andrew Frederick 18 December 1941 - 28 August 1972) was a member of the British royal family "Prince Michael" redirects here For other people named Prince Michael see Prince Michael (disambiguation. 
After their wedding, the couple leased their first home, Windlesham Moor until 4 July 1949, when they took up residence at Clarence House, London. Windlesham Moor is a former royal residence at Sunningdale, Ascot, Surrey, England. Events 836 - Pactum Sicardi, peace between the Principality of Benevento and the Duchy of Naples Year 1949 ( MCMXLIX) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. House generally refers to a Shelter or Building that is a Dwelling or place for Habitation by Human beings. Clarence House is a royal home in London, situated on The Mall. At various times between 1946 and 1953, the Duke of Edinburgh was stationed in Malta as a serving Royal Navy officer. Malta, officially the Republic of Malta (Repubblika ta' Malta is a European Microstate, comprising an Archipelago of three islands The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore known as the Senior Service) Lord Mountbatten of Burma had purchased the Villa Gwardamangia (also referred to as the Villa G'Mangia), in the hamlet of Gwardamangia in Malta, in about 1929. Admiral of the Fleet Louis Francis Albert Victor Nicholas Mountbatten 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma, KG, GCB, OM, GCSI, Gwardamanġia, or in English Guardamangia is a hamlet in Pietà, Malta. Princess Elizabeth stayed there when visiting Philip in Malta. Philip and Elizabeth lived in Malta for a period between 1949 and 1951 (Malta being the only other country in which the Queen has lived, although at that time Malta was a British Protectorate). In International law, a protectorate is a autonomous territory that is "protected" by a stronger state or entity hense the protector which engages to protect
On 14 November 1948, Elizabeth gave birth to her first child, Charles. Events 1533 - Conquistadors from Spain under the leadership of Francisco Pizarro arrive in Cajamarca, Inca Year 1948 ( MCMXLVIII) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Several weeks earlier, letters patent had been issued so that her children would enjoy a royal and princely status to which they would not otherwise have been entitled, instead being styled merely as children of a duke. Letters patent are a type of Legal instrument in the form of an Open letter issued by a Monarch or Government, granting an office right  The couple had four children in all:
Though the Royal House is named Windsor, it was decreed, via a 1960 Order-in-Council, that those male-line descendants of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip who were not Princes or Princesses of the United Kingdom should have the personal surname Mountbatten-Windsor. Events 1533 - Conquistadors from Spain under the leadership of Francisco Pizarro arrive in Cajamarca, Inca Year 1948 ( MCMXLVIII) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Events 778 - The Battle of Roncevaux Pass, at which Roland is killed Year 1950 ( MCML) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Events 197 - Roman Emperor Septimius Severus defeats usurper Clodius Albinus in the Battle of Lugdunum Year 1960 ( MCMLX) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Events 241 BC - First Punic War: Battle of the Aegates Islands - The Romans sink the Carthaginian fleet bringing Year 1964 ( MCMLXIV) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the 1964 Gregorian calendar. A royal house or royal dynasty is a familial designation or Family name of sorts used by Royalty. The House of Windsor is the current Royal House of the United Kingdom and each of the other Commonwealth realms The older part is a branch of the Saxe-Coburg An Order-in-Council is a type of legislation in Commonwealth Realms. Mountbatten-Windsor is the personal Surname of some of the descendants of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip Duke of Edinburgh under an ambiguously-worded  In practice all of their children, in honour of their father, have used Mountbatten-Windsor as their surname (or in Anne's case, her maiden surname). Both Charles and Anne used Mountbatten-Windsor as their surname in the published banns for their first marriages. The banns of marriage, commonly known simply as "the banns " (from an Old English word meaning "to summon" are the public announcement in 
Her father's health declined during 1951, and Elizabeth was soon frequently standing in for him at public events. A coronation is a ceremony marking the investiture of a Monarch with regal power specifically involving the placement of a crown upon his or her head and the Events 455 - The Vandals enter Rome, and plunder the city for two weeks Year 1953 ( MCMLIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. She visited Greece, Italy and Malta (where Philip was then stationed) during that year. Greece (Ελλάδα transliterated: Elláda, historically, Ellás,) officially the Hellenic Republic (Ελληνική Δημοκρατία Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Malta, officially the Republic of Malta (Repubblika ta' Malta is a European Microstate, comprising an Archipelago of three islands In October, she toured Canada and visited President Harry S Truman in Washington, D.C. In January 1952, Elizabeth and Philip set out for a tour of Australia and New Zealand. The President of the United States is the Head of state and Head of government of the United States and is the highest political official in United States by Washington DC ( formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D They had reached Kenya when word arrived of the death of her father, on 6 February 1952, from lung cancer. The Republic of Kenya is a country in East Africa. It is bordered by Ethiopia to the north Somalia to the northeast Tanzania to the south Events 46 BC - Julius Caesar defeats the combined army of Pompeian followers and Numidians under Metellus Scipio Year 1952 ( MCMLII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Lung cancer is a Disease of uncontrolled Cell growth in tissues of the Lung.
Elizabeth was staying at Sagana Lodge in Kenya when she was told of her father's death and of her own succession to the throne. Sagana Lodge was a royal residence in Kiganjo, in the foothills of Mount Kenya, Kenyaing room and three bedrooms was added later It was Prince Philip who broke the news of her father's death to Elizabeth.  After that, Martin Charteris, then Assistant Private Secretary to the new Queen, asked her what she intended to be called. Martin Michael Charles Charteris Baron Charteris of Amisfield GCB GCVO OBE QSO PC ( 7 September 1913 &ndash A regnal name, or reign name, is a formal name used by some Popes and Monarchs during their Reigns Since Medieval times monarchs "Oh, my own name; what else?" she replied.  The royal party returned immediately to the United Kingdom. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located
Elizabeth was proclaimed Queen in Canada first, by the Queen's Privy Council for Canada, on 6 February 1952. Queen Elizabeth II was proclaimed sovereign of each of the Commonwealth realms on February 6 and 7 1952 after the death of her father King George VI in The Queen's Privy Council for Canada (QPC (Conseil privé de la Reine pour le Canada (CPR sometimes called Her Majesty's Privy Council for Canada or the Privy Council Events 46 BC - Julius Caesar defeats the combined army of Pompeian followers and Numidians under Metellus Scipio Year 1952 ( MCMLII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.  Her British proclamation was read at St. James's Palace the following day. St James's Palace is one of London's oldest Palaces It is situated on Pall Mall in London, just north of St
One year later, the Queen's grandmother, Queen Mary, died of lung cancer on 24 March 1953. Mary of Teck (Victoria Mary Augusta Louise Olga Pauline Claudine Agnes 26 May 1867 – 24 March 1953 was the queen-empress consort of George V of the United Kingdom Events 1401 - Mongol emperor Timur sacks Damascus. 1603 - James VI of Scotland Year 1953 ( MCMLIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Reportedly, her dying wish was that the coronation not be postponed. The Coronation of the British Monarch is a Ceremony (specifically Initiation rite) in which the Monarch of the United Kingdom and of the other Elizabeth II's coronation took place in Westminster Abbey, on 2 June 1953. The Coronation of the British Monarch is a Ceremony (specifically Initiation rite) in which the Monarch of the United Kingdom and of the other The Collegiate Church of St Peter at Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a large mainly Gothic church Events 455 - The Vandals enter Rome, and plunder the city for two weeks Year 1953 ( MCMLIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Her coronation gown, commissioned from Norman Hartnell, was embroidered with the floral emblems of the countries of the Commonwealth: the Tudor rose of England, the Scots thistle, the Welsh leek, shamrock of Ireland, wattle of Australia, the maple leaf of Canada, the New Zealand fern, South Africa's protea, two lotus flowers for India and Ceylon, and Pakistan's wheat, cotton and jute. Sir Norman Bishop Hartnell, KCVO, (b 12 June 1901 in London - 8 June 1979) was an English Fashion The Tudor rose (sometimes called the English Rose is a traditional heraldic emblem of England and takes its name and origins from the Tudor dynasty England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland This article is about the plant for other uses see Thistle (disambiguation. The leek, Allium ampeloprasum var porrum (L also sometimes known as Allium porrum, is a vegetable which belongs along with the Onion and The shamrock, a symbol of Ireland and a registered trademark of the Republic of Ireland, is a three-leafed old white Clover, sometimes of Acacia is a Genus of Shrubs and Trees belonging to the Subfamily Mimosoideae of the family Fabaceae, first The maple leaf is the characteristic Leaf of the Maple tree, and is an important national symbol of Canada. A fern is any one of a group of about 20000 Species of Plants classified in the phylum or division Pteridophyta, also known as Filicophyta "Sugarbush" redirects here For the ski resort see Sugarbush Resort Protea is both the Botanical name Nelumbo nucifera is known by a number of common names including Indian lotus, sacred lotus, bean of India, and sacred water-lily India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country Wheat ( Triticum spp is a worldwide cultivated grass from the Levant area of the Middle East. Cotton is a soft staple Fibre that grows around the seeds of the cotton plant ( Gossypium sp Jute is a long soft shiny Vegetable fiber that can be spun into coarse strong threads 
After the Coronation, The Queen and Prince Philip moved to Buckingham Palace, in central London, the main official residence of the monarch. Buckingham Palace is the official London residence of the British monarch. It has been reported, however, that, as with many of her predecessors, she dislikes the Palace as a residence and considers Windsor Castle, another official residence, to be her home. Windsor Castle, in Windsor in the English county of Berkshire, is the largest inhabited Castle in the world and dating back to the time of 
Not long after, the Queen and Prince Philip, from 1953 to 1954, made a six-month, around the world tour, becoming the first monarch to circumnavigate the globe. She also became the first reigning monarch of Australia, New Zealand and Fiji to visit those nations. Since then, Elizabeth II has undertaken many overseas voyages. In October 1957, she made a state visit to the United States, addressing the United Nations General Assembly, and proceeded to tour Canada, wherein she became the first Canadian monarch to open a session of that nation's parliament. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Membership For two articles dealing with membership in the General Assembly see General Assembly members Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page TalkCommonewalth realm.-->The monarchy of The Parliament of Canada (Parlement du Canada is Canada 's legislative branch, seated at Parliament Hill in Ottawa, Ontario. She made another state visit to the United States, as Queen of Canada, hosting the return dinner for President Dwight D. Eisenhower at the Canadian Embassy in Washington. "Official visit" redirects here For the Yes Minister episode see " The Official Visit " The President of the United States is the Head of state and Head of government of the United States and is the highest political official in United States by Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower (October 14 1890 – March 28 1969 was President of the United States from 1953 until 1961 and a five-star general The Embassy of Canada in Washington DC (Ambassade du Canada à Washington is Canada's main Diplomatic mission to the United States. In February 1961, she visited Ankara with Cemal Gursel, and toured India, Iran, Pakistan and Nepal for the first time. Ankara is the capital of Turkey and the country's second largest city after İstanbul. Cemal Gürsel ( October 13, 1895 — September 14, 1966) was a Turkish Army officer, and the 4th President India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics. Pakistan () officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country located in South Asia, Southwest Asia, Middle East and Nepal (नेपाल) is a Landlocked country in South Asia. She has made state visits to most European countries and to many outside Europe. In 1969, Elizabeth II sent one of 73 Apollo 11 Goodwill Messages to NASA for the historic first lunar landing. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration ( NASA, ˈnæsə is an agency of the United States government, responsible for the nation's public space program The message is etched onto a tiny silicon disc and still rests on the lunar surface today. She greeted the Apollo 11 crew during their tour of the world.  In 1991, she became the first British monarch to address a joint session of the United States Congress during another state visit to that country, and in 2007 became the first British monarch to address the Virginia General Assembly. The United States Congress is the bicameral Legislature of the federal government of the United States of America, consisting of two houses The Virginia General Assembly is the legislative body of the Commonwealth of Virginia. She has also regularly attended Commonwealth Heads of Government Meetings since the practice was established in Canada in 1973. The Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting, abbreviated to CHOGM, is a biennial Summit meeting of the heads of government from all Commonwealth Altogether, Elizabeth II is the most widely-travelled head of state in history.  She has two international state visits scheduled in 2008 the first of which was to Turkey.
The British Empire began its metamorphosis following the Balfour Declaration at the Imperial Conference of 1926, followed by the formalization of the declaration in the Statute of Westminster, 1931. A Commonwealth realm is any one of 16 sovereign states within the Commonwealth of Nations that each have Elizabeth II as their respective Monarch A Commonwealth realm is any one of 16 sovereign states within the Commonwealth of Nations that each have Elizabeth II as their respective Monarch The British Empire was the largest empire in history and for over a century was the foremost global power. The Balfour Declaration of 1926, named after the British Lord President of the Council Arthur Balfour, Earl of Balfour was the name given to a report resulting The Statute of Westminster 1931 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom (22 & 23 Geo
By the time of Elizabeth's accession in 1952, there was much talk of a "new Elizabethan age". Since then, one of the Queen's roles has been to preside over the United Kingdom as it has shared world economic and military power with a growing host of independent nations and principalities. As nations have developed economically and culturally, the Queen has witnessed, over the past 50 years, a gradual transformation of the British Empire into its modern successor, the Commonwealth of Nations. She has worked hard to maintain links with former British possessions, and in some cases, such as South Africa, she has played an important role in retaining or restoring good relations. The Republic of South Africa (also known by other official names) is a country located at the southern tip of the continent of Africa
In 2007, papers from 1956 were declassified in which the then French Prime Minister Guy Mollet and British Prime Minister Sir Anthony Eden discussed the possibility of France joining in a union with the United Kingdom; among the ideas put forward was having Elizabeth II as the French head of state. Freedom of information legislation in the United Kingdom is controlled by two Acts of the United Kingdom and Scottish Parliaments respectively which both came into force on Guy Mollet (31 December 1905 - 3 October 1975 was a French Socialist politician Robert Anthony Eden 1st Earl of Avon, KG, MC, PC (12 June 1897 &ndash 14 January 1977 was a British Conservative Politician This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. A paper from 28 September 1956 stated that Mollet "had not thought there need be difficulty over France accepting the headship of Her Majesty. Events 48 BC - Pompey the Great is assassinated on orders of King Ptolemy of Egypt after landing in Egypt. Year 1956 ( MCMLVI) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. " This proposal was never accepted, and the following year France signed the Treaty of Rome. 
She has a strong sense of religious duty and takes her Coronation Oath seriously.  This is one reason (as well as the example set by her uncle who abdicated) why it is considered highly unlikely that she will ever abdicate. 
The Queen has shown a strong constitution in the face of turmoil; for example, during a trip to Ghana in 1961 she pointedly refused to keep her distance from the then President, Kwame Nkrumah, despite the fact that he was a target for assassins. The Republic of Ghana is a country in West Africa. It borders Côte d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast to the west Burkina Faso to the north Togo to the Prior to independence Ghana was known as the British colony of Gold Coast. Kwame Nkrumah ( September 21, 1909 - April 27, 1972) was an influential 20th century advocate of Pan-Africanism, and the leader of Harold Macmillan wrote at the time: "the Queen has been absolutely determined all through. (Maurice Harold Macmillan 1st Earl of Stockton, OM, PC (10 February 1894 &ndash 29 December 1986 was a British Conservative Politician She is impatient of the attitude towards her to treat her as… a film star. . . She has indeed 'the heart and stomach of a man'. The Speech to the Troops at Tilbury was delivered on 9 August Old Style, 19 August New Style 1588 by Queen Elizabeth I of . . She loves her duty and means to be a Queen. " One author describes another incident thus: " …in 1964, when the Queen was invited to Quebec, according to Robert Speaight in Vanier, Soldier, Diplomat and Governor General: A Biography. Quebec (kwɨˈbɛk Major-General Georges-Philéas Vanier DSO MC & Bar CD ( April 23, 1888 - March 5, 1967 The Governor General of Canada ( French: Gouverneure générale du Canada, or: Gouverneur général du Canada) is the vice-regal representative There were fears for the Queen’s safety, while the media whipped up a campaign of fear around the risks involved from separatist threats, and there was talk of cancelling the tour. The Queen’s Private Secretary replied that the Queen would have been horrified to have been prevented from going because of the activities of extremists. " Further, during the Trooping the Colour in 1981 there was an apparent attempt on the Queen's life: six rounds of blanks were fired at her from close range as she rode down The Mall. Trooping the Colour is a military ceremony performed by Regiments of the Commonwealth and the British Army. The Mall (ˈmæl in London is the road running from Buckingham Palace at its western end to Admiralty Arch and on to Trafalgar Square Her only reaction was to duck slightly and then continue on. The Canadian House of Commons was so impressed by her display of courage that a motion was passed praising her composure. The House of Commons (Chambre des communes is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the Sovereign (represented by the Governor General) and 
As a constitutional monarch, Elizabeth II does not express her personal political opinions publicly. A constitutional monarchy, or a limited monarchy, is a form of Constitutional Government, wherein either an elected or hereditary Monarch is She has maintained this discipline throughout her reign, doing little in public to reveal what they might be, and thus her political views are not clearly known. However, there is some evidence to suggest that, in economic terms, she leans towards a One Nation point of view. One Nation, One Nation Conservatism, or Tory Democracy is a term used in political debate in the United Kingdom to refer to the left wing of the Conservative During Margaret Thatcher's years as British Prime Minister, it was rumoured that the Queen worried that Mrs. Margaret Hilda Thatcher Baroness Thatcher LG, OM, PC, FRS (born 13 October 1925 The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the political leader of the United Kingdom Thatcher's economic policies were fostering social divisions, and she was reportedly alarmed by high unemployment, a series of riots in 1981, and the violence of the miners' strike.  Mrs. Thatcher once said to Brian Walden, referring to the Social Democratic Party: "The problem is, the Queen is the kind of woman who could vote SDP. (Alastair Brian Walden (born on 8 July, 1932 in West Bromwich) was a Labour Member of Parliament and is now a journalist and broadcaster This is about the UK Social Democratic Party which existed between 1981 and 1988 "
During an event in Westminster Hall marking her Silver Jubilee in 1977, the Queen stated, "I cannot forget that I was crowned Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. " This reference came at a time when the Labour government was attempting to introduce a controversial devolution policy to Scotland and Wales, and was interpreted as opposition to devolution. Devolution is the statutory granting of powers from the central government of a State to government at subnational level Scotland ( Gaelic: Alba) is a Country in northwest Europethat occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain. Her reference in the Silver Jubilee speech is also believed, by some, to refer to the disturbances in Northern Ireland at that time.
Her statement of praise for the Northern Ireland Belfast Agreement raised some complaints among some Unionists (who were traditionally strong monarchists). Northern Ireland (Tuaisceart Éireann Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a Country within the United Kingdom, lying in the northeast of The Agreement, most often referred to as the Belfast Agreement (Comhaontú Bhéal Feirste Belfast Greeance or the Good Friday Agreement (Comhaontú Aoine an Unionism in Ireland, is a belief in the desirability of a full constitutional and institutional relationship between Ireland and Great Britain based on the terms and Ian Paisley, leader of the right-wing Democratic Unionist Party and founder of the evangelical Free Presbyterian Church of Ulster, famously broke with Unionism's traditional deference for the British Crown by calling the Queen "a parrot" of Tony Blair. Ian Richard Kyle Paisley (born 6 April 1926 styled The Rt Hon The Democratic Unionist Party ( DUP) is the larger of the two main unionist political parties in Northern Ireland. This Presbyterian denomination is not related to the Free Presbyterian Church of Scotland or the Free Church of Scotland The Free He suggested that her support for the Belfast Agreement would weaken the monarchy's standing among Northern Irish Protestants, a substantial number of whom remained opposed to certain parts of the Agreement. However, Paisley's criticism of the Queen on this matter was rejected by more traditional and moderate unionists. 
In the late 1990s, after referendums approved a devolution policy, the Queen sent her best wishes to the new Scottish Parliament and the National Assembly of Wales, the first sessions of which she opened in person. The National Assembly for Wales (Cynulliad Cenedlaethol Cymru is a devolved assembly with power to make legislation in Wales. Several MSPs stayed away from the ceremony, attending a republican rally instead. Member of the Scottish Parliament ( MSP) ( Ball Pàrlamaid na h-Alba ( BPA) in Gaelic) is the title given to any one of the 129 individuals elected The Declaration of Calton Hill was a declaration calling for an independent Scottish Republic. A number of AMs boycotted her opening of the first session of the National Assembly for Wales. The National Assembly for Wales is composed of 60 members known as AMs or Assembly Members (in Welsh: ACau or Aelodau'r Cynulliad Plaid Cymru's Leanne Wood AM also boycotted the opening of National Assembly's new building (the Senedd) in 2006 and was thrown out of chamber for calling the Queen 'Mrs. Plaid Cymru (plaɪd ˈkəmri The Party of Wales often referred to simply as Plaid) is a Political party in Wales. Leanne Wood, born in the Rhondda, Wales, in 1971, is a member of the National Assembly for Wales, representing the South Wales The Senedd ( Welsh for Legislature, Parliament or Senate; pronounced /ˈsɛnɛth/ (the th pronounced as in the word the is the home Windsor' during an Assembly debate. 
On March 20, 2008, The Queen broke with tradition and for the first time ever held a Maundy Service outside of England and Wales; accompanied by The Duke of Edinburgh. Events 1600 - The Linköping Bloodbath takes place on Maundy Thursday in Linköping, Sweden. 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Maundy money, legally called "the Queen's Maundy money" is a welcoming British coinage given to deserving poor people in a religious ceremony performed England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland Her Majesty attended the Maundy Thursday Service in Northern Ireland at the Church of Ireland St Patrick's Cathedral, Armagh during a 3-day visit to coincide with Easter. In the Christian Liturgical calendar, Maundy Thursday (also known as Holy Thursday) is the feast or holy day falling on the Thursday before Easter Northern Ireland (Tuaisceart Éireann Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a Country within the United Kingdom, lying in the northeast of The Church of Ireland (Eaglais na hÉireann is an autonomous province of the Anglican Communion, operating across the island of Ireland. St Patrick's Cathedral Armagh is the seat of the Archbishop of Armagh in the Church of Ireland, and was the seat of the Roman Catholic Archbishops Easter ( Greek: Πάσχα Pascha or Pasxa) is the most important religious feast in the Christian Liturgical year. 
While not speaking directly against Quebec sovereignty in Canada, she has publicly praised Canada's unity and expressed her wish to see the continuation of a unified Canada, sometimes courting controversy over the matter. The Quebec sovereignty movement ( Mouvement souverainiste du Québec) is a political movement aimed at either attaining independent statehood ( Sovereignty) or some Like her mother, the Queen has shown an affection for Canada, stating in 1983, when departing California, "I am going home to Canada tomorrow," and at a dinner in Saskatchewan in 2005: "this country and Canadians everywhere have been a constant presence in my life and work. California ( is a US state on the West Coast of the United States, along the Pacific Ocean. " She has also stated that Canada feels like "a home away from home". 
In a speech to the Quebec Legislature, at the height of the Quiet Revolution of 1964, she ignored the national controversy (including riots during her appearance in Quebec City – see History of Monarchy in Canada) in favour of praising Canada's two "complementary cultures", speaking, in both French and English, about the strength of Canada's two founding peoples, stating, "I am pleased to think that there exists in our Commonwealth a country where I can express myself officially in French," and, "whenever you sing [the French words of] 'O Canada' you are reminded that you come of a proud race. The National Assembly of Quebec (Assemblée nationale du Québec is the name for the legislative body of the province of Quebec, Canada. The Quiet Revolution ( Révolution tranquille) was the 1960s period of intense change in Quebec, Canada, characterized by the rapid and effective Secularization The history of monarchy in Canada stretches from the pre-colonial times of Canada through to the present day though Canada's monarchical status is typically seen as beginning "O Canada" is the National anthem of Canada. The song was originally commissioned by the then Lieutenant Governor of Quebec the Honourable Théodore "
After she proclaimed the Constitution Act in 1982, which was the first time in Canadian history that a major constitutional change had been made without the agreement of the government of Quebec, the Queen attempted to demonstrate her position as head of the whole Canadian nation, and her role as conciliator, by privately expressing to journalists her regret that Quebec was not part of the settlement. The Constitution Act 1982 (Schedule B of the Canada Act 1982 (UK is a part of the Constitution of Canada. Political system British-type parliamentarism based on the Westminster system was introduced in the Province of Lower Canada in 1791 
In 1995, during a separatist referendum campaign, the Queen was tricked into speaking, in both French and English, for fourteen minutes with Pierre Brassard, a DJ for Radio CKOI-FM Montreal, pretending to be the then Canadian Prime Minister Jean Chrétien. Pierre Brassard (born April 24, 1966) is a Québécois actor comedian television personality and radio broadcaster Joseph Jacques Jean Chrétien, (generally known as Jean Chrétien) (born January 11, 1934) is a Canadian politician who was the twentieth Prime When told that the separatists were showing a lead, the Queen revealed that she felt the "referendum may go the wrong way," adding, "if I can help in any way, I will be very happy to do so. " However, she pointedly refused to accept Chrétien's advice that she intervene on the issue without first seeing a draft speech sent by him. (Her tactful handling of the call won plaudits from the DJ who made it. ) Chrétien later, in his memoirs, recounted the Queen's tongue-in-cheek comments to him regarding this affair: "'I didn't think you sounded quite like yourself,' she told me, 'but I thought, given all the duress you were under, you might have been drunk. Tongue-in-cheek is a term used to refer to humor in which a statement or an entire fictional work is not meant to be taken seriously but its lack of seriousness is subtle '"
On 18 November 1965, the Governor of Rhodesia, Sir Humphrey Gibbs, was made a Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order, an honour in the personal gift of the Queen, a week after Ian Smith had made his Unilateral Declaration of Independence (UDI). Events 326 - The old St Peter's Basilica is consecrated 1302 - Pope Boniface VIII issues the Papal bull Year 1965 ( MCMLXV) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. Rhodesia was the name adopted when the formerly British colony of Southern Rhodesia declared itself independent ( Unilateral Declaration of Independence Sir Humphrey Vicary Gibbs, GCVO, KCMG, ( November 22, 1902 &ndash 1990 was the penultimate The Royal Victorian Order (RVO is a Dynastic order of knighthood and a house order of chivalry in the Commonwealth realms Created by Queen Victoria Ian Douglas Smith GCLM ID ( 8 April 1919 &ndash 20 November 2007) served as the Prime Minister of the British The Unilateral Declaration of Independence ( UDI) of Rhodesia from the United Kingdom was signed on November 11, 1965 by the administration Gibbs was intensely loyal to Rhodesia, and, although he had refused to accept the UDI, the award was criticised by some as badly timed. Others praised it as indicating support for her Rhodesian representative in the face of an illegal action by her Rhodesian prime minister.
Elizabeth II, as the Monarch of the United Kingdom, is the Supreme Governor of the Church of England and sworn protector of the Church of Scotland. A Commonwealth realm is any one of 16 sovereign states within the Commonwealth of Nations that each have Elizabeth II as their respective Monarch The Supreme Governor of the Church of England is a title held by the British Monarchs which signifies their titular leadership over the Church of England. The Church of England is the officially established Christian church in England, the Mother Church of the worldwide Anglican The Church of Scotland (Eaglais na h-Alba known informally by its Scots language name The Kirk, is the National church of Scotland. She holds no religious role as Sovereign of the other Realms.
The Queen takes a keen personal interest in the Church of England, but, in practice, delegates authority in the Church of England to the Archbishop of Canterbury. The Archbishop of Canterbury is the chief bishop and principal leader of the Church of England, the symbolic head of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the She regularly worships at St. George's Chapel at Windsor Castle, or at St. Mary Magdalene Church when staying at Sandringham House, Norfolk.
The Royal Family also regularly attends services at Crathie Kirk when holidaying at Balmoral Castle, and when in residence at the Palace of Holyroodhouse, the family attends services at the Canongate Kirk. Crathie Kirk is a small Church of Scotland parish church in the Scottish village of Crathie, best known for being the regular place of worship of the The Kirk of the Canongate - or Canongate Kirk - serves the Parish of Canongate in Edinburgh 's Old Town, in Scotland The Queen has attended the annual General Assembly of the Church of Scotland on several occasions, most recently in 1977 and 2002, although, in most years, she appoints a Lord High Commissioner to represent her. The General Assembly of the Church of Scotland is the sovereign and highest Court of the Church of Scotland, and is thus the Church's governing body The Lord High Commissioner to the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland is the British Sovereign's personal representative to the General Assembly of the
The Queen made particular reference to her Christian convictions in her Christmas Day television broadcast in 2000, in which she spoke about the theological significance of the Millennium as marking the 2000th anniversary of the birth of Jesus Christ:
|“||To many of us, our beliefs are of fundamental importance. Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings Jesus of Nazareth (7–2 BC / BCE —26–36 AD / CE) For me, the teachings of Christ, and my own personal accountability before God provide a framework in which I try to lead my life. I, like so many of you, have drawn great comfort in difficult times from Christ's words and example.||”|
The Queen often meets with leaders from other religions as well. She is Patron of The Council of Christians and Jews in the UK. The Council of Christians and Jews, or CCJ is a Voluntary organisation in the United Kingdom. 
The Jubilee year coincided with the deaths, within a few months, of the Queen's mother and sister. Her relations with her children have become much warmer in recent years. She is particularly close to her daughter-in-law, Sophie, Countess of Wessex and is very close to her grandchildren, noticeably Prince William, Princess Beatrice and Zara Phillips. Sophie Countess of Wessex ( née Rhys-Jones, born 20 January 1965 is a member of the British Royal Family, the wife of Prince Edward Earl of Wessex Princess Beatrice of York (Beatrice Elizabeth Mary born 8 August 1988 is a member of the British Royal Family. Zara Anne Elizabeth Phillips, MBE (born 15 May 1981 is the second child and only daughter of Princess Anne Princess Royal and her first husband Captain Mark
In late February 2003, the Queen's reign, then just over 51 years, surpassed the combined reigns of her four immediate predecessors: Edward VII, George V, Edward VIII and George VI. First Lady of the United States is the unofficial title of the hostess of the White House. Thelma Catherine " Pat " Ryan Nixon (March 16 1912 &ndash June 22 1993 was the wife of Richard Nixon, 37th President of the United She is currently the second-longest-serving head of state in the world, after King Bhumibol of Thailand (fourth if one includes the rulers of the subnational entity Ras Al Khaimah and of the Government of Tibet in Exile), and the third-longest serving British or English monarch. This is a list of currently enthroned Monarchs and lifelong leaders sorted by length of service Bhumibol Adulyadej (ภูมิพลอดุลยเดช pʰuːmipʰon adunjadeːt Royal Institute: Phumiphon Adunyadet;) (born Monday 5 December 1927 The Kingdom of Thailand (ˈtaɪlænd ราชอาณาจักรไทย, râːtɕʰa-ʔaːnaːtɕɑ̀k-tʰɑj Ras Al-Khaimah ( Arabic: رأس الخيمة,, literally "The Top of the Tent" is one of the emirates of the United Arab Emirates The Central Tibetan Administration (CTA officially the Central Tibetan Administration of His Holiness the Dalai Lama, is a Government in exile headed by Tenzin Her reign of over half a century has seen eleven different Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom (twelve terms) and numerous Prime Ministers in the Commonwealth Realms. The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the political leader of the United Kingdom A Commonwealth realm is any one of 16 sovereign states within the Commonwealth of Nations that each have Elizabeth II as their respective Monarch
In June 2005, she was forced to cancel several engagements after contracting what the Palace described as a bad cold. Nonetheless, the Queen has been described as being in excellent health, and is seldom ill. 
In October 2006, she suffered a burst blood vessel in her right eye, causing her entire eye to appear deep red in colour.  While the palace would not comment on the Queen's condition, medical experts stated that the Queen would be in no pain and that her eye would heal within a week or two with no lasting damage. They also stated that blood vessel bursts are common amongst the elderly, but can also be a sign of high blood pressure. Later that month, on 26 October, she was due officially to open the new Emirates Stadium, the home of Arsenal F.C., but she was forced to cancel the engagement due to a strained back muscle that had troubled her since the end of her Balmoral holiday. Events 740 - An Earthquake strikes Constantinople, causing much damage and death The Emirates Stadium is a football stadium located on Ashburton Grove in Holloway, North London, and the home of Arsenal Football Club since "Back" redirects here For other uses please see Back (disambiguation. Muscle (from Latin musculus, diminutive of mus "mouse" is contractile tissue of the body and is derived from the  Her back troubles appear to be ongoing. There was serious concern in November 2006 that she would not be well enough to open Parliament, and plans were drawn up to cover her possible absence. However, she was able to attend. The following month, the Queen faced more rumours that she was in declining health when she was seen in public with a plaster on her right hand. An adhesive bandage (called a sticking plaster, just plaster, or Elastoplast (a trademark in the United Kingdom, New Zealand The positioning of the plaster seemed to suggest that the Queen may have been fitted with an intravenous drip. Intravenous therapy or IV therapy is the giving of Liquid substances directly into a Vein. Medical experts suggest that given her back troubles and age she may be suffering from osteoporosis. Osteoporosis is a Disease of Bone that leads to an increased risk of fracture. Buckingham Palace refused to comment.  However, it was later revealed that the plaster was as a result of one of her corgis biting her hand as she separated her two fighting pets. 
On 21 December 2007, the Queen surpassed her great-great-grandmother Queen Victoria as the oldest reigning monarch in both British and the Commonwealth realms' history. Events 69 - The end of the Year of the four emperors: Following Galba, Otho and Vitellius, Vespasian Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901 was from 20 June 1837 the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland This is a list of British monarchs by longevity since the Union of the Crowns of England, Scotland and Ireland in 1603 A Commonwealth realm is any one of 16 sovereign states within the Commonwealth of Nations that each have Elizabeth II as their respective Monarch Should she still be living on 29 January 2012, she would surpass Richard Cromwell as the longest-lived British head of state, including those who did not hold the office to their death. Events 904 - Sergius III comes out of retirement to take over the papacy from the deposed Antipope Christopher. 2012 ( MMXII) will be a Leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Richard Cromwell ( 4 October 1626 &ndash 12 July 1712) was the third son of Oliver Cromwell, and the second Lord Protector If she lives until 19 September 2013 but is still survived by the Prince of Wales, he would be the oldest to succeed to the throne, surpassing William IV, who was 64. Events 335 - Dalmatius is raised to the rank of Caesar by his uncle Constantine I. 2013 ( MMXIII) will be a Common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. William IV (William Henry 21 August 1765 &ndash 20 June 1837 was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and of Hanover from 26 June 1830 until Should she still be reigning on 10 September 2015, at the age of 89, her reign will surpass that of Queen Victoria and she will become the longest reigning monarch in British history. Events 506 - The Bishops of Visigothic Gaul meet in the Council of Agde. 2015 ( MMXV) will be a Common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. If she is still reigning on 26 May 2024, at the age of 98, she will surpass the reign of Louis XIV of France and become the longest reigning monarch in European history. Events 451 - The Battle of Avarayr between Armenian rebels and the Sassanid Empire takes place 2024 ( MMXXIV) will be a Leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. Early years Birth and ancestry Louis XIV was born in the Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye on September 5 1638 and bore the Heir apparent
In 1977, the Queen celebrated her Silver Jubilee, marking the 25th anniversary of her accession to the Throne. The Silver Jubilee of Elizabeth II marked the twenty-fifth anniversary of Queen Elizabeth II 's accession to the The Golden Jubilee of Elizabeth II marked the fiftieth anniversary of Queen Elizabeth II 's accession to the throne The Silver Jubilee of Elizabeth II marked the twenty-fifth anniversary of Queen Elizabeth II 's accession to the  The occasion was marked by a royal procession in the golden state coach and a service of thanksgiving at St. Paul's Cathedral attended by dignitaries and heads of state. St Paul's Cathedral, is the Anglican Cathedral on Ludgate Hill, in the City of London, and the seat of the Bishop of London. Millions watched events on television and numerous public street parties were held across the UK to mark the occasion, culminating in several "Jubilee Days" held in June. Five commemorative stamps were also printed.
The Jubilee line of the London Underground, which opened in 1979, was also named in honour of the anniversary, and several other locations and public spaces were named to commemorate the Jubilee, including the Jubilee Gardens in London's South Bank. The Jubilee line is a line on the London Underground ("the Tube" in the United Kingdom. The London Underground is a Metro system serving a large part of Greater London and neighbouring areas of Essex, Hertfordshire and Buckinghamshire The Jubilee Gardens is a Public park in South Bank, London which was created in 1977 to mark the Silver Jubilee of Elizabeth II. The South Bank is the area in London on the southern bank of the River Thames near Waterloo station that houses a number of important
In 2002, Elizabeth II celebrated her Golden Jubilee, marking the 50th anniversary of her accession to the Throne. The Golden Jubilee of Elizabeth II marked the fiftieth anniversary of Queen Elizabeth II 's accession to the throne  The year saw an extensive tour of the Commonwealth realms, including the first ever pop concert in the gardens of Buckingham Palace, and as had been held in 1977, a service of thanksgiving took place at St Paul's Cathedral. A Commonwealth realm is any one of 16 sovereign states within the Commonwealth of Nations that each have Elizabeth II as their respective Monarch Buckingham Palace is the official London residence of the British monarch. St Paul's Cathedral, is the Anglican Cathedral on Ludgate Hill, in the City of London, and the seat of the Bishop of London. Public celebrations in the UK were more muted than they had been 25 years previously, in part because earlier the same year both the Queen's mother and sister had died, and in part due to changing public attitudes towards the monarchy. However, street parties and commemorative events were still organised in many areas.
The Queen and Prince Philip celebrated their sixtieth (Diamond) wedding anniversary on Monday 19 November 2007, with a special service at Westminster Abbey, where they wed sixty years prior. An anniversary (from the Latin anniversarius, from the words for year and to turn meaning (returning yearly known in English since c. Events 1095 - The Council of Clermont, called by Pope Urban II to discuss sending the First Crusade to the Holy Land Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. The Collegiate Church of St Peter at Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a large mainly Gothic church Their actual anniversary came a day later, on 20 November. Events 284 - Diocletian was chosen as Roman Emperor. 762 - Bögü Khan of the Uyghurs, Distinguished guests included immediate members of the Royal Family, Sir John Major, Baroness Thatcher, Prime Minister Gordon Brown, David Cameron, Jack Straw and the surviving bridesmaids and pages from the wedding. The British Royal Family is the group of close relatives of the monarch of the United Kingdom. Sir John Major KG CH ACIB (born 29 March 1943 is a British Politician who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom Margaret Hilda Thatcher Baroness Thatcher LG, OM, PC, FRS (born 13 October 1925 The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the political leader of the United Kingdom WikipediaManual of Style (biographies#Academic titles --> James Gordon Brown (born 20 February 1951 is David William Donald Cameron (born 9 October 1966 is a British Politician and the current leader of the Conservative Party and Leader of Her Majesty's John Whitaker Straw (born 3 August 1946 most commonly known as Jack Straw, is a senior British Labour Party Politician. Participants in wedding ceremonies, also known as the wedding party, include the bride and groom (or bridegroom) the maid of honor Participants in wedding ceremonies, also known as the wedding party, include the bride and groom (or bridegroom) the maid of honor The night before, Prince Charles hosted a private dinner at Clarence House for twenty of the most immediate members of the Royal Family in recognition of his parents' enduring marriage. Clarence House is a royal home in London, situated on The Mall.
On the following day, 20 November, The Queen and Prince Philip embarked on a visit to Malta, where they had stayed from 1949 to 1951 after getting married. Events 284 - Diocletian was chosen as Roman Emperor. 762 - Bögü Khan of the Uyghurs, Malta, officially the Republic of Malta (Repubblika ta' Malta is a European Microstate, comprising an Archipelago of three islands A Royal Navy ship which had docked in the vicinity arranged for its sailors to assemble on deck in the formation of the number '60' in recognition of the couple's sixtieth wedding anniversary. The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore known as the Senior Service)
On Saturday, 21 April 2007, the Queen turned 81 years old and has since begun to hand over some public duties to her children and other members of the Royal Family. Events 753 BC - Romulus and Remus found Rome ( traditional date) Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. In early 2006, reports began to surface that the Queen planned to reduce her official duties significantly, though she has made it clear that she has no intention of abdicating. Abdication (from the Latin abdicatio, disowning renouncing from ab, away from and dicare, to declare to proclaim as not belonging to one  The 2007 State Visit to the United States tends to show this to be an unfounded rumour. The British press has speculated that Prince Charles will start to perform many of the day-to-day duties of the monarch, while the Queen will effectively go into "retirement".  It was later confirmed by the Palace that Prince Charles will begin to hold the regular audiences with the Prime Minister and other Commonwealth leaders. However, while the Queen would be increasing the length of her weekends by two days, she would continue with public duties well into the future.  However, the Queen still meets with the Prime Minister – she has not handed over this duty to the Prince of Wales. Buckingham Palace already gives the Prince access to government papers. For a number of years, Prince Charles and the Princess Royal have each been standing in for the Queen when she has been unavailable for investitures. Whilst the Prince regularly meets foreign dignitaries, he does not, and cannot, take the place of the Queen in welcoming ambassadors at the Court of St. James's unless he is acting as a Counsellor of State with another senior member of the royal family in the same role. The Court of St James's is the name of the Royal court of the United Kingdom.
Unproven media speculation rumoured that her recent trip to Canada and Australia will be amongst her last visits to her overseas realms. The Canadian and Australian governments and the Palace have denied it.
In May 2007, the Queen and Prince Philip made a state visit to the United States, in honour of the 400th anniversary of the Jamestown settlement. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Jamestown, located on Jamestown Island in the Virginia Colony, was founded on May 14 1607
Despite her good health and intention to stay on the throne, some saw the wedding of the Prince of Wales to Camilla as a message from the Queen that, by allowing Charles to marry, she is attempting to ensure that Charles' succession to the throne will be smooth. In 2004, a copy of the Queen's newly-revised funeral plans was stolen. A funeral is a Ceremony marking a person's Death. Funerary customs comprise the complex of Beliefs and practices used by a Culture to remember  And for the first time, in September, 2005, a mock version of the Queen's funeral march was held in the middle of the night (this was also done once a year after the late Queen Mother turned 80).
Shortly before her 80th birthday, polls were conducted that showed the majority of the British public wish for the Queen to remain on the throne until her death – many feel that the Queen has become an institution in herself. 
Constitutionally, the Queen is an essential part of the legislative process of her Realms. TalkCommonewalth realm.--> The monarchy TalkCommonewalth realm.-->The monarchy of TalkCommonewalth realm.-->The monarchy TalkCommonewalth realm.--> New Zealand TalkCommonewalth realm.--> The monarchy TalkCommonewalth realm.--> The In practice, much of the Queen's role in the legislative process is ceremonial, as her reserve powers are rarely exercised.
She does decide the basis on which a person is asked to form a government; that is, whether a government should be formed capable of surviving in the House of Commons — the standard requirement — or capable of commanding majority support in the House of Commons (i. The House of Commons' is the Lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which also comprises the Sovereign and the House of Lords e. forming a coalition if no one party has a majority). The requirement is normally only made in emergencies or in wartime, and, to date, Elizabeth II has never set it.
On three occasions during her reign, Elizabeth II has had to deal with constitutional problems over the formation of UK governments. In 1957 and again in 1963, the absence of a formal open mechanism within the Conservative Party for choosing a leader meant that following the sudden resignations of Sir Anthony Eden and Harold Macmillan it fell to the Queen to decide whom to commission to form a government. The Conservative Party (officially the Conservative and Unionist Party) is a Political party in the United Kingdom. Robert Anthony Eden 1st Earl of Avon, KG, MC, PC (12 June 1897 &ndash 14 January 1977 was a British Conservative Politician (Maurice Harold Macmillan 1st Earl of Stockton, OM, PC (10 February 1894 &ndash 29 December 1986 was a British Conservative Politician In 1957, Eden did not proffer advice, and so the Queen consulted Lords Salisbury and Kilmuir for the opinion of the Cabinet, and Winston Churchill, as the only living former Conservative Prime Minister (following the precedent of George V consulting Salisbury's father and Arthur Balfour upon Andrew Bonar Law's resignation in 1923). Robert Arthur James Gascoyne-Cecil 5th Marquess of Salisbury, KG PC ( August 27, 1893 &ndash February 23, 1972) was a David Patrick Maxwell Fyfe 1st Earl of Kilmuir GCVO, PC, KC, (29 May 1900 &ndash 27 January 1967 was a British Conservative Party Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, KG, OM, CH, TD, FRS, PC, PC (Can ( 30 November 1874 James Edward Hubert Gascoyne-Cecil 4th Marquess of Salisbury, KG, GCVO, CB, PC ( October 23 1861 – April 4 Arthur James Balfour 1st Earl of Balfour, KG, OM, PC (25 July 1848 - 19 March 1930 was a British Conservative politician and Andrew Bonar Law (16 September 1858 &ndash 30 October 1923 was a Canadian -born British Conservative Party statesman and Prime Minister. In October 1963, the outgoing Prime Minister, Harold Macmillan, advised the Queen to appoint Alec Douglas-Home, the Earl of Home. Alexander Frederick Douglas-Home Baron Home of the Hirsel, KT, PC (2 July 1903 - 9 October 1995 14th Earl of Home from 1951 to 1963 was a British The title Earl of Home (pronounced "Hume" was created in 1605 in the Peerage of Scotland for Alexander Home of that Ilk who was already the 6th Lord Home
On the third occasion, in February 1974, an inconclusive general election result meant that in theory the outgoing Prime Minister Edward Heath, who had won the popular vote, could stay in power if he formed a coalition government with the Liberals. Sir Edward Richard George Heath, KG, MBE (9 July 1916 &ndash 17 July 2005 often known as Ted Heath, was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom The Liberal Party was one of the two major British political parties from the early 19th century until the rise of the Labour Party in the 1920s and a third party Rather than immediately resign as prime minister he explored the option and only resigned when the discussions foundered. (Had he chosen to, he could have stayed on until defeated in the debate on the Queen's Speech. ) Only when he resigned was the Queen able to ask the Leader of the Opposition, the Labour Party's Harold Wilson, to form a government. The Leader of the Opposition (sometimes known as the Leader of the Opposition in the House of Commons) in the United Kingdom is the politician who leads The Labour Party is a Political party in the United Kingdom. Founded at the start of the 20th century it has been since the 1920s the principal party of the James Harold Wilson Baron Wilson of Rievaulx, KG, OBE, FRS, PC (11 March 1916 &ndash 24 May 1995 was one of the most prominent British politicians His minority government lasted for eight months before a new general election was held. A minority government or a minority cabinet is a Cabinet of a Parliamentary system formed when the governing Political party or
In all three cases, she appears to have acted in accordance with constitutional tradition, following the advice of her senior ministers and Privy Councillors. Indeed, since constitutional practice in the UK is based on tradition and precedent rather than a written set of rules, it is generally accepted that the sovereign cannot be acting unconstitutionally when acting on the advice of her or his ministers.
Since becoming Queen, Elizabeth spends an average of three hours every day "doing the boxes" – reading state papers sent to her from her various departments, embassies, and government offices. Queen Elizabeth II has been head of state of 32 different Commonwealth Realms since 1952 Ernest Harmon Air Force Base is a former United States Air Force base located in Stephenville Newfoundland and Labrador. 
The Queen also has regular meetings with her individual British ministers, the First Minister of Scotland, and occasional meetings with ministers from her other realms, either when she is in the particular country, or the minister is in London. The First Minister of Scotland (Prìomh Mhinistear na h-Alba First Meinister o Scotland is the head of the devolved Scottish Though bound by convention not to intervene directly in politics, her having reviewed state documents from all her realms since 1952 means she has seen more of public affairs from the inside than any other person presently in any of her governments. This, coupled with her many interactions with a great many prime ministers in all of her realms, as well as with her knowledge of world leaders, means that when she does express an opinion, however cautiously, her words are taken with gravity. British Prime Ministers take their weekly meetings with the Queen very seriously; one Prime Minister said he took them more so than Prime Minister's Questions, because she would be better briefed and more constructive than anything he would face at the dispatch box. Prime Minister's Questions ( PMQs) (officially Questions to the Prime Minister) is a constitutional convention in the United Kingdom, where every
In a BBC documentary broadcast in 1992, Elizabeth R. , she was shown teasing former Prime Minister Sir Edward Heath about how he could travel to world trouble spots like Iraq because politicians saw him as "expendable. Sir Edward Richard George Heath, KG, MBE (9 July 1916 &ndash 17 July 2005 often known as Ted Heath, was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iraq topics. " He laughed at the comment.
In her memoirs, Margaret Thatcher offered the following description of her weekly meetings with the Queen: "Anyone who imagines that they are a mere formality or confined to social niceties is quite wrong; they are quietly business like and Her Majesty brings to bear a formidable grasp of current issues and breadth of experience. Margaret Hilda Thatcher Baroness Thatcher LG, OM, PC, FRS (born 13 October 1925 "
The Queen was thought to have had strained relations with Thatcher during Thatcher's eleven years as British Prime Minister. Jayachamaraja Wodeyar Bahadur ( July 18, 1919 &ndash September 23, 1974) was the 25th and the last Maharaja of the Princely Reports throughout the period varied over the extent of this difference and to what degree it was due to concerns over policies of the Thatcher government, or a personality clash between the two women themselves.  During the 1980s, the Queen was even reported to "cordially dislike" Mrs Thatcher.  During an argument within the Commonwealth over sanctions on South Africa, the Queen made a pointed reference to her role as Head of the Commonwealth, which was interpreted at the time as a disagreement with Thatcher's policy of opposing sanctions. However, whatever the differences between them, Thatcher has clearly conveyed her personal admiration for the Queen and believes that the image of animosity between the two of them has been played up because they are both women. In the aforementioned BBC documentary Queen & Country, Thatcher describes the Queen as "marvellous" and "a perfect lady" who "always knows just what to say," referring in particular to her final meeting with the sovereign as prime minister. Since leaving office, Thatcher has been awarded a life peerage, the Order of Merit, and the Order of the Garter, which would seem to indicate a basic respect for Thatcher on the part of the Queen, as membership of the two Orders is entirely the personal gift of the sovereign. In the United Kingdom, life peers are created members of the Peerage whose titles may not be inherited (those whose titles are inheritable are known as Hereditary The Order of Merit is a British and Commonwealth Order bestowed by the Monarch. The Most Noble Order of the Garter is an Order of chivalry, or Knighthood, originating in Medieval England, and presently bestowed on recipients In October, 2005, the Queen and Prince Philip attended Thatcher's 80th birthday party in London.
Elizabeth was thought to have had very good relations with British Prime Minister Tony Blair, during the first years of his time in office. Anthony Charles Lynton "Tony" Blair (born 6 May 1953 is a British Politician who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 2 May 1997 to However, evidence mounted that their relationship had hardened over the years, until it was revealed in May of 2007 that the Queen was "exasperated and frustrated" by the actions of then Prime Minister Tony Blair, especially by what she saw as detachment from rural issues, as well as a too-casual approach (he requested that the Queen call him "Tony") and a contempt for British heritage, on his part. Anthony Charles Lynton "Tony" Blair (born 6 May 1953 is a British Politician who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 2 May 1997 to She was also rumoured to have shown concern with the over-taxation of the British Armed Forces through overseas engagements, particularly in Iraq and Afghanistan, as well as "surprise" over Blair's shifting of their weekly meeting from Tuesday to Wednesday afternoons. The Armed forces of the United Kingdom, commonly known as the British Armed Forces or Her Majesty's Armed Forces, and sometimes legally the Armed Forces For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iraq topics. Afghanistan /æfˈgænɪstæn/ officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan ( Pashto: د افغانستان اسلامي جمهوریت, She was supposed to have raised her concerns with Blair repeatedly at these meetings, though she has never revealed her opinions on the Iraq War itself. The Iraq War, also known as the Second Gulf War, the Occupation of Iraq, or the War in Iraq, is an ongoing Military campaign  The relationship between the Queen and her husband and Blair and his wife was also reported to be distant, as the two couples shared little common interests. The Queen did, however, apparently admire Blair's efforts to achieve peace in Northern Ireland. Northern Ireland (Tuaisceart Éireann Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a Country within the United Kingdom, lying in the northeast of 
The Queen's relations with her Canadian Prime Ministers have varied throughout the years. The Prime Minister of Canada ( French: Premier ministre du Canada) is the primary Minister of the Crown, chairman of the Cabinet, and thus Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau seemed to have caused her some concern, perhaps due to his documented antics around the monarch, such as his sliding down Buckingham Palace banisters, and his famous pirouette behind the Queen, captured on film in 1977, as well as the removal of various royal symbols from Canada during his premiership. The Queen was reported, by Paul Martin, Sr., as worrying that the Crown "had little meaning for [Trudeau]. Paul Joseph James Martin, PC, CC, QC ( June 23, 1903 &ndash September 14, 1992) often referred to as " Martin, who, along with John Roberts and Mark MacGuigan, was sent to the UK in 1980 to discuss the patriation of the Canadian constitution, noted that during this time the Queen had taken a great and deep interest in the constitutional debate, especially following the failure of Bill C-60, which affected her role as head of state. John Moody Roberts PC, BA, BPhil, DPhil (Born November 28, 1933 in Hamilton Ontario - Died March 30 Mark Rudolph MacGuigan PC, BA, MA, PhD, LLM, JSD, LLD ( February 17, 1931 &ndash Patriation is a non-legal term particularly used in Canada, to describe a process of Constitutional change also known as "bringing home" the constitution The Constitution of Canada is the supreme law in Canada; the country's Constitution is an amalgamation of codified acts and uncodified traditions They found the Queen "better informed on both the substance and politics of Canada's constitutional case than any of the British politicians or bureaucrats. " However, as part of these changes, orchestrated by Trudeau, the Monarchy was entrenched within Canada's governing system. Following this, Trudeau stated in his memoirs: "I always said it was thanks to three women that we were eventually able to reform our Constitution. The Queen, who was favourable, Margaret Thatcher, who undertook to do everything that our Parliament asked of her, and Jean Wadds, who represented the interests of Canada so well in London. Margaret Hilda Thatcher Baroness Thatcher LG, OM, PC, FRS (born 13 October 1925 Jean Casselman Wadds (born September 16, 1920 in Newton Robinson Ontario) is a former Canadian politician who represented the electoral . . The Queen favoured my attempt to reform the Constitution. I was always impressed not only by the grace she displayed in public at all times, but by the wisdom she showed in private conversation. "
Elizabeth's relations with the Prime Ministers of Australia have been much less direct, with the notable exception of the great and remarkably complex Australian constitutional crisis of 1975, when Prime Minister Gough Whitlam was summarily removed from office by the Governor-General of Australia, Sir John Kerr. New Zealand is an Island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses (the North Island and the South Island See also 2002 (disambiguation Year 2002 ( MMII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. This article is about the government position For other uses see Prime Minister (disambiguation. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. This article is about the government position For other uses see Prime Minister (disambiguation. Edward Gough Whitlam, AC, QC (born 11 July 1916 known as Gough Whitlam (ˈɡɒf goff is an Australian former politician and 21st The Governor-General of the Commonwealth of Australia is the representative in Australia of the monarch of Australia (currently Elizabeth II Queen of Australia) John Kerr may refer to one of the following Government and politics John Kerr (Governor-General (1914&ndash1991 Australian Governor-General Kerr was the Queen's official representative in Australia. John Kerr may refer to one of the following Government and politics John Kerr (Governor-General (1914&ndash1991 Australian Governor-General For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. Gough Whitlam appealed to the Queen and the Privy Council to reverse the decision, but she declined to act, saying it was not constitutional to intervene in the affairs of a Commonwealth Nation's elective party politics. Edward Gough Whitlam, AC, QC (born 11 July 1916 known as Gough Whitlam (ˈɡɒf goff is an Australian former politician and 21st A privy council is a body that advises the Head of state of a nation on how to exercise their executive authority, typically but not always in the context of a However, recent documents released in the Australian press, along with the release in Australia of the 1975 Cabinet papers, show that Sir John Kerr may have in fact acted illegally in getting advice from both the sitting head of the High Court of Australia and, according to an article published in 2006 in the Sydney Morning Herald, entitled "Why that old Whitlam fire just won't die", the sitting Governor of New South Wales, Sir Roden Cutler. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. The High Court of Australia is the final court of appeal in Australia the highest court in the Australian court hierarchy. A governor is a governing official usually the executive (at least nominally to different degrees also politically and administratively of a non-sovereign level of government Sir Arthur Roden Cutler, VC, AK, KCMG, KCVO, CBE (24 May 1916 – 22 February 2002 usually known simply as Roden Cutler Also, it has been rumored based on some statements attributed to (but not verified) Elizabeth's longtime, and now retired, private secretary Sir Robert Fellowes that there were several discussions of in fact intervening in the crisis. Nothing was ultimately done, speculation being because of concern about the dangers of strengthening the Australian republican movement and the ultimate possibility, reflected in the holding of the failed 1999 Republic Referendum, of the Queen's role in Australia being completely abolished by the Australians. Republicanism in Australia is a movement to change Australia 's status as a Constitutional monarchy to a Republican form of government For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. In the end, Labor faced an election which it lost convincingly.
Elizabeth II's personal relationships with world leaders are warm and informal, and she has developed friendships with many foreign leaders, including Nelson Mandela, Mary Robinson, and George W. Bush, who was the first American President in more than 80 years to stay at Buckingham Palace. Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela (xolíɬaɬa mandéːla born 18 July 1918 is a former President of South Africa, the first to be elected in fully representative Mary Therese Winifred Robinson (Máire Mhic Róibín born 21 May 1944 was the first female President of Ireland, serving from 1990 to 1997 and the United Nations George Walker Bush ( born July 6 1946 is the forty-third and current President of the United States. The President of the United States is the Head of state and Head of government of the United States and is the highest political official in United States by
Mary McAleese, now President of Ireland, recounted how, as Pro-Vice-Chancellor of the Queen's University of Belfast, she was, to her shock, invited to a lunch with the Queen and the Duke of Edinburgh, on the basis that the Queen wished to talk to her, as a leading Northern Ireland nationalist, and hear her views on Anglo-Irish relations. WikipediaManual of Style (biographies#Academic titles --> Mary Patricia McAleese (Máire Pádraigín The President of Ireland (Uachtarán na hÉireann n̪ˠə ˈheːɾʲən̪ˠ is the Head of state of Ireland. Queen's University Belfast is a university in Belfast, Northern Ireland. Northern Ireland (Tuaisceart Éireann Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a Country within the United Kingdom, lying in the northeast of Irish nationalism (Náisiúnachas Éireannach refers to political and sociological movements and sentiment that embodies a love for Irish ancestry, culture and language and The two women struck up an instant rapport, with McAleese, during the 1997 Irish presidential election, calling the Queen "a dote" (a Hiberno-English term meaning a "really lovely person") in an Irish Independent interview. The Irish presidential election of 1997 was held on 30 October 1997 Hiberno-English also known as Anglo-Irish and Irish English is English as spoken in Ireland, partly the result of the interaction of the English The Irish Independent is Ireland's largest selling daily newspaper Nelson Mandela, in the BBC documentary, repeatedly referred to her as "my friend, Elizabeth". Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela (xolíɬaɬa mandéːla born 18 July 1918 is a former President of South Africa, the first to be elected in fully representative
The Queen has never given a press interview, and her views on political issues are largely unknown except to those few heads of government in her confidence. Queen Elizabeth II has rarely given press interviews and her views on political issues are largely unknown except to those few heads of government in her confidence Conservative in dress, she is well known for her solid-colour overcoats and decorative hats which allow her to be seen easily in a crowd.  She attends many cultural events as part of her public role. Her main leisure interests include horse racing, photography, and dogs, especially her Pembroke Welsh Corgis. This article is about the sport For other uses see Horserace (drinking game or Horse race (politics. Photography (fә'tɒgrәfi or fә'tɑːgrәfi (from Greek φωτο and γραφία is the process and Art of recording pictures by means of capturing The dog ( Canis lupus familiaris) is a domesticated Subspecies of the gray wolf, a Mammal of the Canidae family of the order 
The Queen's personal fortune has been the subject of speculation for many years. Forbes magazine conservatively estimated her fortune at around US$500 million (£280 million). Forbes is an American Publishing and media company Its flagship publication Forbes magazine is published bi-weekly  This figure seems to agree with official Palace statements that called reports of the Queen's supposed multibillion-dollar wealth "grossly over-exaggerated. " This estimate it conflicts with a total addition of the Queen's personal holdings. The Royal Art Collection is worth at least £10 billion, but is held in trust for her successors and the nation. The Royal Collection is the art collection of the British Royal Family. 
The Queen also privately owns large amounts of property that have never been valued, including Sandringham House and Balmoral Castle. Sandringham House is a Country house on of land near the village of Sandringham in Norfolk, England, which is privately owned by the British Balmoral Castle is a large Estate house situated in the area of Aberdeenshire, Scotland known as Royal Deeside. Press reports upon the death of the Queen Mother speculated that the Queen inherited an estate worth about £70 million.  Furthermore there is control and ownership of the Duchy of Lancaster, which is valued at £310 million and transferred a private income to the monarch of £9. The Duchy of Lancaster is one of the two Royal Duchies in England, the other being the Duchy of Cornwall, and is the personal (inherited property of the 811 million in 2006.
The Queen also technically owns the Crown Estate with holdings of £7 billion, but the income of this is transferred to the Treasury in return for the civil list payments. In the United Kingdom, the Crown Estate is a Property portfolio associated with the monarchy. A civil list is a list of individuals to whom Money is paid by the Government.
|Monarchical Styles of|
Queen Elizabeth II
|Reference style||Her Majesty|
|Spoken style||Your Majesty|
Following the Queen's accession, a decision was reached by Commonwealth Prime Ministers at the Commonwealth Conference of 1953, whereby the Queen would be accorded different styles and titles in each of her Realms, reflecting that in each state she acts as the monarch of that state, regardless of her other roles. A style of office, or honorific, is a term which by Tradition or Law precedes a reference to a person who holds a post or Title, or to the Majesty is an English word derived ultimately from the Latin Maiestas, meaning Greatness. Events 753 BC - Romulus and Remus found Rome ( traditional date) Year 1926 ( MCMXXVI) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Events 359 - Honoratus, the first known Prefect of the City of Constantinople, takes office Year 1936 ( MCMXXXVI) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Events 359 - Honoratus, the first known Prefect of the City of Constantinople, takes office Year 1936 ( MCMXXXVI) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Events 284 - Diocletian was chosen as Roman Emperor. 762 - Bögü Khan of the Uyghurs, Year 1947 ( MCMXLVII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Events 284 - Diocletian was chosen as Roman Emperor. 762 - Bögü Khan of the Uyghurs, Year 1947 ( MCMXLVII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Events 46 BC - Julius Caesar defeats the combined army of Pompeian followers and Numidians under Metellus Scipio Year 1952 ( MCMLII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Events 46 BC - Julius Caesar defeats the combined army of Pompeian followers and Numidians under Metellus Scipio Year 1952 ( MCMLII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. This is a list of awards decorations honours orders and titles belonging to Queen Elizabeth II. The Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting, abbreviated to CHOGM, is a biennial Summit meeting of the heads of government from all Commonwealth Traditionally, Elizabeth II's titles as Queen Regnant are listed by the order in which the remaining original Realms first became Dominions of the Crown: The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (original dominion), Canada (1867), Australia (1901), and New Zealand (1907); followed by the order in which the former Crown colony became an independent Realm: Jamaica (1962), Barbados (1966), the Bahamas (1973), Grenada (1974), Papua New Guinea (1975), the Solomon Islands (1978), Tuvalu (1978), Saint Lucia (1979), Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (1979), Antigua and Barbuda (1981), Belize (1981), and Saint Kitts and Nevis (1983).
The Queen has many titles within her various Realms and territories. In common practice, however, Queen Elizabeth II is referred to simply as "The Queen" or "Her Majesty". When in conversation with The Queen, one initially uses "Your Majesty", and thereafter "Ma'am".
In common practice, styled as Her Majesty The Queen (and, when the distinction is necessary, Her Britannic Majesty, Her Australian Majesty, or Her Canadian Majesty, etc. )
However, in Scotland, the title Elizabeth II caused some controversy, as there has never been an Elizabeth I in Scotland. This is a list of the regnal numerals which may in time be used by future British monarchs In a rare act of sabotage, new Royal Mail post boxes in Scotland, bearing the initials "E II R", were vandalised. Sabotage is a deliberate action aimed at weakening an enemy oppressor or employer through subversion obstruction disruption and/or destruction Royal Mail is the national postal service of the United Kingdom. (Prior to Queen Elizabeth, Scottish boxes had borne the monarch's initials, but no crown. ) To avoid further problems, post boxes and Royal Mail vehicles in Scotland now bear only the Crown of Scotland and no Royal cypher. Royal Mail is the national postal service of the United Kingdom. The Crown of Scotland was remade in its modern form for King James V of Scotland in 1540
A legal case, MacCormick v. Lord Advocate (1953 SC 396), was taken to contest the right of the Queen to style herself Elizabeth II within Scotland, arguing that to do so would be a breach of the Act of Union. MacCormick v Lord Advocate ( 1953 SC 396 was a Scottish legal action in which John MacCormick (the Rector of the University of Glasgow The Acts of Union were a pair of Parliamentary Acts passed during 1706 and 1707 by the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland to put into The case was lost on the grounds that the pursuers had no title to sue the Crown, and also that the numbering of monarchs was part of the royal prerogative, and not governed by the Act of Union. The Royal Prerogative is a body of customary authority privilege and immunity recognised in Common law and sometimes in Civil law jurisdictions possessing a monarchy
Less publicised controversies included the argument that the monarch was addressed as Your Grace, rather than Majesty, in pre-Union Scotland, and, second, that the preferred title had been King/Queen of Scots rather than of Scotland (although the latter was by no means unknown).
At the royal opening of the Scottish Parliament in 1999, the presiding officer David Steel referred to her as, "not only the Queen of the United Kingdom but seated as you are among us in the historic and constitutionally correct manner as Queen of Scots. The Scottish Parliament ( Scottish Gaelic: Pàrlamaid na h-Alba; Scots: Scottish Pairlament) is the devlolved national unicameral David Martin Scott Steel Baron Steel of Aikwood, KT, KBE, PC (born 31 March 1938) is a British and Scottish "
Future British monarchs will be numbered according to either English or Scottish predecessors, whichever number is higher. Applying this policy retroactively to monarchs since the Act of Union yields the same numbering. However, equivalent rules have not been established in the Commonwealth Realms.
The Queen has coats of arms in each of her Realms; these arms are also sometimes used by government agencies or ministries to symbolise the Crown. In the UK, they are known as the Royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom. The Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom is the official Coat of arms of the British monarch, currently Queen Elizabeth II. Every British monarch has used these arms since the reign of Queen Victoria. A separate Royal Arms exists, for use in Scotland, which gives priority to Scottish elements and features the insignia of the Order of the Thistle. The Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom is the official Coat of arms of the British monarch, currently Queen Elizabeth II. Scotland ( Gaelic: Alba) is a Country in northwest Europethat occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain. The Most Ancient and Most Noble Order of the Thistle is an Order of chivalry associated with Scotland. The Royal Coat of Arms of Canada has been used by each monarch of Canada since George V; it is based on the British Royal Arms but contains unique Canadian elements. The Coat of Arms of Canada (also known as the Royal Arms of Canada or more properly the Arms of His/Her Majesty in Right of Canada) is since 1921 the official TalkCommonewalth realm.-->The monarchy of The Queen also has Arms for use as sovereign of Australia, New Zealand, Jamaica, Barbados, the Bahamas, Grenada, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, Tuvalu, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Antigua and Barbuda, Belize, and Saint Kitts and Nevis. The Coat of Arms of Australia (formally known as Commonwealth Coat of Arms) is the official symbol of Australia. The Coat of Arms of New Zealand is the official symbol of New Zealand. Considered as a legacy from the British with slight modifications the Jamaican Coat of Arms was granted to Jamaica in 1661 under Royal The coat of arms of Barbados was adopted upon independence in 1966 by decree of Queen Elizabeth The coat of arms of the Bahamas contains a shield with the national symbols as its focal point the shield is supported by a Marlin and Flamingo. The official coat of arms of Grenada is a shield divided into four parts by a golden cross The Coat of arms of Papua New Guinea consists of a Bird of paradise over a traditional Spear and a Kundu drum The coat of arms of the Solomon Islands shows a shield which is framed by a Crocodile and a Shark. The coat of arms of Tuvalu shows a shield with a golden border which is decorated in a pattern with eight Mussels and eight banana leaves The Saint Lucian Coat of Arms was designed by Sydney Bagshaw in 1967 and was adopted in the same year during pre-independence and at the time of Internal self-government The Coat of arms of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines is surmounted by a Cotton plant and bears the text "Peace and Justice" in Latin The Coat of arms of Antigua and Barbuda was designed in 1966 by Gordon Christopher The Coat of Arms of Belize was adopted upon independence and is only slightly different from the coat of arms used when Belize was a British Colony. The Saint Kitts and Nevis Coat of arms was adopted in 1967 and possesses its motto "Country Above Self". Each of these is different from the Royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom.
The Royal Standard is the Queen's flag, and is a banner of the Royal Arms. For other monarchs' standards see Royal Standard. The Royal Standard of the United Kingdom is the Flag used by In some of the Commonwealth Realms, the Queen has an official standard for use when acting as Queen of that Realm. Australia, Barbados, Canada, Jamaica, and New Zealand have their own Royal Standard, each one a defaced banner of the relevant coat of arms, including the Queen's personal badge: a crowned letter E inside a circle of roses on a blue disc. The Queen's Personal Australian Flag, sometimes known as the Royal Standard of Australia is the personal flag of Queen Elizabeth II in her role as Queen of Australia The Queen's Personal Barbadian Flag, sometimes known as the Royal Standard of Barbados, is the personal flag of Queen Elizabeth II in her role as Queen of Barbados The Queen's Personal Canadian Flag, sometimes called the Royal Standard of Canada, is the personal standard, or official Flag, of Elizabeth II The Queen's Personal Jamaican Flag, sometimes known as the Royal Standard of Jamaica is the personal flag of Queen Elizabeth II in her role as Queen of Jamaica This badge was also used as the Queen's personal flag which is used in her role as Head of the Commonwealth and for visiting Commonwealth countries where she is not the head of state. The Personal Flag of Queen Elizabeth II is used in Commonwealth of Nations countries which are not Commonwealth Realms.
From 21 April 1944 until her accession, Princess Elizabeth's arms were the Royal Arms, differenced by a label of three points argent (white), the centre bearing a Tudor Rose and the first and third points bearing a red cross. Events 753 BC - Romulus and Remus found Rome ( traditional date) Year 1944 ( MCMXLIV) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Tudor rose (sometimes called the English Rose is a traditional heraldic emblem of England and takes its name and origins from the Tudor dynasty
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Elizabeth Alexandra Mary|
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||Queen regnant|
|DATE OF BIRTH||21 April 1926|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||London, United Kingdom|
|DATE OF DEATH|
|PLACE OF DEATH|