Electronic noise is an unwanted signal characteristic of all electronic circuits. Electronics refers to the flow of charge (moving Electrons through Nonmetal conductors (mainly Semiconductors, whereas electrical An electrical network is an interconnection of Electrical elements such as Resistors Inductors Capacitors Transmission lines Voltage Depending on the circuit, the noise put out by electronic devices can vary greatly. In Science, and especially in Physics and Telecommunication, noise is fluctuations in and the addition of external factors to the stream of target This noise comes from many different electronic effects.

Thermal noise and shot noise are inherent to all devices. The other types depend mostly on manufacturing quality and semiconductor defects.

In some applications, electronic noise can serve a useful purpose. A common example of this is in random number generation. A random number generator (often abbreviated as RNG is a computational or physical device designed to generate a sequence of Numbers or symbols that lack any

## Types

### Shot noise

Main article: Shot noise

Shot noise in electronic devices consists of random fluctuations of the electric current in an electrical conductor, which are caused by the fact that the current is carried by discrete charges (electrons). Shot noise is a type of Electronic noise that occurs when the finite number of particles that carry energy such as Electrons in an electronic circuit or Photons Electric current is the flow (movement of Electric charge. The SI unit of electric current is the Ampere. In Science and engineering, a conductor is a material which contains movable Electric charges. The electron is a fundamental Subatomic particle that was identified and assigned the negative charge in 1897 by J

### Thermal noise

Main article: Johnson-Nyquist noise

Johnson-Nyquist noise (sometimes thermal noise, Johnson noise or Nyquist noise) is the noise generated by the equilibrium fluctuations of the electric current inside an electrical conductor, which happens regardless of any applied voltage, due to the random thermal motion of the charge carriers (the electrons). Johnson–Nyquist noise ( thermal noise, Johnson noise, or Nyquist noise) is the electronic noise generated by the thermal agitation In Science, and especially in Physics and Telecommunication, noise is fluctuations in and the addition of external factors to the stream of target A dynamic equilibrium occurs when two opposing Processes proceed at the same rate Electric current is the flow (movement of Electric charge. The SI unit of electric current is the Ampere. In Science and engineering, a conductor is a material which contains movable Electric charges. Electrical tension (or voltage after its SI unit, the Volt) is the difference of electrical potential between two points of an electrical The electron is a fundamental Subatomic particle that was identified and assigned the negative charge in 1897 by J

The charges may be bound (for a dielectric material) or free (for a conductor). Free charges generate kinetic energy from their motion according to the equation E=(mv2)/2. This kinetic energy results in noise. Bound charges generate kinetic energy when the direction of polarity changes.

This noise is characterized as Additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) with a noise spectral density in Watt/Herz of No = kT, where k is Boltzmann's constant in joules per kelvin, and T is the receiver system noise temperature in kelvin. Explanation In communications, the additive white Gaussian noise ( AWGN) channel model is one in which the only impairment is the linear addition of In communications noise spectral density N o is the Noise power per unit of bandwidth that is it is the Power spectral density of Bridge from macroscopic to microscopic physics Boltzmann's constant k is a bridge between Macroscopic and microscopic physics The kelvin (symbol K) is a unit increment of Temperature and is one of the seven SI base units The Kelvin scale is a thermodynamic System (from Latin systēma, in turn from Greek systēma is a set of interacting or interdependent Entities, real or abstract In electronics noise temperature is a temperature (in degrees Kelvin assigned to a component such that the noise power delivered by the noisy component to a noiseless matched resistor Since thermal noise can be considered as white noise, the total noise power N detected in a receiver with bandwidth B is BNo. White noise is a random signal (or process with a flat Power spectral density.

### Flicker noise

Main article: Flicker noise

Flicker noise, also known as 1/f noise, is a signal or process with a frequency spectrum that falls off steadily into the higher frequencies, with a pink spectrum. Flicker noise is a type of Electronic noise with a 1/f or pink spectrum Familiar concepts associated with a Frequency are colors musical notes radio/TV channels and even the regular rotation of the earth Pink noise or 1/f noise is a signal or process with a Frequency spectrum such that the power spectral density is Proportional It occurs in almost all electronic devices, and results from a variety of effects, though always related to a direct current.

### Burst noise

Main article: Burst noise

Burst noise consists of sudden step-like transitions between two or more levels (non-Gaussian), as high as several hundred millivolts, at random and unpredictable times. Burst noise is a type of Electronic noise that occurs in semiconductors Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777 &ndash 1855 is the Eponym of all of the topics listed below The volt (symbol V) is the SI derived unit of electric Potential difference or Electromotive force. Each shift in offset voltage or current lasts for several milliseconds, and the intervals between pulses tend to be in the audio range (less than 100 Hz), leading to the term popcorn noise for the popping or crackling sounds it produces in audio circuits. The hertz (symbol Hz) is a measure of Frequency, informally defined as the number of events occurring per Second.

### Avalanche noise

See Avalanche diode and Avalanche breakdown. An avalanche diode is a Diode (usually made from Silicon, but can be made from another Semiconductor) that is designed to go through Avalanche breakdown Avalanche breakdown is a phenomenon that can occur in both insulating and semiconducting materials

### Lightning

Lightning is a natural phenomenon that consists of large currents that cause fluctuations that may result in noise in a system.

## Measurement

Electronic noise is properly measured in watts of power. The watt (symbol W) is the SI derived unit of power, equal to one Joule of energy per Second. Electric power is defined as the rate at which Electrical energy is transferred by an Electric circuit. Because noise is a random process, it can be characterized by stochastic properties such as its variance, distribution, and spectral density. A stochastic process, or sometimes random process, is the counterpart to a deterministic process (or Deterministic system) in Probability theory. In Probability theory and Statistics, the variance of a Random variable, Probability distribution, or sample is one measure of In Probability theory and Statistics, a probability distribution identifies either the probability of each value of an unidentified Random variable In Statistical signal processing and Physics, the spectral density, power spectral density ( PSD) or energy spectral density ( The spectral distribution of noise can vary by frequency, hence its power density is measured in watts per hertz $\left( \frac\mathrm{W}\mathrm{Hz}\right)$. Frequency is a measure of the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit Time. Since the real power in a resistive element is proportional to the square of the voltage across the element, noise voltage (density) can be described by taking the square root of the noise power density, resulting in volts per root hertz $\left( \frac\mathrm{V}{\sqrt\mathrm{Hz}}\right)$. |- align = "center"| |width = "25"| | |- align = "center"| || Potentiometer |- align = "center"| | | |- align = "center"| Resistor| | Electrical tension (or voltage after its SI unit, the Volt) is the difference of electrical potential between two points of an electrical Integrated circuit devices, such as op-amps commonly quote equivalent input noise level in these terms (at room temperature). Microchipsjpg|right|thumb|200px|Microchips ( EPROM memory with a transparent window showing the integrated circuit inside An operational amplifier, often called an op-amp, is a DC - coupled high- Gain electronic voltage amplifier with differential