|Electronic art music|
|Mainstream popularity||Small. At the turn of the 20th century classical music was characteristically late Romantic in style while at the same time the Impressionist movement spearheaded by Claude Debussy Experimental music is a term introduced by composer John Cage in 1955 Modernism in music is characterized by a desire for or belief in progress and Science, Surrealism, anti-romanticism Political Advocacy, general The 1940s decade ran from 1940 to 1949 Events and trends The 1940s was a period between the radical 1930s and the conservative 1950s which also leads the period to be The 1950s Decade refers to the years of 1950 to 1959 inclusive This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the This article deals mainly with analog tape recorders for audio applications information on digital recording, recording of video signals, and An electronic musical instrument is a Musical instrument that produces its sounds using Electronics. A music sequencer (also MIDI sequencer or just sequencer) is software or hardware designed to create and manage computer-generated music A keyboard instrument is any musical instrument played using a Musical keyboard. A sampler is an electronic musical instrument closely related to a Synthesizer. A computer is a Machine that manipulates data according to a list of instructions.|
|Glitch - Noise - stochastic|
|Electroacoustic - Electroacoustic improvisation - Musique concrète|
|Music technology - Circuit bending|
Electronic art music refers to those forms of electronic music that fall within the general category of art music. This is a list of Electronic music genres sub-genres and styles though for the latter not all possess their own article (in which case see the main genre article Glitch is a term used to describe a genre of experimental Electronic music that emerged in the mid to late 1990s Stochastic (from the Greek "Στόχος" for "aim" or "guess" means Random. Electroacoustic music includes several different sonic and Musical genres or musical techniques Musique concrète ( French; literally "concrete music" is a style of Avant-garde music that relies on recorded sounds including natural Music Technology is a term that refers to all forms of Technology involved with the Musical arts particularly the use of electronic devices and computer software to Circuit bending is the creative short-circuiting of electronic devices such as low Voltage, battery-powered Guitar effects, children's Toys Electronic music is music that employs Electronic musical instruments and Electronic Music technology in its production Art music (or serious music or erudite music) as defined by Jacques Siron is an umbrella term generally used to refer to musical traditions implying advanced structural The term encompasses a range of experimental music forms, both historical and contemporary, created by means of electronic instruments and differentiated from electronic forms of popular music, such as electronic rock, technopop, electronica or electronic dance music. An electronic musical instrument is a Musical instrument that produces its sounds using Electronics. Popular music is Music belonging to any of a number of musical styles that are accessible to the general public and are disseminated by one or more Electronic music is music that employs Electronic musical instruments and Electronic Music technology in its production Electronica includes a wide range of contemporary Electronic music designed for a wide range Synonyms Since around the mid-1980s electronic dance music has enjoyed popularity in many Nightclubs and as of 2006 is the predominant type of music played in Although electronic art music has not penetrated the popular music marketplace directly,  it has influenced the course of popular music, from the early days of electronic rock, space rock, and progressive rock, through the later developments of electronica, electronic dance music, ambient music, space music, and cinema soundtracks. Electronic music is music that employs Electronic musical instruments and Electronic Music technology in its production Space rock is a subgenre of Rock music; the term originally referred to a group of early mostly British 1970s Progressive rock and psychedelic Progressive rock (often shortened to " progressive " " prog " or " prog rock " is a form of Rock music that evolved Ambient music is a Musical genre in which sound is more important than notes Space music, also spelled spacemusic, is an umbrella term used to describe music that evokes a feeling of contemplative spaciousness   
Some of the most prominent musicians and most highly acclaimed institutions have been involved in the progress of electronic art music, including celebrities such as Stokowski, Boulez, and Stockhausen, and institutions such as Columbia University, Princeton University, the University of Wisconsin, and Stanford University in the US, as well as broadcasting institutions in Canada, Europe, and Japan. WikipediaWikiProject Classical music#Biographical_infoboxes --> Leopold Stokowski (born Leopold Anthony Stokowski though on occasion WikipediaWikiProject Classical music#Biographical_infoboxes --> Pierre Boulez (pjɛʁ buˈlɛz (b Columbia University is a private University in the United States and a member of the Ivy League. Princeton University is a private Coeducational research university located in Princeton, New Jersey. Leland Stanford Junior University, commonly known as Stanford University or simply Stanford, is a private Research university located in At the earliest performances of true electronic music in the United States, "public and professionals alike were cordial and astonished". 
People involved in electronic art music today come from many different backgrounds, and not solely from conventional classical, or art-music circles. A brief look at the history of electronic classical music shows that its progress represents a natural course, a continuum of progress within classical music. Flutist Patricia Spencer believes that the exploration of electronic instruments represents "the development of a new instrument. "
Proponents of electronic music today understand the importance of knowing the history, as exemplified in this statement by flutist Elizabeth McNutt, "A knowledge of the history brings greater understanding, and we are more forgiving. "
Mario Davidovsky, one of the most important living figures involved in electronic music, describes the effect electronic music had on his acoustic writing:
. Mario Davidovsky (born March 4, 1934) is an Argentine - American Composer. . . and then when I would return to write chamber music and orchestral music, I was incredibly influenced by all these new ideas of how sound could behave.
He also understands this music to have a large impact on all contemporary composers:
We can say that 20th Century music has been greatly influenced by electronic music, whether the composers were using electronic instruments or not.—
The following history includes advances in music technology in general, some significant works and composers, who have their own place in this history.
The ability to record sounds is not absolutely necessary for production of electronic music, but is certainly very useful.
In 1878, Thomas A. Edison patented the phonograph, which used cylinders similar to Scott's device. Although cylinders continued in use for some time, Emile Berliner developed the disc phonograph in 1887. Emile Berliner ( May 20, 1851 – August 3, 1929) was a German -born American Inventor, best known for developing 
A significant invention, which was later to have a profound effect on electronic music, was Lee DeForest's triode audion. Lee De Forest, ( August 26, 1873 – June 30, 1961) was an American Inventor with over 300 patents to his credit The Audion is an electronic Amplifier device invented by Lee De Forest in 1906 This was the first thermionic valve, or vacuum tube, invented in 1906, which led to the generation and amplification of electrical signals, radio broadcastng, and electronic computation, amongst other things. This article is about the electronic device not an evacuated pipe used for experiments in Free-fall.
The Telharmonium is the first music synthesizer. Thaddeus Cahill (1867 - 1934 was a prominent inventor of the early 20th century Year 1897 ( MDCCCXCVII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common The Telharmonium (also known as the Dynamophone) was an early Electronic musical instrument, developed by Thaddeus Cahill in 1897 In 1898 Thaddeus Cahill patented an instrument called the Telharmonium (or Teleharmonium, also known as the Dynamaphone). Thaddeus Cahill (1867 - 1934 was a prominent inventor of the early 20th century Using tonewheels to generate musical sounds as electrical signals by additive synthesis, it was capable of producing any combination of notes and overtones, at any dynamic level. Additive synthesis is a technique of audio synthesis which creates Musical Timbre. This technology was later used to design the Hammond organ. The Hammond organ is an electric organ which was invented by Laurens Hammond in 1934 and manufactured by the Hammond Organ Company Between 1901 and 1910 Cahill had three progressively larger and more complex versions made, the first weighing seven tons, the last in excess of 200 tons. Portability was managed only by rail and with the use of thirty boxcars. By 1912, public interest had waned, and Cahill's enterprise was bankrupt. 
Just a year later, another significant contribution was made to the advent of experimental music. Ferruccio Dante Michelangiolo Benvenuto Busoni (April 1 1866 &ndash July 27 1924 was an Italian Composer, Pianist, musical educator and conductor. This was the 1907 publication of Ferruccio Busoni's Sketch of a New Esthetic of Music, which discussed the use of electrical and other new sound sources in future music. Ferruccio Dante Michelangiolo Benvenuto Busoni (April 1 1866 &ndash July 27 1924 was an Italian Composer, Pianist, musical educator and conductor. He wrote of the future of microtonal scales in music, made possible by Cahill's Dynamophone:
Only a long and careful series of experiments, and a continued training of the ear, can render this unfamiliar material approachable and plastic for the coming generation, and for Art.—
Also in the Sketch of a New Esthetic of Music, Busoni states:
Music as an art, our so-called occidental music, is hardly four hundred years old; its state is one of development, perhaps the very first stage of a development beyond present conception, and we—we talk of "classics" and "hallowed traditions"! And we have talked of them for a long time!
We have formulated rules, stated principles, laid down laws;—we apply laws made for maturity to a child that knows nothing of responsibility!
Young as it is, this child, we already recognize that it possesses one radiant attribute which signalizes it beyond all its elder sisters. And the lawgivers will not see this marvelous attribute, lest their laws should be thrown to the winds. This child—it floats on air! It touches not the earth with its feet. It knows no law of gravitation. It is wellnigh incorporeal. Its material is transparent. It is sonorous air. It is almost Nature herself. It is—free!
But freedom is something that mankind have never wholly comprehended, never realized to the full. They can neither recognize nor acknowledge it.
They disavow the mission of this child; they hang weights upon it. This buoyant creature must walk decently, like anybody else. It may scarcely be allowed to leap—when it were its joy to follow the line of the rainbow, and to break sunbeams with the clouds.—
Through this writing, as well as personal contact, Busoni had a profound effect on many musicians and composers, perhaps most notably on his pupil, Edgard Varèse, who said:
Together we used to discuss what direction the music of the future would, or rather, should take and could not take as long as the straitjacket of the tempered system. WikipediaWikiProject Composers#Lead section --> Edgard Victor Achille Charles Varèse, whose name was also spelled Edgar Varèse He deplored that his own keyboard instrument had conditioned our ears to accept only an infinitesimal part of the infinite gradations of sounds in nature. He was very much interested in the electrical instruments we began to hear about, and I remember particularly one he had read of called the Dynamophone. All through his writings one finds over and over again predictions about the music of the future which have since come true. In fact, there is hardly a development that he did not foresee, as for instance in this extraordinary prophecy: 'I almost think that in the new great music, machines will also be necessary and will be assigned a share in it. Perhaps industry, too, will bring forth her share in the artistic ascent.—
In Italy, the Futurists were coming at the changing aesthetic from a different angle, but one that also affected the world of classical music. Luigi Russolo ( April 30, 1885 - February 4, 1947) was an Italian Futurist painter and Composer, and the author of Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Futurism was an Art movement that originated in Italy in the early 20th century A major thrust of the Futurist philosophy was to value "noise," and to place artistic and expressive value on sounds that had previously not been considered even remotely musical. Balilla Pratella's "Technical Manifesto of Futurist Music" (1911) states that their credo is:
To present the musical soul of the masses, of the great factories, of the railways, of the transatlantic liners, of the battleships, of the automobiles and airplanes. To add to the great central themes of the musical poem the domain of the machine and the victorious kingdom of Electricity.—
In 1914, futurist Luigi Russolo held the first "art-of-noises" concert in Milan on April 21. Luigi Russolo ( April 30, 1885 - February 4, 1947) was an Italian Futurist painter and Composer, and the author of This used his Intonarumori, described by Russolo as "acoustical noise-instruments, whose sounds (howls, roars, shuffles, gurgles, etc. ) were hand-activated and projected by horns and megaphones. " In June, similar concerts were held in Paris.
Another development, which aroused the interest of many composers, occurred in 1919-1920. In Leningrad, Leon Theremin (actually Lev Termen) built and demonstrated his Etherophone, which was later renamed the Theremin. Léon Theremin (born Lev Sergeyevich Termen, Лев Сергеевич Термен ( August 15 1896 Julian calendar = 1896-08-27 This led to the first compositions for electronic instruments, as opposed to noisemakers and re-purposed machines.
Composers who ultimately utilized the Theremin included Varèse—in his piece Ecuatorial (1934)—while conductor Leopold Stokowski experimented with its use in arrangements from the classical repertory. WikipediaWikiProject Composers#Lead section --> Edgard Victor Achille Charles Varèse, whose name was also spelled Edgar Varèse WikipediaWikiProject Classical music#Biographical_infoboxes --> Leopold Stokowski (born Leopold Anthony Stokowski though on occasion In 1929, Joseph Schillinger composed First Airphonic Suite for Theremin and Orchestra, premièred with the Cleveland Orchestra with Leon Theremin as soloist. Joseph Schillinger ( August 31, 1895 &ndash March 23, 1943) was a composer music theorist and composition teacher The Cleveland Orchestra, located in Cleveland, Ohio is one of the major symphony Orchestras in the United States. Léon Theremin (born Lev Sergeyevich Termen, Лев Сергеевич Термен ( August 15 1896 Julian calendar = 1896-08-27
The 1920s have been called the apex of the Mechanical Age and the dawning of the Electrical Age. The ondes Martenot (IPA maʀtəno French for "Martenot waves" also known as the ondium Martenot, Martenot and ondes musicales) is an early In 1922, in Paris, Darius Milhaud began experiments with "vocal transformation by phonograph speed change. Darius Milhaud (darjys mijo (September 4 1892 &ndash June 22 1974 was a French Composer and teacher " These continued until 1927.
This decade brought a wealth of early electronic instruments—along with the Theremin—, there is the presentation of the Ondes Martenot, which was designed to reproduce the microtonal sounds found in Hindu music, and the Trautonium. The ondes Martenot (IPA maʀtəno French for "Martenot waves" also known as the ondium Martenot, Martenot and ondes musicales) is an early The trautonium is a monophonic electronic Musical instrument invented ca Maurice Martenot invented the Ondes Martenot in 1928, and soon demonstrated it in Paris. Composers using the instrument ultimately include Boulez, Honneger, Jolivet, Koechlin, Messiaen, Milhaud, Tremblay, and Varèse. WikipediaWikiProject Classical music#Biographical_infoboxes --> Pierre Boulez (pjɛʁ buˈlɛz (b Arthur Honegger (March 10 1892 &ndash November 27 1955 was a Swiss Composer, who was born in France and lived a large part of his life in Paris. André Jolivet (8 August 1905 &ndash 20 December 1974 was a French composer Charles Louis Eugène Koechlin lɯi øˈʒɛn kœˈklɛ̃}} (November 27 1867&ndashDecember 31 1950 was a French Composer, teacher and writer on music Olivier Messiaen ( December 10 1908 &ndash April 27 1992 was a French Composer, organist and ornithologist. Darius Milhaud (darjys mijo (September 4 1892 &ndash June 22 1974 was a French Composer and teacher Gilles Tremblay (born September 6, 1932) is a Canadian composer WikipediaWikiProject Composers#Lead section --> Edgard Victor Achille Charles Varèse, whose name was also spelled Edgar Varèse In 1937, Messiaen wrote Fête des belles eaux for 6 ondes Martenot, and wrote solo parts for it in Trois petites liturgies de la Présence Divine (1943–44) and the Turangalîla Symphonie (1946–48/90).
The Trautonium was invented in 1928, and in 1940, Richard Strauss used Trautonium in his Japanese Festival Music. The trautonium is a monophonic electronic Musical instrument invented ca The trautonium is a monophonic electronic Musical instrument invented ca This new class of instruments, microtonal by nature, was only adopted slowly by composers at first, but by the early 1930s there was a burst of new works incorporating these and other electronic instruments.
In 1924, Ottorino Respighi composed The Pines of Rome, which calls for the use of a phonograph recording of nightingales. For the astronomer see Lorenzo Respighi (1824—1889 For the crater named after Lorenzo Respighi see Respighi (crater. However, at the time of composition, phonograph players were acoustical, not electric, and this is actually more along the lines of using a sound effect, and therefore cannot be considered an electroacoustic element in the composition.
The following year, Antheil first composed for mechanical devices, electrical noisemakers, motors and amplifiers in his unfinished opera, Mr. George Antheil ( July 8, 1900, Trenton New Jersey – February 12, 1959, New York City) was an American Bloom, as a response to the "art of noises" of Luigi Russolo, Marinetti and the other Futurists. Luigi Russolo ( April 30, 1885 - February 4, 1947) was an Italian Futurist painter and Composer, and the author of Filippo Tommaso Emilio Marinetti ( December 22, 1876 – December 2, 1944) was an Italian ideologue And just one year later in 1926, was the première of Antheil's Ballet Mécanique, using car horns, airplane propellers, saws, and anvils (but no electronics). Ballet Mécanique (1924 was a project by the American composer George Antheil and the filmmaker/artist Fernand Léger.
Recording of sounds made a leap in 1927, when American inventor J. A. O'Neill developed a recording device that used magnetically coated ribbon. However, this was a commercial failure. Two years later, Laurens Hammond established his company for the manufacture of electronic instruments. Laurens Hammond ( January 11, 1895 &ndash July 3, 1973) was an Engineer and Inventor. He went on to produce the Hammond organ, which was based on the principals of the Telharmonium, along with other developments including early reverberation units. The Hammond organ is an electric organ which was invented by Laurens Hammond in 1934 and manufactured by the Hammond Organ Company The Telharmonium (also known as the Dynamophone) was an early Electronic musical instrument, developed by Thaddeus Cahill in 1897 
In 1935, another significant development was made in Germany. Magnetophon was the brand or model name of the pioneering Reel-to-reel tape recorder developed by engineers of the German electronics company AEG in the 1930s based Allgemeine Elektrizitäts Gesellschaft (AEG) demonstrated the first commercially produced magnetic tape recorder, called the "Magnetophon". This article deals mainly with analog tape recorders for audio applications information on digital recording, recording of video signals, and Magnetophon was the brand or model name of the pioneering Reel-to-reel tape recorder developed by engineers of the German electronics company AEG in the 1930s based Audio tape, which had the advantage of being fairly light as well as having good audio fidelity, ultimately replaced the bulkier wire recorders.
According to Dictionary. com Unabridged, the term "electronic music" (which, as defined in 2006 includes the tape recorder as an essential element: "electronically produced sounds recorded on tape and arranged by the composer to form a musical composition") first came into use during the 1930s
In postwar Paris, Paul Boisselet experimented with electronic oscillators, as well as disc and tape procedures, at the same time that Pierre Schaeffer and Pierre Henry were developing the techniques of musique concrète. Pierre Henri Marie Schaeffer ( August 14, 1910 &ndash August 19, 1995) was a French Pierre Henry (born December 9, 1927 in Paris, France) is a French composer considered a pioneer of the Musique concrète genre Musique concrète ( French; literally "concrete music" is a style of Avant-garde music that relies on recorded sounds including natural In the United States, the focus turned more toward the generation of sounds, as well as the generation of compositions through use of computers. In 1946, the ENIAC (the Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer) was invented, the first true computer. ENIAC, short for Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer, was the first general-purpose electronic Computer.
On 5 October 1948, Radiodiffusion Française (RDF) broadcast composer Pierre Schaeffer's Etude aux chemins de fer. Musique concrète ( French; literally "concrete music" is a style of Avant-garde music that relies on recorded sounds including natural Events 869 - The Fourth Council of Constantinople is convened to decide about what to do about Patriarch Photius of Constantinople Year 1948 ( MCMXLVIII) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Radiodiffusion-Télévision Française ( RTF – French Radio and Television Broadcasting) was the French national Public broadcasting company Pierre Henri Marie Schaeffer ( August 14, 1910 &ndash August 19, 1995) was a French This was the first "movement" of Cinq études de bruits, and marked the beginning of studio realizations and musique concrète (or acousmatic music). A movement is a self-contained part of a Musical composition or Musical form. Musique concrète ( French; literally "concrete music" is a style of Avant-garde music that relies on recorded sounds including natural Acousmatic music is a form of Electroacoustic music that deals specifically with Acousmatic sound as a compositional resource Schaeffer employed a disk-cutting lathe, four turntables, a four-channel mixer, filters, an echo chamber, and a mobile recording unit. A lathe (ˈleɪð is a Machine tool which spins a block of material to perform various operations such as Cutting, Sanding, Knurling
Not long after this, Pierre Henry began collaborating with Schaeffer, a collaboration that was to have profound and lasting affects on the progression of electronic music. Also associated with Schaeffer, Edgard Varèse began work on Déserts for chamber orchestra and tape. WikipediaWikiProject Composers#Lead section --> Edgard Victor Achille Charles Varèse, whose name was also spelled Edgar Varèse The tape parts were created at Pierre Schaeffer's studio, and were later revised at Columbia University.
In 1950, Schaeffer gave the first public (non-broadcast) concert of musique concrète at the Ecole Normale de Musique de Paris. See also École Normale Supérieure. The École Normale de Musique de Paris was founded in 1919 by the Pianist Alfred Cortot "Schaeffer used a PA system, several turntables, and mixers. The performance did not go well, as creating live montages with turntables had never been done before. " Later that same year, Pierre Henry collaborated with Schaeffer on Symphonie pour un homme seul (1950) the first major work of musique concrete. In Paris in 1951, in what was to become an important worldwide trend, RTF established the first studio for the production of electronic music. Also in 1951, Schaeffer and Henry produced an opera, Orpheus, for concrete sounds and voices.
In Cologne, what would become the most famous electronic music studio in the world was officially opened at the radio studios of the NWDR in 1953, though it had been in the planning stages as early as 1950 and early compositions were made and broadcast in 1951. Nordwestdeutscher Rundfunk ( Northwest German Broadcasting - NWDR was the organization responsible for Public broadcasting in the German Länder  The brain child of Werner Meyer-Eppler, Robert Beyer, and Herbert Eimert (who became its first director), the studio was soon joined by Karlheinz Stockhausen and Gottfried Michael Koenig. Werner Meyer-Eppler (born 30 April 1913 in Antwerp, died 8 July 1960 in Bonn) was a German Physicist Herbert Eimert (born 8 April, 1897 in Bad Kreuznach, died 15 December, 1972 in Düsseldorf) was a German Gottfried Michael Koenig (born October 5, 1926 in Magdeburg) is a contemporary German-Dutch composer Meyer-Eppler's conception was to synthesize music entirely from electronically produced signals; in this way, elektronische Musik was sharply differentiated from French musique concrète, which used sounds recorded from acoustical sources. 
Meanwhile, back in the United States, sounds were being created electronically and used in composition, as exemplified in a piece by Morton Feldman called Marginal Intersection. Morton Feldman (January 12 1926 – September 3 1987 was an American Composer, born in New York City. This piece is scored for winds, brass, percussion, strings, 2 oscillators, and sound effects of riveting, and the score uses Feldman's graph notation.
The Music for Magnetic Tape Project was formed by members of the New York School (John Cage, Earle Brown, Christian Wolff, David Tudor, and Morton Feldman), and lasted three years until 1954. The New York School (synonymous with abstract expressionist painting was an informal group of American Poets painters Dancers and Musicians WikipediaWikiProject Composers#Lead section --> John Milton Cage Jr Earle Brown ( Lunenburg Massachusetts, December 26, 1926 &ndash Rye New York, July 2, 2002) was an American composer Christian Wolff (born March 8, 1934) is an American Composer of experimental classical music. David Eugene Tudor ( January 20, 1926 – August 13, 1996) was an American Pianist and Composer of Experimental Morton Feldman (January 12 1926 – September 3 1987 was an American Composer, born in New York City. Cage wrote of this collaboration,
In this social darkness, therefore, the work of Earle Brown, Morton Feldman, and Christian Wolff continues to present a brilliant light, for the reason that at the several points of notation, performance, and audition, action is provocative.—
Cage completed Williams Mix in 1953 while working with the Music for Magnetic Tape Project.  The group had no permanent facility, and had to rely on borrowed time in commercial sound studios, including the studio of Louis and Bebe Barron.
Also in the U. Vladimir Kirilovitch Ussachevsky ( Hailar, Manchuria, November 3, 1911 &ndash New York, New York, January 2, S. , in the same year, significant developments were happening in New York City. Columbia University purchased its first tape recorder—a professional Ampex machine—for the purpose of recording concerts. Columbia University is a private University in the United States and a member of the Ivy League. This article deals mainly with analog tape recorders for audio applications information on digital recording, recording of video signals, and Ampex ( is an American electronics company founded in 1944 by Alexander M
Vladimir Ussachevsky, who was on the music faculty of Columbia University, was placed in charge of the device, and almost immediately began experimenting with it. Vladimir Kirilovitch Ussachevsky ( Hailar, Manchuria, November 3, 1911 &ndash New York, New York, January 2,
Herbert Russcol writes: "Soon he was intrigued with the new sonorities he could achieve by recording musical instruments and then superimposing them on one another. "
Ussachevsky said later: "I suddenly realized that the tape recorder could be treated as an instrument of sound transformation. "
On Thursday, May 8, 1952, Ussachevsky presented several demonstrations of tape music/effects that he created at his Composers Forum, in the McMillin Theatre at Columbia University. These included Transposition, Reverberation, Experiment, Composition, and Underwater Valse. In an interview, he stated: "I presented a few examples of my discovery in a public concert in New York together with other compositions I had written for conventional instruments. " Otto Luening, who had attended this concert, remarked: "The equipment at his disposal consisted of an Ampex tape recorder . Otto Luening (born June 15, 1900 in Milwaukee, Wisconsin; died September 2, 1996 in New York City) was a German . . and a simple box-like device designed by the brilliant young engineer, Peter Mauzey, to create feedback, a form of mechanical reverberation. Other equipment was borrowed or purchased with personal funds. "
Just three months later, in August of 1952, Ussachevsky traveled to Bennington, Vermont at Luening's invitation to present his experiments. There, the two collaborated on various pieces. Luening described the event: "Equipped with earphones and a flute, I began developing my first tape-recorder composition. Both of us were fluent improvisors and the medium fired our imaginations. " They played some early pieces informally at a party, where "a number of composers almost solemnly congratulated us saying, 'This is it' ('it' meaning the music of the future). "
Word quickly reached New York City. Oliver Daniel telephoned and invited the pair to "produce a group of short compositions for the October concert sponsored by the American Composers Alliance and Broadcast Music, Inc. , under the direction of Leopold Stokowski at the Museum of Modern Art in New York. After some hesitation, we agreed. . . . Henry Cowell placed his home and studio in Woodstock, New York, at our disposal. Henry Cowell ( March 11, 1897 – December 10, 1965) was an American Composer, musical theorist, Pianist With the borrowed equipment in the back of Ussachevsky's car, we left Bennington for Woodstock and stayed two weeks. . . . In late September, 1952, the travelling laboratory reached Ussachevsky's living room in New York, where we eventually completed the compositions. "
Two months later, on October 28, Vladimir Ussachevsky and Otto Luening presented the first Tape Music concert in the United States. The concert included Luening's Fantasy in Space (1952)—"an impressionistic virtuoso piece" using manipulated recordings of flute—and Low Speed (1952), an "exotic composition that took the flute far below its natural range. A virtuoso (from Italian virtuoso, late Latin virtuosus, Latin virtus meaning skill manliness excellence is an individual " Both pieces were created at the home of Henry Cowell in Woodstock, NY. After several concerts caused a sensation in New York City, Ussachevsky and Luening were invited onto a live broadcast of NBC's Today Show to do an interview demonstration—the first televised electroacoustic performance. Luening described the event: "I improvised some [flute] sequences for the tape recorder. Ussachevsky then and there put them through electronic transformations. "
These short few months were some of the most exciting in music history and technology, and the profundity of it was recognized at the time. It seems doubtful that electroacoustic music ever received such a wide audience again, unless one includes televised concerts by latter day rock and jazz fusion groups. Others were certainly active exploring new technology also. In that same year, 1951, former jazz composer Raymond Scott invented the first sequencer, which consisted of hundreds of switches controlling stepping relays, timing solenoids, tone circuits and 16 individual oscillators. Jazz is an American Musical art form which originated in the beginning of the 20th century in African American communities in the Southern United States Raymond Scott (born Harry Warnow, 10 September 1908 &mdash 8 February 1994) was an American composer band leader pianist engineer
After this point, we see a spate of compositions utilizing the new technology, and a great deal included acoustic as well as electronic sounds. In 1952, Henk Badings composed the Capriccio for violin and two sound tracks, which is one of the earliest known pieces for combined electric and acoustic sounds. Henk Badings ( Bandung, Java, January 17, 1907 - Maarheeze, June 26, 1987) was a Dutch composer
In 1952 the Italian Bruno Maderna composed Musica su due dimensioni (Music in Two Dimensions) for flute, cymbals, and electronic sounds on tape, the first piece to use flute as an acoustic instrument along with electronics. Bruno Maderna ( 21 April 1920 &ndash 13 November 1973) was an Italian - German conductor and Composer Luciano Berio, Cavaliere di Gran Croce OMRI ( October 24, 1925 &ndash May 27, 2003) was an Italian Composer. Bruno Maderna ( 21 April 1920 &ndash 13 November 1973) was an Italian - German conductor and Composer The electronic part was recorded in a single day (Sunday, 29 June 1952) in Bonn, Germany, with the collaboration of Werner Meyer-Eppler. Events 512 - A Solar eclipse is recorded by a monastic chronicler in Ireland. Year 1952 ( MCMLII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Bonn is the 19th largest city in Germany. Located about 20 kilometres south of Cologne on the river Rhine in the Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia Werner Meyer-Eppler (born 30 April 1913 in Antwerp, died 8 July 1960 in Bonn) was a German Physicist 
Maderna was not satisfied with the tape part, which had been produced by superimposing several lines played on a Melochord (a monophonic electronic keyboard instrument, invented in 1947 by Harald Bode), and he revised this part in 1958. Harald Bode ( October 19, 1909 – January 15, 1987) was a German engineer and pioneer in the development of Electronic music instruments
The following year, Luciano Berio composed his Mimusique no. Luciano Berio, Cavaliere di Gran Croce OMRI ( October 24, 1925 &ndash May 27, 2003) was an Italian Composer. 1 and other early tape pieces at the Milan broadcasting studios of the RAI. Milan (Milano Milan (listen) is one of the largest cities in Italy, located in the plains of Lombardy. Rai - Radiotelevisione Italiana, known until 1954 as Radio Audizioni Italiane, is the Italian public service broadcaster, and is considered Shortly afterward, Berio met Maderna. Together they composed another tape piece, Ritratto di città (1954), and began making plans for a proper electronic music studio, to be established at the RAI. This facility, the Studio di Fonologia, was opened in 1955, with Berio and Maderna as co-directors.
An important new development was the advent of computers for the purpose of composing music, as opposed to manipulating or creating sounds. Iannis Xenakis (Ιάννης Ξενάκης (May 29 1922 - February 4 2001 was a Greek modernist composer musical theoretician and architect Stochastic (from the Greek "Στόχος" for "aim" or "guess" means Random. Iannis Xenakis began what is called "musique stochastique," or "stochastic music," which is a method of composing that employs mathematical probability systems. Iannis Xenakis (Ιάννης Ξενάκης (May 29 1922 - February 4 2001 was a Greek modernist composer musical theoretician and architect Stochastic (from the Greek "Στόχος" for "aim" or "guess" means Random. Different probability algorithms were used to create a piece under a set of parameters. Xenakis used graph paper and a ruler to aid in calculating the velocity trajectories of glissandi for his orchestral composition Metastasis (1953–54), but later turned to the use of computers to compose pieces like ST/4 for string quartet and ST/48 for orchestra (both 1962). " Glissando " (plural glissandi abbreviated gliss is a glide from one pitch to another
1954 saw the advent of what would now be considered authentic electric plus acoustic compositions—acoustic instrumentation augmented/accompanied by recordings of manipulated and/or electronically generated sound. WikipediaWikiProject Composers#Lead section --> Edgard Victor Achille Charles Varèse, whose name was also spelled Edgar Varèse Three major works were premiered that year: Varèse's Déserts, for chamber ensemble and tape sounds, and two works by Luening and Ussachevsky: Rhapsodic Variations for the Louisville Symphony and A Poem in Cycles and Bells, both for orchestra and tape. Because he had been working at Schaeffer's studio, the tape part for Varèse's work contains much more concrete sounds than electronic. "A group made up of wind instruments, percussion and piano alternates with mutated sounds of factory noises and ship sirens and motors, coming from two loudspeakers. "
Déserts was premiered in Paris in the first stereo broadcast on French Radio. Stereophonic sound, commonly called stereo, is the reproduction of Sound, using two or more independent audio channels through a Symmetrical At the German premiere in Hamburg, which was conducted by Bruno Maderna, the tape controls were operated by Karlheinz Stockhausen. Hamburg (English, German: ˈhambʊɐk local pronunciation Low German / Low Saxon: Hamborg) is the second-largest city in Germany Bruno Maderna ( 21 April 1920 &ndash 13 November 1973) was an Italian - German conductor and Composer  The title Déserts, suggested to Varèse not only, "all physical deserts (of sand, sea, snow, of outer space, of empty streets), but also the deserts in the mind of man; not only those stripped aspects of nature that suggest bareness, aloofness, timelessness, but also that remote inner space no telescope can reach, where man is alone, a world of mystery and essential loneliness. "
Also in 1954, Stockhausen composed his Elektronische Studie II—the first electronic piece to be published as a score.
In 1955, more experimental and electronic studios began to appear. Notable were the creation of the Studio de Fonologia (already mentioned), a studio at the NHK in Tokyo founded by Toshiro Mayuzumi, and the Phillips studio at Eindhoven, the Netherlands, which moved to the University of Utrecht as the Institute of Sonology in 1960. or Japan Broadcasting Corporation, is Japan 's Public broadcaster. officially, is one of the 47 prefectures of Japan and located on the eastern side of the main island Honshū. Toshiro Mayuzumi ( 黛 敏郎 Mayuzumi Toshirō, born Yokohama, 20 February 1929 – died Kawasaki, 10 April Eindhoven ( is a Municipality and a city located in the province of Noord-Brabant in the south of the Netherlands, originally at the confluence The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands Utrecht University ( Universiteit Utrecht in Dutch) is a University in Utrecht, The Netherlands.
The impact of computers continued in 1956. Lejaren Hiller and Leonard Isaacson composed Iliac Suite for string quartet, the first complete work of computer-assisted composition using algorithmic composition. Lejaren Hiller (b February 23, 1924, New York City, d January 26, 1994, Buffalo New York) was an American A string quartet is a Musical ensemble of four String instruments &mdash usually two Violins a Viola and Cello &mdash or a piece In Mathematics, Computing, Linguistics and related subjects an algorithm is a sequence of finite instructions often used for Calculation ". . . Hiller postulated that a computer could be taught the rules of a particular style and then called on to compose accordingly. "
That same year Stockhausen composed Gesang der Jünglinge, the first major work of the Cologne studio, based on a text from the Book of Daniel. Gesang der Jünglinge (literally "Song of the Youths" is a noted Electronic music work by Karlheinz Stockhausen. The Book of Daniel (דניאל, originally written in Hebrew and Aramaic, is a Book in both the Hebrew Bible ( Tanakh) and the Christian An important technological development of that year was the invention of the Clavivox synthesizer by Raymond Scott with subassembly by Robert Moog. The Clavivox was a keyboard sound synthesizer and sequencer invented by American Composer Raymond Scott in 1952 and patented in 1956 Raymond Scott (born Harry Warnow, 10 September 1908 &mdash 8 February 1994) was an American composer band leader pianist engineer Dr Robert Arthur Moog (ˈmoʊɡ to rhyme with "rogue" ( May 23, 1934 &ndash August 21, 2005) was an American pioneer of
Later, Milton Babbitt, influenced in his student years by Schoenberg's "revolution in musical thought" began applying serial techniques to electronic music. Milton Byron Babbitt (born May 10 1916 is an American Composer.
From 1950 to 1960 the vocabulary of tape music shifted from the fairly pure experimental works which characterized the classic Paris and Cologne schools to more complex and expressive works which explored a wide range of compositional styles. More and more works began to appear by the mid-1950's which addressed the concept of combining taped sounds with live instruments and voices. There was also a tentative interest, and a few attempts, at incorporating taped electronic sounds into theatrical works.—
The public remained interested in the new sounds being created around the world, as can be deduced by the inclusion of Varèse's Poeme Electronique, which was played over four hundred loudspeakers at the Phillips Pavilion of the 1958 Brussels World Fair. Expo 58, also known as the Brussels World’s Fair, Brusselse Wereldtentoonstelling or Exposition Universelle et Internationale de Bruxelles, was held from That same year, Mauricio Kagel, an Argentinean composer, composed Transición II, the first piece to call for live tape recorder as part of performance. Mauricio Kagel ( December 24, 1931 – September 18, 2008) was a German - Argentine Composer who was notable For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Argentina topics. The work was realized at the WDR studio in Cologne. Two musicians perform on a piano, one in the traditional manner, the other playing on the strings, frame, and case. Two other performers use tape to unite the presentation of live sounds with the future of prerecorded materials from later on and its past of recordings made earlier in the performance.
By this time, a strong community of composers and musicians working with new sounds and instruments was well established, and growing. 1960 witnessed the composition of Luening's Gargoyles for violin and tape as well as the premiere of Stockhausen's Kontakte for electronic sounds, piano, and percussion. In Architecture, a gargoyle is a carved stone Grotesque with a spout designed to convey water from a roof and away from the side of a building Kontakte ("Contacts" is a celebrated Electronic music work by Karlheinz Stockhausen, realized in 1958 - 60 at the This piece existed in two versions—one for 4-channel tape, and the other for tape with human performers. "In Kontakte, Stockhausen abandoned traditional musical form based on linear development and dramatic climax. This new approach, which he termed 'moment form,' resembles the 'cinematic splice' techniques in early twentieth century film. "
The 1960s also saw the development of large mainframe computer synthesis. Max Mathews of Bell Labs perfected MUSIC V, a direct digital synthesis language. Concurrent with this was the development of smaller voltage-controlled synthesizers by Moog Music and others that made instruments available to most composers, universities and popular musicians. Moog Music A well-known example of the use of these synthesizers is the Switched-On Bach album by Wendy Carlos. Switched-On Bach is a musical album by Wendy Carlos (then Walter Carlos and Benjamin Folkman, released in 1968 by CBS Records. Wendy Carlos (born Walter Carlos, November 14 1939 is an American Composer and electronic Musician. This decade saw construction of more than 50 electronic music studios in the USA, mostly in universities.
These were fertile years for electronic music—not only for academia, but for independent artists as well.
It was within this period (1966-67) that Reed Ghazala discovered and began to teach "circuit bending"—the application of the creative short circuit, a process of chance short-circuiting, creating experimental electronic instruments, exploring sonic elements mainly of timbre and with less regard to pitch or rhythm, and influenced by John Cage’s aleatoric music concept. Qubais Reed Ghazala, an American author photographer composer Musician and experimental instrument builder is recognized as the "Father of Circuit bending Circuit bending is the creative short-circuiting of electronic devices such as low Voltage, battery-powered Guitar effects, children's Toys WikipediaWikiProject Composers#Lead section --> John Milton Cage Jr Aleatoric music (also aleatory music or chance music; from the Latin word alea, meaning " Dice " is Music 
This time is also the true beginning of live-electronic performance.
ONCE Festivals, featuring multimedia theater music, were organized by Robert Ashley and Gordon Mumma in Ann Arbor, Michigan. Robert Ashley is a contemporary American Composer born March 28, 1930 in Ann Arbor Michigan, best known for his operas and other theatrical Gordon Mumma (born March 30, 1935, in Framingham Massachusetts) is a Composer. Ann Arbor is a city in the US state of Michigan and the county seat of Washtenaw County.
Milton Babbitt composed his first electronic work using the synthesizer—his Composition for Synthesizer—which he created using the RCA synthesizer at CPEMC.
For Babbitt, the RCA synthesizer was a dream come true for three reasons. First, the ability to pinpoint and control every musical element precisely. Second, the time needed to realize his elaborate serial structures were brought within practical reach. Third, the question was no longer "What are the limits of the human performer?" but rather "What are the limits of human hearing?—
The collaborations also occurred across oceans and continents. In 1961, Ussachevsky invited Varèse to the Columbia-Princeton Studio (CPEMC). Upon arrival, Varese embarked upon a revision of Déserts. He was assisted by Mario Davidovsky and Bülent Arel. Mario Davidovsky (born March 4, 1934) is an Argentine - American Composer. Bülent Arel (b Istanbul, April 23, 1919; d Stony Brook, New York, November 24, 1990) was a Turkish-born 
The intense activity occurring at CPEMC and elsewhere inspired the establishment of the San Francisco Tape Music Center in 1963 by Morton Subotnick, with additional members Pauline Oliveros, Ramon Sender, Terry Riley, and Anthony Martin. Morton Subotnick (born April 13, 1933 in Los Angeles California) is an American Composer of Electronic music, best known Terry Riley (born June 24 1935) is an American composer associated with the minimalist school The center soon incorporated a voltage-controlled synthesizer based around automated sequencing by Don Buchla, and used in album-length Subotnick pieces such as Silver Apples of the Moon (1967) and The Wild Bull (1968). Don Buchla (1937—) is a pioneer in the field of sound Synthesizers releasing his first units months after Robert Moog 's first synthesizers
Later, the Center moved to Mills College, directed by Pauline Oliveros, where it is today known as the Center for Contemporary Music. Mills College is an independent liberal arts women's college founded in 1852 that offers 
Back across the Atlantic, in Czechoslovakia, 1964, the First Seminar of Electronic Music was held at the Radio Broadcast Station in Plzen. Czechoslovakia may also refer to what is now the Czech Republic and Slovakia. Four government-sanctioned electroacoustic music studios were later established in the 1960s under the auspices of extant radio and television stations.
New instruments continued to develop. In 1964, the first fully-developed Moog synthesizer was completed. The term Moog (ˈmoʊg as in 'vogue' Synthesizer can refer to any number of Analog synthesizers designed by Dr Another popular instrument was the Hammond organ. The Hammond organ is an electric organ which was invented by Laurens Hammond in 1934 and manufactured by the Hammond Organ Company
In 1964, Karlheinz Stockhausen composed Mikrophonie I for tam-tam, hand-held microphones, filters, and potentiometers, and Mixtur for orchestra, for four sine-wave generators, and four ring modulators. Mikrophonie is the title given by Karlheinz Stockhausen to two of his compositions written in 1964 and 1965 in which “normally inaudible vibrations. This article is about the Internet Protocol Television channel Ring modulation is a signal-processing effect in electronics related to Amplitude modulation or frequency mixing, performed by multiplying two signals where one In 1965 he composed Mikrophonie II for choir, Hammond organ, and ring modulators. Mikrophonie is the title given by Karlheinz Stockhausen to two of his compositions written in 1964 and 1965 in which “normally inaudible vibrations.
In 1970, Charles Wuorinen composed Time's Encomium, the first Pulitzer Prize winner for an entirely electronic composition. The Minimoog is a monophonic Analog synthesizer, invented by Bill Hemsath and Robert Moog. Charles Wuorinen (b June 9, 1938 in New York City is an American Composer. Also in the 1970s, the Mini-Moog was created. The Minimoog is a monophonic Analog synthesizer, invented by Bill Hemsath and Robert Moog.
This was a small, integrated synthesizer that made analog synthesis easily available and affordable and became the most widely used synthesizer in both popular and electronic art music. 
(Paris) became a major center for computer music research and realization and development of the Sogitec 4X computer system, featuring then revolutionary real-time digital signal processing. IRCAM ( Institut de Recherche et Coordination Acoustique/Musique) is a European institute for Science about music and sound and avant garde electro-acoustical The Sogitec 4X was a digital sound processing workstation developed by Giuseppe Di Giugno at IRCAM (Paris in the 1980's Pierre Boulez's Repons (1981) for 24 musicians and 6 soloists used the 4X to transform and route soloists to a loudspeaker system. WikipediaWikiProject Classical music#Biographical_infoboxes --> Pierre Boulez (pjɛʁ buˈlɛz (b
Jon Appleton (with Jones and Alonso) invented the Dartmouth Digital Synthesizer, later to become the New England Digital Copt's Synclavier. The Synclavier System was an early Synthesizer and sampler, manufactured by New England Digital. The Synclavier System was an early Synthesizer and sampler, manufactured by New England Digital. Barry Vercoe wrote Music 11, a next-generation music synthesis program (later evolving into csound, which is still widely used). Csound is a Computer programming language for dealing with sound also known as a Sound compiler or an Audio programming language.
In 1980, a group of musicians and music merchants met to standardize an interface by which new instruments could communicate control instructions with other instruments and the prevalent microcomputer. MIDI ( Musical Instrument Digital Interface, ˈmɪdi is an industry-standard protocol that enables Electronic musical instruments Computers This standard was dubbed MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface). MIDI ( Musical Instrument Digital Interface, ˈmɪdi is an industry-standard protocol that enables Electronic musical instruments Computers A paper was authored by Dave Smith of Sequential Circuits and proposed to the Audio Engineering Society in 1981. Dave Smith is the name of Dave Smith (American football, former Texas A&M quarterback and SMU coach Sequential Circuits Inc (SCI was a California -based Synthesizer company that was founded in the early 1970s by Dave Smith and sold to Yamaha Corporation Established in 1948 the Audio Engineering Society (AES draws its membership from amongst engineers scientists manufacturers and other organizations and individuals with an interest Then, in August 1983, the MIDI Specification 1. 0 was finalized.
The advent of MIDI technology allows a single keystroke, control wheel motion, pedal movement, or command from a microcomputer to activate every device in the studio remotely and in synchrony, with each device responding according to conditions predetermined by the composer.
MIDI instruments and software made powerful control of sophisticated instruments easily affordable by many studios and individuals. Acoustic sounds became reintegrated into studios via sampling and sampled-ROM-based instruments. In Music, sampling is the act of taking a portion or sample, of one Sound recording and reusing it as an instrument or element of a new recording
Miller Puckette developed graphic signal-processing software for 4X called Max (after Max Mathews) and later ported it to Macintosh (with Dave Zicarelli extending it for Opcode ) for real-time MIDI control, bringing algorithmic composition availability to most composers with modest computer programming background. Miller Smith Puckette is the associate director of the Center for Research in Computing and the Arts as well as a faculty member at the University of California San Diego Max is a graphical Development environment for Music and Multimedia developed and maintained by San Francisco -based software company Cycling Max Vernon Mathews (* November 13, 1926, in Columbus, Nebraska) is a pioneer in the world of Computer music. Macintosh, commonly nicknamed Mac is a Brand name which covers several lines of Personal computers designed developed and marketed by Apple Inc Opcode Systems Inc was founded in 1985 by Dave Oppenheim and based in and around Palo Alto California USA
In 1983, Yamaha introduced the first stand-alone digital synthesizer, the DX-7. Computer music is a term that was originally used within academia to describe a field of study relating to the applications of Computing technology in music composition The Yamaha DX7 was a Synthesizer manufactured by the Yamaha Corporation from 1983 to 1986, based on FM synthesis developed by It used frequency modulation synthesis (FM synthesis), first experimented with by John Chowning at Stanford during the late sixties. John M Chowning (born 1934 in Salem New Jersey) is an American musician inventor and professor best known for his work at Stanford University 
Barry Vercoe describes one of his experiences with early computer sounds:
At IRCAM in Paris in 1982, flutist Larry Beauregard had connected his flute to DiGiugno's 4X audio processor, enabling real-time pitch-following. Barry Vercoe is a New Zealand-born Computer scientist and Composer. On a Guggenheim at the time, I extended this concept to real-time score-following with automatic synchronized accompaniment, and over the next two years Larry and I gave numerous demonstrations of the computer as a chamber musician, playing Handel flute sonatas, Boulez's Sonatine for flute and piano and by 1984 my own Synapse II for flute and computer—the first piece ever composed expressly for such a setup. WikipediaWikiProject Classical music#Biographical_infoboxes --> Pierre Boulez (pjɛʁ buˈlɛz (b A major challenge was finding the right software constructs to support highly sensitive and responsive accompaniment. All of this was pre-MIDI, but the results were impressive even though heavy doses of tempo rubato would continually surprise my Synthetic Performer. In 1985 we solved the tempo rubato problem by incorporating learning from rehearsals (each time you played this way the machine would get better). We were also now tracking violin, since our brilliant, young flutist had contracted a fatal cancer. Moreover, this version used a new standard called MIDI, and here I was ably assisted by former student Miller Puckette, whose initial concepts for this task he later expanded into a program called MAX.—
In the 1990s, interactive computer-assisted performance started to become possible, with one example describes as follows:
Automated Harmonization of Melody in Real Time: An interactive computer system, developed in collaboration with flutist/composer Pedro Eustache, for realtime melodic analysis and harmonic accompaniment. Pedro Eustache (born August 18 1959 is a creative Based on a novel scheme of harmonization devised by Eustache, the software analyzes the tonal melodic function of incoming notes, and instantaneously performs an orchestrated harmonization of the melody. The software was originally designed for performance by Eustache on Yamaha WX7 wind controller, and was used in his composition Tetelestai, premiered in Irvine, California in March 1999. Irvine ( is an incorporated city in Orange County California, United States—
Other recent developments included the Tod Machover (MIT and IRCAM) composition Begin Again Again for "hypercello," an interactive system of sensors measuring physical movements of the cellist. Tod Machover (born November 24, 1953 in Mount Vernon New York) the son of a pianist and a computer scientist, is a Composer The violoncello (abbreviated to cello, or 'cello, plural cellos or celli —the c is tʃ Max Mathews developed the "Conductor" program for real-time tempo, dynamic and timbre control of a pre-input electronic score. Morton Subotnick released a multimedia CD-ROM All My Hummingbirds Have Alibis.
Much of the above text was originally published as part of Doctoral Dissertation titled Electroacoustic Music for the Flute by Sarah Louise Bassingthwaighte. Written permission for reposting the content was obtained on April 2, 2007. For additional discussion, please see the talk page.