An electoral district (also known as a constituency or a riding in the Canadian English political jargon) is a geographically-based constituency upon which Canada's representative democracy is based. A constituency is any cohesive corporate unit or body bound by shared structures goals or loyalty A riding is an administrative jurisdiction or electoral district particularly in several current or former Commonwealth countries Canadian English ( CanE, en-CA) is the variety of English used in Canada. For Wikipedia jargon see WikipediaGlossary. For hacker slang see Jargon File. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page It is officially known in Canadian French as a circonscription, but frequently called a comté (county). Canadian French is an Umbrella term for the varieties of the French language used in Canada.
Federal electoral districts each return one Member of Parliament (MP) to the Canadian House of Commons; provincial or territorial electoral districts each return one representative (called, depending on the province or territory, Member of the Legislative Assembly (MLA), Member of the National Assembly (MNA), Member of Provincial Parliament (MPP) or Member of the House of Assembly (MHA)) to the provincial or territorial legislature. A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters to a Parliament. The House of Commons (Chambre des communes is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the Sovereign (represented by the Governor General) and The provinces and territories of Canada combine to make up the world's second largest country in total area. A Member of the Legislative Assembly, or MLA, is a representative elected by the voters of an Electoral district to the Legislature or Legislative The National Assembly is either a Legislature, or the Lower house of a Bicameral legislature in some countries A Member of Provincial Parliament (MPP is an elected member of the Legislative Assembly of the Province of Ontario, Canada. A Member of the House of Assembly is a member of the Newfoundland and Labrador House of Assembly in Canada.
While electoral districts in Canada are now exclusively single-member districts, in the past, multiple-member districts were used at both the federal and provincial levels. Alberta had a few districts in its history that returned from two up to seven members: see Calgary, Edmonton and Medicine Hat. Calgary was a provincial electoral district in Alberta, Canada that existed from 1905 to 1913 and 1921 to 1959 to elect members to the Legislative Assembly of Alberta Edmonton provincial electoral district existed in two incarnations from 1905 - 1909 and again from 1921 - 1955 Medicine Hat is an Albertan provincial Electoral district, covering most of the city of Medicine Hat.
As of June 28, 2004, there were 308 electoral districts across Canada. Events 1098 - Fighters of the First Crusade defeat Kerbogha of Mosul. "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again " Since 1999, Ontario uses the federal ridings in its elections for the provincial legislature, with the exception of Northern Ontario. Year 1999 ( MCMXCIX) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar) Ontario (ɒnˈtɛrioʊ is a province located in the central part of Canada, the largest by population and second largest after Quebec Territorial evolution Those areas which formed part of New France in the pays d'en haut, essentially the watersheds of the Ottawa River, Other provinces have completely different federal and provincial ridings. Ontario also had separate provincial ridings prior to 1999. Provinces will sometimes follow similar boundaries for their own provincial ridings, however this is not always the case, nor is it required.
The term riding is derived from the English local government term, which was widely used in Canada in the 19th century. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The 19th century of the Common Era began on January 1, 1801 and ended on December 31, 1900, according to the Gregorian calendar Most Canadian counties never had sufficient population to justify administrative sub-divisions. Nonetheless, it was common, especially in Ontario to divide counties with sufficient population to multiple electoral divisions, which thus became known as "ridings" in official documents. Ontario (ɒnˈtɛrioʊ is a province located in the central part of Canada, the largest by population and second largest after Quebec Soon after Confederation, the urban population grew (and more importantly, most city dwellers gained the franchise after property ownership was no longer required to gain the vote). Rural constituencies therefore became geographically larger through the 20th century and generally encompassed one or more counties each, and the word "riding" was then used to refer to any electoral division. The twentieth century of the Common Era began on A political party's local association is therefore generally known as a riding association. In Canadian politics a riding association (association de comté officially called an electoral district association ( association de circonscription)
Electoral district names are usually geographic in nature, and chosen to represent the community or region within the electoral district boundaries. Where a federal district's name includes more than one geographic designation, it is properly denoted with an em dash (—) between each distinct geographic name, for example Toronto—Danforth and Ancaster—Dundas—Flamborough—Westdale (but Cape Breton—Canso, not Cape—Breton—Canso. A dash is a Punctuation mark It is longer than a Hyphen and is used differently Toronto—Danforth (formerly Broadview—Greenwood) is a federal and provincial electoral district in Toronto, Ontario, Canada For the provincial electoral district see Ancaster—Dundas—Flamborough—Westdale (provincial electoral district Ancaster—Dundas—Flamborough—Westdale Cape Breton—Canso is a federal electoral district in Nova Scotia, Canada, that has been represented in the Canadian House of Commons since ) Where a single geographic name contains a hyphen, that is also not replaced by an em dash (e. g. , Saint-Hyacinthe—Bagot, not Saint—Hyacinthe—Bagot; Saint-Lambert, not Saint—Lambert. Saint-Hyacinthe—Bagot (formerly known as Saint-Hyacinthe) is a federal electoral district that has been represented in the Canadian House of Commons Saint-Lambert is a federal electoral district in the Canadian province of Quebec. )
Some electoral districts in Quebec are named for historical figures rather than geography (e. g. , Louis-Hébert, Honoré-Mercier); these contain hyphens between the words, not em dashes. Louis-Hébert and Louis-Hebert redirect here for the Canadian regional constituency see Louis-Hébert (provincial electoral district Honoré-Mercier is a federal electoral district in Quebec, Canada, that has been represented in the Canadian House of Commons since 2004 This practice is no longer employed in the other provinces and territories.
Depending on local convention, however, provincial electoral districts may use a hyphen instead of an em dash in this context.
Electoral district boundaries are adjusted to reflect population changes after each decennial census. A census is the procedure of acquiring information about every member of a given population Depending on the significance of a boundary change, an electoral district's name may change as well. Any adjustment of electoral district boundaries is official as of the date the changes are legislated, but is not put into actual effect until the first subsequent election. Thus, an electoral district may officially cease to exist, but will continue to be represented status quo in the House of Commons until the next election is called. This, for example, gives new riding associations time to organize, and prevents the confusion that would result from changing elected MPs' electoral district assignments in the middle of a Parliament.
On some occasions (see for example Timiskaming—French River, Toronto—Danforth), a riding's name may be changed without a boundary adjustment. Timiskaming (later known as Timiskaming—French River) was a federal electoral district in the northeastern part of Ontario, Canada, that was Toronto—Danforth (formerly Broadview—Greenwood) is a federal and provincial electoral district in Toronto, Ontario, Canada This usually happens when it is determined at a later date that the existing name is not sufficiently representative of the district's geographic boundaries. This is the only circumstance in which a sitting MP's riding name may change between elections.
The present formula for adjusting electoral boundaries was adopted in 1985. Year 1985 ( MCMLXXXV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link displays 1985 Gregorian calendar) It starts with the number of seats in Parliament at that time, 282. One seat is automatically allocated to each of Canada's three territories, leaving 279. The total population of Canada's provinces is thus divided by 279, resulting in an "electoral quotient", and then the population of each individual province is divided by this electoral quotient to determine the number of seats to which the province is entitled.
Finally, a few special rules are applied. Under the "senatorial clause", a province's number of seats in the House of Commons can never be lower than its constitutionally mandated number of senators, regardless of the province's population. The Senate of Canada (Le Sénat du Canada is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the sovereign (represented by the governor general Under the "grandfather clause", the province's number of seats can also never fall below the number of seats it had in the 33rd Canadian parliament. The 33rd Canadian Parliament was in session from November 5, 1984 until October 1, 1988.
A province may be allocated extra seats over its base entitlement to ensure that these rules are met. In 2004, for example, Prince Edward Island would have been entitled to only a single seat, but because of the senatorial clause, the province gained three more seats to equal its four senators. "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again " Prince Edward Island (ˌprɪns ˌɛdwɚd ˈaɪlɨnd ( PEI or P Quebec was only entitled to 68 seats by the electoral quotient alone, but through the grandfather clause, the province gained seven seats to equal the 75 seats it had in the 33rd Parliament. Quebec (kwɨˈbɛk Saskatchewan and Manitoba also gained seats under the grandfather clause, New Brunswick gained seats under the senatorial clause, and Nova Scotia and Newfoundland and Labrador gained seats under both clauses. Saskatchewan (səˈskætʃəwən) is a prairie province in Canada, which has an area of 588276 Manitoba (English ˌmænɨˈtoʊbə French /manitoba/ is a province of Canada, spanning 647797 square kilometres (250116  sq mi of North America New Brunswick ( French: Nouveau-Brunswick /nuvobʁɔnzwik/ is one of Canada 's three Maritime provinces and is the only constitutionally Nova Scotia (ˌnəʊvəˈskəʊʃə ( Latin for New Scotland; Alba Nuadh Nouvelle-Écosse is a Canadian province located on Canada 's Newfoundland and Labrador (ˈnuːfɨn(dlənd ən(d ˈlæbrəˌdɔr (Terre-Neuve-et-Labrador is a province of Canada, the tenth and latest to join the Confederation It should be noted that the grandfather clause applied to the 33rd parliament, and the senatorial clause was in place at the time, so no province gains seats via the senatorial clause alone. Prince Edward Island gets 4 seats due to both clauses, and New Brunswick gets 10. However when applied after the Senatorial Clause, it causes provinces like Newfoundland and Labrador and Nova Scotia to appear to gain seats two different times under the two different clauses, when in fact, the change is simultaneous, and so the Senatorial clause has no real impact on adjustments.
A third protection clause exists, under which a province may not lose more than 15 per cent of its seats in a single adjustment, but specific application of this rule has never been needed. Only three provinces, Alberta, British Columbia and Ontario, could lose 15 per cent of their current seat allotment without automatically triggering the senatorial or grandfather clauses; to date, none of these provinces have ever faced this situation. Alberta (ælˈbɝtə is one of Canada's prairie provinces. It became a province on September 1 1905 British Columbia (ˌbrɪtɨʃ kəˈlʌmbiə ( BC) ( (la Colombie-Britannique C Ontario (ɒnˈtɛrioʊ is a province located in the central part of Canada, the largest by population and second largest after Quebec
When the province's final seat allotment is determined, an independent election boundaries commission in each province reviews the existing boundaries and proposes adjustments. Public input is then sought, which may then lead to changes in the final boundary proposal. For instance, the proposed boundaries may not accurately reflect a community's historical, political or economic relationship with its surrounding region; the community would thus advise the boundary commission that it wished to be included in a different electoral district.
For example, in the 2003 boundary adjustment, the boundary commission in Ontario originally proposed dividing the city of Greater Sudbury into three districts. Year 2003 ( MMIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. Greater Sudbury (2006 Census population 157857 is a city in Northern Ontario, Canada. The urban core would have remained largely unchanged as Sudbury, while communities west of the central city would have been merged with Algoma—Manitoulin to form the new riding of Greater Sudbury—Manitoulin, and those east and north of the central city would have been merged with Timiskaming to create the riding of Timiskaming—Greater Sudbury. For the provincial riding plase see Sudbury (provincial electoral district. Algoma (also known as Algoma—Manitoulin) was a federal electoral district in Ontario, Canada, represented in the Canadian House of Commons Timiskaming (later known as Timiskaming—French River) was a federal electoral district in the northeastern part of Ontario, Canada, that was Due to community opposition, however, the existing districts of Sudbury and Nickel Belt were retained in the final report with only minor boundary adjustments. For the provincial electoral district please see Nickel Belt (provincial electoral district Nickel Belt is an informal nickname for the
Once the final report is produced, it is then submitted to Parliament for approval, which is given by voting on the report as a piece of legislation.