|Euphrates • Tigris|
|Cities / Empires|
|Sumer: Eridu • Kish • Uruk • Ur • Lagash • Nippur • Ngirsu|
|Akkadian Empire: Akkad • Mari|
|Amorites: Isin • Larsa|
|Babylonia: Babylon • Chaldea|
|Hittites • Kassites • Hurrians/Mitanni|
|Assyria: Assur • Nimrud • Dur-Sharrukin • Nineveh|
|History of Mesopotamia|
|History of Sumer • Kings of Sumer|
|Kings of Assyria|
|Kings of Babylon|
|Enûma Elish • Gilgamesh|
|Sumerian • Elamite|
|Akkadian • Aramaic|
|Hurrian • Hittite|
Elam is the name of an ancient civilization located in what is now southwest Iran. Mesopotamia (from the Greek meaning "land between the rivers" is an area geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers largely corresponding The Euphrates ( ( Arabic: ar نهر الفرات; Turkish: tr Fırat Syriac: syr ܦܪܬ; Hebrew: he פרת The Tigris is the eastern member of the two great Rivers that define Mesopotamia, along with the Euphrates, which flows from the mountains of southeastern Sumer ( Sumerian: sux-Latn [[Ki (earth ki]]-[[EN (cuneiform en]]-'''ĝir15''', Akkadian: Šumeru; possibly Biblical Shinar Eridu (URUNUNKI; Sumerian:eridug Akkadian: ?) from the Sumerian for 'mighty place' is modern Tell Abu Shahrain, Iraq Uruk ( URU UNUG, Sumerian: unug Akkadian: uruk) from the Akkadian rendering of the Sumerian Toponym 'unug' is modern Ur ( Sumerian:urim; Akkadian: ?) is modern Tell el-Mukayyar, Iraq, and was a city in ancient Sumer. Lagash ( is modern Tell al-Hiba, Iraq. Located northwest of the junction of the Euphrates and Tigris rivers and east of Uruk Nippur (URUENLIL; Sumerian: Nibru Akkadian: Nibbur) from the Sumerian for 'lord wind' (Enlil is modern ? in Afak Al Qadisyah Ngirsu (cuneiform? Sumerian:Ĝirsu Akkadian: ?) is modern Tell Telloh, Dhi Qar Governorate, Iraq, and it was a city of Susa ( Biblical שושן ( Shushan) also Greek: Σοῦσα Transliterated as Sousa; Latin Susa) Mari (modern Tell Hariri, Syria) was an ancient Sumerian and Amorite city located 11 kilometers north-west of the modern town of Amorite ( Sumerian MARTU, Akkadian Tidnum or Amurrūm, Egyptian Amar, Hebrew ’emōrî Isin (modern Ishan al-Bahriyat was a city of lower Mesopotamia, which flourished during the 20th century BC. Larsa (also Larag or Larak, modern Tell as-Senkereh, Iraq, possibly the Biblical Ellasar) was an important city of Babylonia was an Amorite state in lower Mesopotamia (modern southern Iraq) with Babylon as its capital Babylon was a City-state of ancient Mesopotamia, the remains of which can be found in present-day Al Hillah, Babil Province, Iraq Chaldea (from Greek grc Χαλδαία Chaldaia; Akkadian akk māt Kaldu Hebrew כשדים Kaśdim, "the Chaldees" of the The Hittites were an ancient Anatolian people who spoke a language of the Anatolian branch of the Indo-European language family and established The Kassites were an Ancient Near Eastern tribe who gained control of Babylonia after the fall of the Old Babylonian Empire after ca The Hurrians (also Khurrites; cuneiform Ḫu-ur-ri 𒄷𒌨𒊑 were a people of the Ancient Near East, who lived in northern Mesopotamia Mitanni ( Hittite cuneiform, also Mittani) or Hanigalbat ( Assyrian Hanigalbat Khanigalbat cuneiform) Early history The most Neolithic site in Assyria is at Tell Hassuna, the center of the Hassuna culture Assur also spelled Ashur, from Assyrian Aššur, was one of the capitals of ancient Assyria. Nimrud is an ancient Assyrian city located south of Nineveh on the river Tigris. Dur-Sharrukin ("Fortress of Sargon" present day Khorsabad, was the Assyrian capital in the time of Sargon II of Assyria. Nineveh ( Akkadian: Ninua; Aramaic: ܢܝܢܘܐ Hebrew נינוה Nīnewē; Arabic نينوى Naīnuwa) See Short chronology for a timeline in absolute dates The Chronology of the Ancient Near East is a framework of dates for Ancient Mesopotamia was settled and conquered by numerous ancient Civilizations. The history of Sumer, taken to include the prehistoric Ubaid and Uruk periods spans the 5th to 3rd millennia BC ending with the downfall of the Third The Sumerian king list is an ancient text in the Sumerian language that lists kings of Sumer from Sumerian and foreign dynasties The following is a list of the kings of Babylonia, a major city and empire in ancient lower Mesopotamia, compiled from the traditional Babylonian king lists and modern Mesopotamian mythology is the collective name given to Sumerian Akkadian Assyrian and Babylonian mythologies from the land between the Tigris The akk Enûma Eliš is the Babylonian Creation myth (named for its Incipit) Gilgamesh was the son of Lugalbanda and the fifth king of Uruk (Early Dynastic II first dynasty of Uruk ruling circa 2600 BC according to the Sumerian king The pre- Christian religions of Babylonia and Assyria are the earliest attestation of Ancient Semitic religion, in particular Mesopotamian mythology Assyriology (from Greek grc Ἀσσυρίᾱ Assyriā; and grc -λογία -logia) is the archaeological historical and linguistic study Sumerian ( " native tongue " was the language of ancient Sumer, spoken in Southern Mesopotamia since at least the 4th millennium BC Elamite is an Extinct language, which was spoken by the ancient Elamites. Aramaic is a Semitic language with Hurrian is a conventional name for the language of the Hurrians (Khurrites a people who entered northern Mesopotamia around 2300 BC and had mostly Hittite or Nesili is the Extinct language once spoken by the Hittites, a people who created an empire centered on ancient Hattusas (modern For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics. Archaeological evidence associated with Elam has been dated to before 5000 BCE. The 5th millennium BC saw the spread of Agriculture from the Near East throughout southern and central Europe        According to available written records, it is known to have existed beginning from around 3200 BC — making it among the world's oldest historical civilizations — and to have endured up until 539 BC. A Civilization is a society in which large numbers of people share a variety of common elements Elam was centered in the far west and southwest of modern-day Iran, stretching from the lowlands of Khuzestan and Ilam Province (which takes its name from Elam), as far as Jiroft in Kerman province and Burned City in Zabol, as well as a small part of southern Iraq. Khūzestān (خوزستان is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. Īlām, also Elam Kurdish, is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. Kermān is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. It is in the south-east of the country Zabol (fa زابل is a city in the province Sistan and Baluchistan, in Iran, on the border with both Afghanistan and Pakistan. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iraq topics.
Ancient Elam lay to the east of Sumer and Akkad (modern-day Iraq). Sumer ( Sumerian: sux-Latn [[Ki (earth ki]]-[[EN (cuneiform en]]-'''ĝir15''', Akkadian: Šumeru; possibly Biblical Shinar For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iraq topics. In the Old Elamite period, it consisted of kingdoms on the Iranian plateau, centered in Anshan, and from the mid-2nd millennium BC, it was centered in Susa in the Khuzestan lowlands. The Iranian Plateau, also known as the Persian plateau is a Geological formation in Southwest Asia, Southern Anshan ( Persian: انشان Anšan, modern Tall-i Malyan or Tepe Malyan, Iran) a site on the Iranian plateau The 2nd millennium BC marks the transition from the Middle to the Late Bronze Age. Susa ( Biblical שושן ( Shushan) also Greek: Σοῦσα Transliterated as Sousa; Latin Susa) Khūzestān (خوزستان is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. Its culture played a crucial role in the Persian Empire, especially during the Achaemenid dynasty that succeeded it, when the Elamite language remained among those in official use. The Persian Empire was a series of Iranian empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the original Persian homeland and beyond in Western Asia The Achaemenid Empire or Achaemenid Persian Empire ( haχɒmaneʃijɒn (558–330 BC was the first of the Persian Empires to rule over significant portions of Elamite is an Extinct language, which was spoken by the ancient Elamites.
The Elamite period is considered a starting point for the history of Iran. See Also Persian Empire History of Iran and Greater Iran (also referred to as the " Iranian Cultural Continent Of the other ancient civilizations on the Iranian plateau, such as the Mannaeans kingdom in Iranian Azarbaijan, Shahr-i Sokhta (Burned City) in Zabol, and the recently discovered Jiroft civilization to the east, many researchers believe that these last two may have formed parts of the Elamite civilisation, though this is uncertain. The Iranian Plateau, also known as the Persian plateau is a Geological formation in Southwest Asia, Southern The Mannaeans (country name usually Mannea; Akkadian: Mannai, possibly Biblical Minni, מנּי were an ancient people of unknown origin This article is about the region in Iran for other uses see Azerbaijan (disambiguation. Shahr-e Sukhte "Burnt City" (شهر سوخته is an archaeological site of a sizable Bronze Age urban settlement associated with the Jiroft culture. Zabol (fa زابل is a city in the province Sistan and Baluchistan, in Iran, on the border with both Afghanistan and Pakistan. The Elamite language has no established affinities with any other, and seems to be a language isolate such as Sumerian; however some researchers have posited the existence of a larger group known as Elamo-Dravidian. The Elamo-Dravidian languages are a hypothesised Language family which includes the living Dravidian languages of India, and Pakistan, in addition
The Elamites called their country Haltamti, Sumerogram ELAM, Akkadian Elamû, female Elamītu "resident of Susiana, Elamite". Sumerian ( " native tongue " was the language of ancient Sumer, spoken in Southern Mesopotamia since at least the 4th millennium BC  Additionally, it is known as Elam in the Hebrew Bible, where they are called the offspring of Elam, eldest son of Shem (see Elam in the Bible; Genesis 10:22, Ezra 4:9). The term Hebrew Bible is a generic reference to those books of the Bible originally written in Biblical Hebrew (and the related Biblical Aramaic Shem (; Greek: Σημ, Sēm; Arabic: ar سام; Ge'ez: ሴም Sēm; "renown prosperity name" Elam ( עֵילָם) in the Hebrew Bible ( Genesis 1022 Ezra 49 is said to be the oldest son of Shem, the son of The Book of Ezra is a book of the Bible in the Old Testament and Hebrew Tanakh.
The high country of Elam was increasingly identified by its low-lying later capital, Susa. Susa ( Biblical שושן ( Shushan) also Greek: Σοῦσα Transliterated as Sousa; Latin Susa) Geographers after Ptolemy called it Susiana. Claudius Ptolemaeus ( Greek: Klaúdios Ptolemaîos; after 83 &ndash ca The Elamite civilization was primarily centered in the province of what is modern-day Khuzestān, however it did extend into the later province of Fars in prehistoric times. Fars (pronounced/fɑː(ɹs ( Persian: فارس Fârs) is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. The modern provincial name Khuzestān is derived from Persian: Old Persian Hūjiya "Elam" (Old Persian: 𐎢𐎺𐎩) became Middle Persian Huź "Susiana" and New Persian Xuz, gaining the common New Persian location ending -stån "place" (cf. The Old Persian language is one of the two attested Old Iranian languages (besides Avestan) Sistan "Saka-land").
Knowledge of Elamite history remains largely fragmentary, reconstruction being based on mainly Mesopotamian sources. Mesopotamia (from the Greek meaning "land between the rivers" is an area geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers largely corresponding The city of Susa was founded around 4000 BC, and during its early history, fluctuated between submission to Mesopotamian and Elamite power. Susa ( Biblical שושן ( Shushan) also Greek: Σοῦσα Transliterated as Sousa; Latin Susa)
Following recent excavations in Jiroft and Zabol, archaeologists have suggested that a close relationship between the Jiroft civilisation and the Elamite civilisation is evidenced by striking similarities in art and culture, as well as by Elamite language writings found in Jiroft — possibly extending the Elamite presence to as early as 7000 BC. Zabol (fa زابل is a city in the province Sistan and Baluchistan, in Iran, on the border with both Afghanistan and Pakistan.
The earliest levels (22-17 in the excavations conducted by Le Brun, 1978) exhibit pottery that has no equivalent in Mesopotamia, but for the succeeding period, the excavated material allows identification with the culture of Sumer of the Uruk period. Sumer ( Sumerian: sux-Latn [[Ki (earth ki]]-[[EN (cuneiform en]]-'''ĝir15''', Akkadian: Šumeru; possibly Biblical Shinar The Uruk period (ca 4000 to 3100 BC existed from the protohistoric Chalcolithic to Early Bronze Age period in the history of Mesopotamia, Proto-Elamite influence from the Persian plateau in Susa becomes visible from about 3200 BC, and texts in the still undeciphered Proto-Elamite writing system continue to be present until about 2700 BC. The Proto-Elamite period is the time of ca 3200 BC to 2700 BC when Susa, the later capital of the Elamites began to receive influence from the The Iranian Plateau, also known as the Persian plateau is a Geological formation in Southwest Asia, Southern The Proto-Elamite period is the time of ca 3200 BC to 2700 BC when Susa, the later capital of the Elamites began to receive influence from the The 27th century BC is a Century which lasted from the year 2700 BC to 2601 BC The Proto-Elamite period ends with the establishment of the Awan dynasty. The Awan Dynasty was the first dynasty of Elam, founded by king Peli at the dawn of history The earliest known historical figure connected with Elam is the king Enmebaragesi of Kish (c. Enmebaragesi ( Me-Baragesi, En-Men-Barage-Si, Enmebaragisi, fl KISH (1029 FM) is Guam 's first all- Chamorro Music formatted FM station 2650 BC?), who subdued it, according to the Sumerian king list. The Sumerian king list is an ancient text in the Sumerian language that lists kings of Sumer from Sumerian and foreign dynasties However, real Elamite history can only be traced from records dating to beginning of the Akkadian Empire in around 2300 BC onwards.
Elamite civilization grew up east of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, in the watershed of the river Karun. The Karūn (also spelled as Karoun is Iran 's most effluent and the only navigable River. In modern terms, Elam included more than Khuzestan; it was a combination of the lowlands and the immediate highland areas to the north and east. Some Elamite sites, however, are found well outside this area, spread out on the Iranian plateau; examples of Elamite remains farther north and east in Iran are Sialk in Isfahan Province and Jiroft  in Kerman Province. The Iranian Plateau, also known as the Persian plateau is a Geological formation in Southwest Asia, Southern Sialk is a large ancient archeological site near Kashan, Iran, tucked away in the suburbs of the city of Kashan, in central Iran, close to Jiroft is a city in Kerman province, Iran. It is located 230-kilometres south of the city of Kerman, and 1375-kilometres south of Tehran Kermān is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. It is in the south-east of the country Elamite strength was based on an ability to hold these various areas together under a coordinated government that permitted the maximum interchange of the natural resources unique to each region. Traditionally, this was done through a federated governmental structure.
The history of Elam is conventionally divided into three periods, spanning more than two millennia. The period before the first Elamite period is known as the proto-Elamite period:
The Old Elamite period began around 2700 BC. Historical records mention the conquest of Elam by Enmebaragesi of Kish. Enmebaragesi ( Me-Baragesi, En-Men-Barage-Si, Enmebaragisi, fl KISH (1029 FM) is Guam 's first all- Chamorro Music formatted FM station Three dynasties ruled during this period. We know of twelve kings of each of the first two dynasties, those of Awan (or Avan; c. The Awan Dynasty was the first dynasty of Elam, founded by king Peli at the dawn of history 2400–2100 BC) and Simash (c. 2100–1970 BC), from a list from Susa dating to the Old Babylonian period. Two Elamite dynasties said to have exercised brief control over Sumer in very early times include Awan and Hamazi; and likewise, several of the stronger Sumerian rulers, such as Eannatum of Lagash and Lugal-anne-mundu of Adab, are recorded as temporarily dominating Elam. Hamazi (or Khamazi) was an ancient kingdom or city-state of some importance that reached its peak ca Eannatum was a Sumerian king of Lagash who established one of the first verifiable empires in history Lugal -Anne-Mundu was the most important king of the city-state Adab in Sumer.
The Avan dynasty was partly contemporary with that of Sargon of Akkad, who not only defeated the Awan king Luhi-ishan and subjected Susa, but attempted to make Akkadian the official language there. You may be looking for the Assyrian kings Sargon I From this time, Mesopotamian sources concerning Elam become more frequent, since the Mesopotamians had developed an interest in resources (such as wood, stone and metal) from the Iranian plateau, and military expeditions to the area became more common.
However, with the collapse of Akkad under Sargon's great-grandson, Shar-kali-sharri, Elam declared independence under the last Avan king, Kutik-Inshushinak (c. Shar-Kali-Sharri (Akk = "King of all Kings" was a king of the Akkadian Empire. Kutik-Inshushinak (also known as Puzur-Inshushinak) was king of Elam from about 2240 to 2220 BC ( Long chronology) and the last from the Awan dynasty 2240-2220 BC), and threw off the Akkadian language, promoting in its place the brief Linear Elamite script. Linear Elamite is a Bronze Age writing system used in Elam, known from a few monumental inscriptions only
Kutik-Inshushinnak conquered Susa and Anshan, and seems to have achieved some sort of political unity. Anshan ( Persian: انشان Anšan, modern Tall-i Malyan or Tepe Malyan, Iran) a site on the Iranian plateau Following his reign, the Awan dynasty collapsed as Elam was temporarily overrun by the Guti. Gutium was a tribe that overran southern Mesopotamia when the Akkadian empire collapsed ca
About a century later, Shulgi of Ur retook the city of Susa and the surrounding region. Shulgi (also formerly read as Dungi) of Urim was the second king of the " Sumerian Renaissance " Ur ( Sumerian:urim; Akkadian: ?) is modern Tell el-Mukayyar, Iraq, and was a city in ancient Sumer. During the first part of the rule of the Simashki dynasty, Elam was under intermittent attack from Mesopotamians and Gutians, alternating with periods of peace and diplomatic approaches. Shu-Sin of Ur, for example, gave one of his daughters in marriage to a prince of Anshan. Shu-sin was king of Sumer and Akkad, and was the penultimate king of the Ur III dynasty But the power of the Sumerians was waning; Ibbi-Sin in the 21st century did not manage to penetrate far into Elam, and in 2004 BC, the Elamites, allied with the people of Susa and led by king Kindattu, the sixth king of Simashk, managed to sack Ur and lead Ibbi-Sin into captivity -- thus ending the third dynasty of Ur. Ibbi-Sin, son of Shu-Sin, was king of Sumer and Akkad and last king of the Ur III dynasty and reigned The Third Dynasty of Ur refers simultaneously to a 21st to 20th century BC ( Short chronology) Sumerian ruling dynasty based in the city of However, the kings of Isin, successor state to Ur, did manage to drive the Elamites out of Ur, rebuild the city, and to return the statue of Nanna that the Elamites had plundered. Isin (modern Ishan al-Bahriyat was a city of lower Mesopotamia, which flourished during the 20th century BC. Succession of states is a theory in International relations regarding the recognition and acceptance of a newly created State by other states based on
The succeeding dynasty, the Eparti (c. 1970–1770 BC), also called "of the sukkalmahs" because of the title borne by its members, was contemporary with the Old Babylonian period in Mesopotamia. This period is confusing and difficult to reconstruct. It was apparently founded by Eparti I. During this time, Susa was under Elamite control, but Mesopotamian states such as Larsa continually tried to retake the city. Larsa (also Larag or Larak, modern Tell as-Senkereh, Iraq, possibly the Biblical Ellasar) was an important city of Around 1850 BC Kudur-mabug, apparently king of another Elamite state to the north of Susa, managed to install his son, Warad-Sin, on the throne of Larsa, and Warad-Sin's brother, Rim-Sin, succeeded him and conquered much of Mesopotamia for Larsa.
Notable Eparti dynasty rulers in Elam during this time include Sirukdukh (c. 1850 BC), who entered various military coalitions to contain the rising power of Babylon; Siwe-Palar-Khuppak, who for some time was the most powerful person in the area, respectfully addressed as "Father" by Mesopotamian kings such as Zimrilim of Mari, and even Hammurabi of Babylon, and Kudur-Nahhunte, who plundered the temples of Akkad. Babylon was a City-state of ancient Mesopotamia, the remains of which can be found in present-day Al Hillah, Babil Province, Iraq Zimrilim was king of Mari from about 1779 to 1757 BCE He was the son and heir of Iakhdunlim, but was forced to flee to Yamkhad when his father Mari (modern Tell Hariri, Syria) was an ancient Sumerian and Amorite city located 11 kilometers north-west of the modern town of Hammurabi ( Akkadian from Amorite ˤAmmurāpi, "the kinsman is a healer" from ˤAmmu, "paternal kinsman" and Rāpi Babylon was a City-state of ancient Mesopotamia, the remains of which can be found in present-day Al Hillah, Babil Province, Iraq But Elamite influence in Mesopotamia did not last. Around 1760 BC, Hammurabi drove out the Elamites, overthrew Rim-Sin of Larsa, and established Babylonian dominance in Mesopotamia.
Little is known about the latter part of this dynasty, since sources again become sparse with the Kassite rule of Babylon (from c. The Kassites were an Ancient Near Eastern tribe who gained control of Babylonia after the fall of the Old Babylonian Empire after ca 1595 BC).
The Middle Elamite period began with the rise of the Anshanite dynasties around 1500 BC. Their rule was characterized by an "Elamisation" of Susa, and the kings took the title "king of Anshan and Susa". While the first of these dynasties, the Kidinuids continued to use the Akkadian language frequently in their inscriptions, the succeeding Igihalkids and Shutrukids used Elamite with increasing regularity. Likewise, Elamite language and culture grew in importance in Susiana.
The Kidinuids (c. 1500–1400) are a group of five rulers of uncertain affiliation. They are identified by their use of the older title, "king of Susa and of Anshan", and by calling themselves "servant of Kirwashir", an Elamite deity, thereby introducing the pantheon of the highlands to Susiana.
Of the Igehalkids (c. 1400–1210), ten rulers are known, and there were possibly more. Some of them married Kassite princesses. The Kassites were an Ancient Near Eastern tribe who gained control of Babylonia after the fall of the Old Babylonian Empire after ca The Kassite king Kurigalzu II temporarily occupied Elam c. Kurigalzu is the name of at least two kings in the Kassite Dynasty of Babylonia. 1320 BC, and later (c. 1230) another Kassite king, Kashtiliash IV, fought Elam unsuccessfully. Kiddin-Khutran I of Elam repulsed the Kassites by defeating Enlil-nadin-shumi in 1224 and Adad-shuma-iddina around 1222-17. Under the Igehalkids, Akkadian inscriptions were rare, and Elamite highland gods became firmly established in Susa.
Under the Shutrukids (c. 1210–1100), the Elamite empire reached the height of its power. Shutruk-Nakhkhunte and his three sons, Kutir-Nakhkhunte II, Shilhak-In-Shushinak, and Khutelutush-In-Shushinak were capable of frequent military campaigns into Kassite Mesopotamia, and at the same time were exhibiting vigorous construction activity -- building and restoring luxurious temples in Susa and across their Empire. Shutruk-Nakhkhunte raided Akkad, Babylon, and Eshnunna, carrying home to Susa trophies like the statues of Marduk and Manishtushu, the code of Hammurabi and the stela of Naram-Sin. The Code of Hammurabi ( Codex Hammurabi) is the best-preserved ancient Law code, created ca A stele (from Greek:, stēlē, ˈstiːli plural stelae,, stēlai, ˈstiːlaɪ also found Latinised singular stela
In 1158 BC, Shutruk-Nakhkhunte defeated the Kassites permanently, killing the Kassite king of Babylon, Zababa-shuma-iddina, and replacing him with his eldest son, Kutir-Nakhkhunte, who held it no more than three years.
Kutir-Nakhkhunte's son Khutelutush-In-Shushinak was probably of an incestuous relation of Kutir-Nakhkhunte's with his own daughter, Nakhkhunte-utu. He ended up temporarily yielding Susa to the forces of Nebuchadnezzar I of Babylon, who returned the statue of Marduk. Nebuchadrezzar I, more commonly known as Nebuchadnezzar I ( Akkadian: Nabu-kudurri-usur, meaning " Nebo, protect my eldest son" or "Nebo He fled to Anshan, but later returned to Susa, and his brother Shilhana-Hamru-Lagamar may have succeeded him as last king of the Shutrukid dynasty. Following Khutelutush-In-Shushinak, the power of the Elamite empire began to wane seriously, for with this ruler, Elam disappears into obscurity for more than three centuries.
Very little is known of this period. Anshan was still at least partially Elamite. There appear to have been alliances of Elam and Babylonia against the Assyrians; the Babylonian king Mar-biti-apla-ushur (984—979) was of Elamite origin, and Elamites are recorded to have fought with the Babylonian king Marduk-balassu-iqbi against the Assyrian forces under Shamshi-Adad V (823–811). Shamshi-Adad V was the King of Assyria from 824 to 811 BC He was the son and successor of Shalmaneser III, the husband of Shammuramat (by some identified
The later Neo-Elamite period is characterized by a significant migration of Iranians to the Iranian plateau. The Iranian people are a collection of Ethnic groups defined along linguistic lines as speaking Iranian languages. Assyrian sources beginning around 800 BC distinguish the "powerful Medes", ie the actual Medes, and the "distant Medes" that would later enter history under their proper names, (Parthians, Sagartians, Margians, Bactrians, Sogdians etc). The Medes were an ancient Iranian people who lived in the northwestern portions of present-day Iran. Parthia ( Middle Persian: اشکانیان Ashkâniân) was an Iranian civilization situated in the northeastern part of modern Iran The Sagartians ( Asagartiya, Old Persian Aš-ša-kar-ti-ia, Assyrian KUR Sa-ga-ar-ta-a-a, Greek Σαγαρτιοιwere an ancient Iranian The Bactrians were an Indo-European people originally of Bactria, situated in what is now modern northern Afghanistan, Tajikistan, and southern History Hellenistic period The Sogdian Rock or Rock of Ariamazes a fortress in Sogdiana was captured in 327 BC by the forces of Alexander the Great Among these pressuring tribes were the Parsu, first recorded in 844 BC as living on the southeastern shore of Lake Urmiah, but who by the end of this period would cause the Elamites' original home, the Iranian Plateau, to be renamed Persia proper. layout and formatting it should ensure no clashes with the top of the infobox Lake Urmia ( Daryacheh-ye Orumieh; ارومیه گولو, ارومیه گولی ancient name Lake Matiene) is a Salt lake in northwestern Iran
More details are known from the late 8th century BC, when the Elamites were allied with Merodach-baladan to defend the cause of Babylonian independence from Assyria. Marduk-apla-iddina II (the biblical Merodach-baladan, also called Marduk-baladan, Baladan and Berodach-baladan. Khumbanigash (743–17) supported Merodach-baladan against Sargon II, apparently with limited success; while his successor, Shutruk-Nakhkhunte II (716–699), was routed by Sargon's troops during an expedition in 710, and another Elamite defeat by Sargon's troops is recorded for 708. Sargon II ( Akkadian Šarru-kinu "legitimate king" reigned 722 – 705 BC was an Assyrian king The Assyrian victory over Babylon was completed by Sargon's son Sennacherib, who dethroned Merodach-baladan for a second time, finally installing his own son Ashur-nadin-shumi on the Babylonian throne in 700. Sennacherib ( Akkadian Sîn-ahhe-eriba "(moon god Sîn has replaced (lost brothers for me" was the son of Sargon II, whom he Ashur-nadin-shumi (d694 BC was an ancient King of Babylon. The son of the Assyrian king Sennacherib, Ashur-nadin-shumi was installed by his father as
Shutruk-Nakhkhunte II, the last Elamite to claim the old title "king od Anshan and Susa", was murdered by his brother Khallushu, who managed to capture Ashur-nadin-shumi and Babylon in 694. Khallushu was in turn assassinated by Kutir-Nakhkhunte, who succeeded him, but soon abdicated in favor of Khumma-Menanu III (692–89). Khumma-Menanu recruited a new army to help the Babylonians against the Assyrians at the battle of Halule in 691 BC. The Battle of Halule took place in 691 BC between the Assyrian empire and the rebelling forces of the Babylonians, Chaldeans, and The battle was indecisive, or at least both sides claimed the victory in their annals, but Babylon was destroyed by Sennacherib only two years later.
The reigns of Khumma-Khaldash I (688–81) and Khumma-Khaldash II (680–75) saw a deterioration of Elamite-Babylonian relations, and both of them raided Sippar. Sippar ( Sumerian Zimbir "bird city" modern Tell Abu Habbah, Iraq) was an ancient Sumerian and later Babylonian At the beginning of Esarhaddon's reign in Assyria (681-669), Nabu-zer-kitti-lišir, an ethnically Elamite governor in the south of Babylonia, revolted and besieged Ur, but fled to Elam where "the king of Elam took him prisoner and put him to the sword" (ABC 1 Col. Esarhaddon (Greek and Biblical form Akkadian Aššur-ahhe-iddina " Ashur has given a brother to me" was a king of Assyria who reigned 3:39-42).
Urtaku (674–64) for some time maintained good relations with Assurbanipal (668–27), who sent wheat to Susiana during a famine. Urtaku was an Elamite king who reigned from 676 - 664 BCE Under his reign relations between Elam and Babylonia became weaker and after his death during an attack Ashurbanipal ( Akkadian: Aššur-bāni-apli, " Ashur has made a son" or "Ashur created an heir" (b But these friendly relations were only temporary, and Urtaku died during another Elamite attack on Mesopotamia.
His successor Tempti-Khumma-In-Shushinak (664–53) was counter-attacked by Assurbanipal, and was killed following the battle of the Ulaï in 653 BC; and Susan was occupied by the Assyrians. In this same year the Mede state to the north fell to the Scythians under Madius, immediately displacing the Parsu tribe to Anshan — which their king Teispes captured that same year, turning it for the first time into an Indo-Iranian kingdom that would a century later become the nucleus of the Achaemenid dynasty. The Medes were an ancient Iranian people who lived in the northwestern portions of present-day Iran. The Scythians or Scyths (Σκύθες Σκύθοι were an Iranian speaking people of horse-riding Nomadic pastoralists who dominated the Pontic Madius or Madya was a Scythian king He conquered and ruled the Median Empire from c Teispes (𐎨𐎡𐏁𐎱𐎡𐏁 Cišpiš; Greek; died 640 BC was the son of Achaemenes and a King of Persia. The Achaemenid Empire or Achaemenid Persian Empire ( haχɒmaneʃijɒn (558–330 BC was the first of the Persian Empires to rule over significant portions of
During a brief respite provided by the civil war between Assurbanipal and his brother Shamash-shum-ukin, the Elamites too indulged in fighting among themselves, so weakening the Elamite kingdom that in 646 BC Assurbanipal devastated Susiana with ease, and sacked Susa. A succession of brief reigns continued in Elam from 651 to 640, each of them ended either due to usurpation, or because of capture of their king by the Assyrians. In this manner, the last Elamite king, Khumma-Khaldash III, was captured in 640 BC by Ashurbanipal, who devastated the country.
In a tablet unearthed in 1854 by Henry Austin Layard, Ashurbanipal boasts of the destruction he had wrought:
|“||Susa, the great holy city, abode of their Gods, seat of their mysteries, I conquered. I entered its palaces, I opened their treasuries where silver and gold, goods and wealth were amassed. . . I destroyed the ziggurat of Susa. Chogha Zanbil (چُغازَنبیل is an ancient Elamite complex in the Khuzestan province of Iran. I smashed its shining copper horns. I reduced the temples of Elam to naught; their gods and goddesses I scattered to the winds. The tombs of their ancient and recent kings I devastated, I exposed to the sun, and I carried away their bones toward the land of Ashur. I devastated the provinces of Elam and on their lands I sowed salt. Not to be confused with Salt of the earth. Salting the earth refers to the practice of spreading salt on fields to make them incapable ||”|
The devastation was however less complete than Assurbanipal boasted, and Elamite rule was resurrected soon after with Shuttir-Nakhkhunte, son of III (not to be confused with Shuttir-Nakhkhunte, son of Indada, a petty king in the first half of the 6th century). Elamite royalty in the final century preceding the Achaemenids was fragmented among different small kingdoms. The three kings at the close of the 7th century (Shuttir-Nakhkhunte, Khallutush-In-Shushinak and Atta-Khumma-In-Shushinak ) still called themselves "king of Anzan and of Susa" or "enlarger of the kingdom of Anzan and of Susa", at a time when the Achaemenids were already ruling Anshan. Their successors Khumma-Menanu and Shilhak-In-Shushinak II bore the simple title "king," and the final king Tempti-Khumma-In-Shushinak boasted no title altogether. In 539 BC, Achaemenid rule begins in Susa. The Achaemenid Empire or Achaemenid Persian Empire ( haχɒmaneʃijɒn (558–330 BC was the first of the Persian Empires to rule over significant portions of
Under Parthian period, a kingdom of Elymais existed which survived until its extinction by Sassanid invasion in the early third century AD. Elymais or Elamais, (Graecized form of the more ancient name Elam. It was located in the heartland of ancient Elam. Most of Elymais were probably descendants of the ancient Elamites .
In terms of religion, the Elamites practised idolatry and polytheism. Jiroft is a city in Kerman province, Iran. It is located 230-kilometres south of the city of Kerman, and 1375-kilometres south of Tehran Idolatry is usually defined as Worship of any Cult image, Idea, or object, as opposed to the worship of a monotheistic God. Polytheism is belief in or worship of multiple Gods (usually assembled in a pantheon) together with associated Mythology and Rituals One of the most important figures in their early pantheon was a goddess named Kiririsha, a name with cognates found in the belief systems of other peoples throughout the region. A goddess is a Female Deity. Many Cultures have goddesses Often deities are part of a polytheistic system that includes several deities Kiririsha (or Kirisha) at one stage became the most important goddess of Elam, ranked second only to her husband the god Humban.
Elamite is unrelated to the neighboring Semitic, Sumerian and Indo-European languages. Elamite is an Extinct language, which was spoken by the ancient Elamites. Istakhri map 2jpg|thumb|right|Regional map showing the word Khuzestan, underlined in red from the 9th century text Al-aqalim by the great geographer Istakhri. The Semitic languages are a Language family whose living representatives are spoken by more than 467 million people across much of the Middle East, Sumerian ( " native tongue " was the language of ancient Sumer, spoken in Southern Mesopotamia since at least the 4th millennium BC The Iranian languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family and its subfamily Indo-Iranian. It was written in a cuneiform adapted from Akkadian script, although the very earliest documents were written in the quite different "Linear Elamite" script. Linear Elamite is a Bronze Age writing system used in Elam, known from a few monumental inscriptions only In 2006, two even older inscriptions in a similar script were discovered at Jiroft to the east, leading archaeologists to speculate that Linear Elamite had spread from there to Susa. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. It seems to have developed from an even earlier writing known as "proto-Elamite", but scholars are not unanimous on whether or not this script was used to write Elamite or another language, and it has not yet been deciphered. The Proto-Elamite period is the time of ca 3200 BC to 2700 BC when Susa, the later capital of the Elamites began to receive influence from the
Some linguists believe Elamite may be related to the living Dravidian languages (of southern India, and Brahui in Pakistan). The Dravidian family of languages includes approximately 73 languages (including the four literary languages of Tamil, Telugu, Kannada The hypothesized family of Elamo-Dravidian languages may further prove to be connected with the Indus Valley Civilization somewhat to the East, possibly corresponding to Meluhha in Sumerian records. The Elamo-Dravidian languages are a hypothesised Language family which includes the living Dravidian languages of India, and Pakistan, in addition The Indus Valley Civilization (Mature period 2600&ndash1900 BCE abbreviated IVC, was an ancient Civilization that flourished in the Indus River basin Meluhha refers to one of ancient Sumer 's prominent trading partners but precisely which one remains an open question However, such links are at best conjectural, and Harappan pictographs have also yet to be deciphered. The term Indus script (Harappan script refers to short strings of symbols associated with the Harappan civilization ( Indus Valley
Several stages of the language are attested; the earliest date back to the third millennium BC, the latest to the Achaemenid Empire. The Achaemenid Empire or Achaemenid Persian Empire ( haχɒmaneʃijɒn (558–330 BC was the first of the Persian Empires to rule over significant portions of
The Elamite language may have survived as late as the early Islamic period. Ibn al-Nadim among other Arab medieval historians, for instance, wrote that "The Iranian languages are Fahlavi (Pahlavi), Dari, Khuzi, Persian and Suryani", and Ibn Moqaffa noted that Khuzi was the unofficial language of the royalty of Persia, "Khuz" being the corrupted name for Elam. Abu'l-Faraj Muhammad bin Ishaq al-Nadim ( Arabic: ابو الفرج محمد بن إسحاق النديم whose father was known as al-Warraq (Arabic الورّاق Istakhri map 2jpg|thumb|right|Regional map showing the word Khuzestan, underlined in red from the 9th century text Al-aqalim by the great geographer Istakhri. Abdullah Ibn Dhadawayh ( Persian: عبدالله ابن دادویه) also known as Rouzbeh pur-e Dādvayh ( Persian: روزبه پور دادوَيه
The Assyrians boasted that they had utterly destroyed the Elamites, but new polities emerged in the area after Assyrian power faded. Early history The most Neolithic site in Assyria is at Tell Hassuna, the center of the Hassuna culture However, they never again exercised the power of the earlier Elamite empires; they controlled the watershed of the Karun and little beyond. The Karūn (also spelled as Karoun is Iran 's most effluent and the only navigable River. Among the nations that benefited from the decline of the Assyrians were the Persians, whose presence around Lake Urmia to the north of Elam is attested from the 9th century BC in Assyrian texts. layout and formatting it should ensure no clashes with the top of the infobox Lake Urmia ( Daryacheh-ye Orumieh; ارومیه گولو, ارومیه گولی ancient name Lake Matiene) is a Salt lake in northwestern Iran The 9th century BC started the first day of 900 BC and ended the last day of 801 BC Some time after that region fell to Madius the Scythian (653 BC), Teispes son of Achaemenes conquered Elamite Anshan in the mid 7th century BC, forming a nucleus that would expand into the Persian Empire. Teispes (𐎨𐎡𐏁𐎱𐎡𐏁 Cišpiš; Greek; died 640 BC was the son of Achaemenes and a King of Persia. This article is about Achaemenes, legendary founder of the first Persian dynasty Anshan ( Persian: انشان Anšan, modern Tall-i Malyan or Tepe Malyan, Iran) a site on the Iranian plateau The 7th century BC started the first day of 700 BC and ended the last day of 601 BC. The Persian Empire was a series of Iranian empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the original Persian homeland and beyond in Western Asia
The rise of the Achaemenids in the 6th century BC brought an end to the existence of Elam as an independent political power "but not as a cultural entity" (Encyclopedia Iranica, Columbia University). The Achaemenid Empire or Achaemenid Persian Empire ( haχɒmaneʃijɒn (558–330 BC was the first of the Persian Empires to rule over significant portions of The 6th century BC started the first day of 600 BC and ended the last day of 501 BC. Columbia University is a private University in the United States and a member of the Ivy League. Indigenous Elamite traditions, such as the use of the title "king of Anshan" by Cyrus the Great; the "Elamite robe" worn by Cambyses I of Anshan and seen on the famous winged genii at Pasargadae; some glyptic styles; the use of Elamite as the first of three official languages of the empire used in thousands of administrative texts found at Darius’ city of Persepolis; the continued worship of Elamite deities; and the persistence of Elamite religious personnel and cults supported by the crown, formed an essential part of the newly emerging Achaemenid culture in Persian Iran. Cambyses I Old Persian Kambūjiya 'the Elder' (c 600 BC&ndash559 BC was King of Anshan from c Pasargadae (پاسارگاد was a city in ancient Persia, and is today an Archaeological site and one of only five of Iran's UNESCO World Heritage Persepolis ( Old Persian: Pārsa, Modern Persian: تخت جمشید/پارسه Takht-e Jamshid or Chehel Minar) was the ceremonial The Elamites thus became the conduit by which achievements of the Mesopotamian civilizations were introduced to the tribes of the Iranian plateau.
According to the editors of Persians, Masters of Empire: "The Elamites, fierce rivals of the Babylonians, were precursors of the royal Persians" (ISBN 0-8094-9104-4). This view is widely accepted today, as experts unanimously recognize the Elamites to have "absorbed Iranian influences in both structure and vocabulary" by 500 BC. (Encyclopedia Iranica, Columbia University)
The Elamite civilization's originality, coupled with studies carried out at Elamite sites well spread out over the Iranian plateau, have led modern historians to conclude that "The Elamites are the founders of the first Iranian empire in the geographic sense". Encyclopædia Iranica is a project whose goal is to create a comprehensive and authoritative English language Encyclopedia about the history culture and Columbia University is a private University in the United States and a member of the Ivy League. The Iranian Plateau, also known as the Persian plateau is a Geological formation in Southwest Asia, Southern 
Most experts go even further and establish a clear chain of cultural continuity between the Elamites and later dynasties of Iran. Elamologist DT Potts verifies this in writing, "There is much evidence, both archaeological and literary/epigraphic, to suggest that the rise of the Persian empire witnessed the fusion of Elamite and Persian elements already present in highland Fars". 
Thus, not only was "Elam absorbed into the new empire" (Encyclopedia Iranica, Columbia University), becoming part of the millennia old imperial heritage of Iran, but the Elamite civilization is now recognized to be "the earliest civilization of Persia", in the words of Sir Percy Sykes. Columbia University is a private University in the United States and a member of the Ivy League. Brigadier-General Sir Percy Molesworth Sykes KCIE, CB, CMG ( 28 February 1867 - 11 June 1945) was a soldier diplomat 
Traditional histories have ended Elamite history with its submergence in the Achaemenids, but Greek and Latin references to "Elymais" attest to cultural survival, according to Daniel Potts. Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. Elymais or Elamais, (Graecized form of the more ancient name Elam. "Elamite" is mentioned in Acts 2:8 in the New Testament as one of the languages heard at the Pentecost, and the traditional name "Elam" appears as late as 1300 in the records of the Nestorian Christians. The Acts of the Apostles is a book of the Bible, which now stands fifth in the New Testament. Pentecost (πεντηκοστή, pentekostē, "the fiftieth day" is one of the prominent feasts in the Christian Liturgical year, celebrated the Nestorius Nestorius (c  386 &ndashc  451) was a pupil of Theodore of Mopsuestia in Antioch in Syria (modern Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings
In a 2001 talk, Basello Gian Pietro (Istituto Universitario Orientale, Naples) stated:
While even today the languages play a basic role in our schematisation and teaching of the past, this stepchild shows us how frail the boundaries of our academic subjects are. Historiography is the study of how history is written One pervasive influence upon the writing of history has been Nationalism, a set of beliefs about While ancient Elamites fought against Assyrians and rebelled against Persians, Elamite studies are strictly bound to Assyriology and Iranian studies. As ancient Elam stood and represented a meeting place between Mesopotamian lowland and Iranian highland, so Elamite studies need to grab and grasp data both from Assyriology and Iranian studies and through many fields of work.
Unfortunately, missing an independent academic subject, we have little specific teaching of Elamite studies. As we employ a foreign designation in referring to ancient Anšan and Susiana, Elamite scholars are often Assyriologists, Iranists or Linguists in their academic background, i. e. they have approached Elam later and from an external point of view. 
As opposed to the typical view that Elam is of interest only for its contributions to Iranian or Assyrian culture, or for its unique language, some scholars feel that Elam should be studied in its own right, and not annexed to another cultural tradition.