Egyptology (Arabic: علم المصريات) is a major field of archaeology, the study of Ancient Egyptian history, language, literature, religion, and art from the 5th millennium BC until the end of its native religious practices in the AD 4th century. Archaeology, archeology, or archæology (from Greek grc ἀρχαιολογία archaiologia – grc ἀρχαῖος archaīos Ancient Egypt was an Ancient Civilization in eastern North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in what is now The history of Egypt is the longest continuous history as a unified state of any country in the world Egyptian is an Afro-Asiatic language most closely related to the Berber, Semitic, Somali and Beja languages Ancient Egyptian literature comprises texts written in the Egyptian language during the pharaonic period of Egypt. Ancient Egyptian religion encompasses the various religious beliefs and rituals practiced in Ancient Egypt from the predynastic period until the adoption of Christianity Ancient Egyptian art refers to the style of painting sculpture crafts and architecture developed by the Civilization in the lower Nile Valley from 5000 A practitioner of the discipline is an Egyptologist. This is a partial list of Egyptologists. An Egyptologist is any Archaeologist, Historian, linguist, or Art historian who specializes in
The first Egyptologists were the ancient Egyptians themselves. Thutmosis IV, when only Prince Thutmosis, restored the Sphinx and had the dream that inspired his restoration carved on the famous Dream Stela. Less than two centuries later, Prince Khaemweset, fourth son of Ramesses II, is famed for identifying and restoring historic buildings, tombs and temples including the pyramid of Unas at Saqqara. Prince Khaemweset (also translated as Khamwese, Khaemwese or Khaemwaset) was the fourth son of Ramesses II, and the second son by his queen Unas (also Wenis, Oenas, Unis, or Ounas) was a Pharaoh of Ancient Egypt, and one of the rulers of the Old Kingdom Saqqara or Sakkara, Saqqarah ( Arabic: سقارة is a vast ancient burial ground in Egypt, featuring the world's oldest standing Step
Some of the first historical accounts of Egypt were given by Herodotus, Strabo, Diodorus Siculus and the largely lost work of Manetho, an Egyptian priest, during the reign of Ptolemy I and Ptolemy II in the 3rd century BC. Herodotus of Halicarnassus ( Greek: Hēródotos Halikarnāsseús) was a Greek Historian who lived in the 5th century BC ( 484 BC&ndash Strabo ( Greek: Στράβων 63/64 BC – ca AD 24 was a Greek historian, geographer and philosopher. Manetho (or Manethon) was an Egyptian Historian and Priest from Sebennytos ( Ancient Egyptian: Tjebnutjer) who This article is about the contemporary North African ethnic group For the astronomer see Ptolemy; for others named "Ptolemy" or "Ptolemaeus" see Ptolemy (disambiguation. Ptolemy II Philadelphus ( Greek:, Ptolemaĩos Philádelphos, 309 BC&ndash246 BC was the king of Ptolemaic Egypt from 283 BC to 246 BC
Progress was made by Muslim historians in Egypt and elsewhere from the 9th century AD. The Historiography of early Islam refers to the study of the early origins of Islam based on a critical analysis evaluation and examination of authentic Primary This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. The first known attempts at deciphering Egyptian hieroglyphs were made by Dhul-Nun al-Misri and Ibn Wahshiyya in the 9th century, who were able to at least partly understand what was written in the ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs, by relating them to the contemporary Coptic language used by Coptic priests in their time. Egyptian hieroglyphs (ˈhaɪərəʊɡlɪf from Greek grc-Grek ἱερογλύφος " sacred carving " also hieroglyphic = grc-Grek Dhul-Nun al-Misri (ذو النون المصري born in 796 in Akhmim, Upper Egypt - 859) was an Egyptian Sufi saint Ibn Wahshiyah (fl 9th century / 10th century) ( أبو بكر أحمد بن وحشية Abu Bakr Ahmed ibn 'Ali ibn Qays al-Wahshiyah al-Kasdani Coptic or Coptic Egyptian ( MetRemenkīmi) is the final stage of the Egyptian language, a northern Afro-Asiatic language spoken in Egypt A Copt ( Coptic: ouRemenkīmi enEkhristianos, literally Egyptian Christian) is a native Egyptian Christian. Abdul Latif al-Baghdadi, a teacher at Cairo's Al-Azhar University in the 13th century, wrote detailed descriptions on ancient Egyptian monuments. Abd-al-latif, Abd-el-latif or Abd-ul-Latif (1162 &ndash 1231 also known as al-Baghdadi ( Arabic, عبداللطيف البغدادي Cairo () which means "the Vanquisher" or "the Triumphant" is the capital and largest city of Egypt. Al-Azhar University (pronounced "az-HAR" الأزهر الشريف, "the Noble Azhar" in Egypt, founded in 975 is the chief centre of The Nile valley has been the site of one of the most influential Civilizations which developed a vast array of diverse structures encompassing Ancient Egyptian  Similarly, the 15th-century Egyptian historian al-Maqrizi wrote detailed accounts of Egyptian antiquities. Taqi al-Din Ahmad ibn 'Ali ibn 'Abd al-Qadir ibn Muhammad al-Maqrizi (1364 &ndash 1442 Arabic: ar تقى الدين أحمد بن على بن عبد القادر بن محمد
European exploration and travel writings of ancient Egypt commenced from the 13th century onward, with only occasional detours into a more scientific approach, notably by John Greaves, Claude Sicard, Benoît de Maillet, Frederic Louis Norden and Richard Pococke. John Greaves ( 1602 - October 8, 1652) English Mathematician and antiquary, the eldest son of John Greaves rector Father Claude Sicard (1677 &ndash 1726 was a French Jesuit priest and an early modern visitor to Egypt, between 1708 and 1712 producing the earliest Benoît de Maillet ( April 12 1656 in Saint-Mihiel - January 30 1738 in Marseille) was a French anthropologist Frederic Louis Norden ( October 22, 1708 &ndash September 22, 1742) was a Danish naval captain and explorer Richard Pococke ( 19 November 1704 - 25 September 1765) was an English Prelate and anthropologist. In the early 16th century, the Jesuit scientist-priest Athanasius Kircher was the first to identify the phonetic importance of Egyptian hieroglyphs, and he demonstrated Coptic as a vestige of early Egyptian, for which he is considered the "founder" of Egyptology. The Society of Jesus ( Latin: Societas Iesu, SJ and SI or SJ, SI) is a Catholic religious order Athanasius Kircher (sometimes erroneously spelled Kirchner) was a 17th century German Jesuit Scholar who published around 40 works most Coptic or Coptic Egyptian ( MetRemenkīmi) is the final stage of the Egyptian language, a northern Afro-Asiatic language spoken in Egypt Egyptian is an Afro-Asiatic language most closely related to the Berber, Semitic, Somali and Beja languages  In the late 18th century, with Napoleon's scholars' recording of Egyptian flora, fauna and history (published as Description de l'Egypte), the study of many aspects of ancient Egypt became more scientifically oriented. The British captured Egypt from the French and gained the Rosetta Stone. The Rosetta Stone is an Ancient Egyptian artifact (حجر رشيد in Arabic which was instrumental in advancing modern understanding of hieroglyphic writing Modern Egyptology is generally perceived as beginning about 1822.
Jean François Champollion and Ippolito Rosellini were some of the first Egyptologists of wide acclaim. Jean-François Champollion ( 23 December 1790 – 4 March 1832) was a French classical scholar, philologist Ippolito Rosellini ( August 13 1800 &ndash June 4 1843) was an Italian Egyptologist born at Pisa. The German Karl Richard Lepsius was an early participant in the investigations of Egypt; mapping, excavating, and recording several sites. Karl (or Carl) Richard Lepsius ( December 23, 1810 &ndash July 10, 1884) was a pioneering Prussian Champollion announced his general decipherment of the system of Egyptian hieroglyphics for the first time, employing the Rosetta Stone as his primary aid. Egyptian hieroglyphs (ˈhaɪərəʊɡlɪf from Greek grc-Grek ἱερογλύφος " sacred carving " also hieroglyphic = grc-Grek The Stone's decipherment was a very important development of Egyptology. With subsequently ever-increasing knowledge of Egyptian writing and language, the study of Ancient Egyptian civilisation was able to proceed with greater academic rigour and with all the added impetus that comprehension of the written sources was able to engender. Ancient Egypt was an Ancient Civilization in eastern North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in what is now Egyptology became more professional via work of William Matthew Flinders Petrie, among others. Professor Sir William Matthew Flinders Petrie FRS ( 3 June 1853 &ndash 28 July 1942) known as Flinders Petrie, was an Petrie introduced techniques of field preservation, recording, and excavating. Howard Carter expedition brought much acclaim to the field of Egyptology. Howard Carter may refer to Howard Carter (archaeologist, discovered Tutankhamun's tomb Howard O'Neal Carter, retired basketball player
Around 1830, Rifa'a el-Tahtawi was one of the first main scholars of Egyptian Egyptology. Rifa'a el-Tahtawi (also spelled Tahtawy; Arabic: رفاعة الطهطاوي born in Tahta, Egypt 1801 died in 1873 was an Egyptian He was inspired by the work of Muslim Egyptologists in medieval Egypt, though modern Egyptian Egyptology developed slowly compared to its Western scholars, primarily because of Islamic identity. Islamic and modern Egyptian civilization has been influenced by the pre-Islamic Egyptian culture with which Egyptology is concerned.
In the Modern era, the Supreme Council for Antiquities control excavation permits for Egyptologists to conduct their work. The Supreme Council of Antiquities (commonly abbreviated SCA is part of the Egyptian Ministry of Culture and is responsible for the conservation protection and regulation The field can now use geophysical methods and other applications of modern sensing techniques to further Egyptology. Geophysics, a major discipline of Earth sciences, is the study of the Earth by quantitative physical methods especially by seismic, electromagnetic The Egyptian languages (such as Hieratics and Coptic) and the Egyptian writing systems are still of importance in Egyptology. Egyptian is an Afro-Asiatic language most closely related to the Berber, Semitic, Somali and Beja languages Hieratic is a Cursive writing system used in pharaonic Egypt that developed alongside the hieroglyphic system to which it is intimately Coptic or Coptic Egyptian ( MetRemenkīmi) is the final stage of the Egyptian language, a northern Afro-Asiatic language spoken in Egypt Egyptian hieroglyphs (ˈhaɪərəʊɡlɪf from Greek grc-Grek ἱερογλύφος " sacred carving " also hieroglyphic = grc-Grek
Egyptology has attracted various pseudoscientific theories of which most are widely discounted by many Egyptologists. Pseudoscience is defined as a body of knowledge methodology belief or practice that is claimed to be Scientific or made to appear scientific but does not adhere to the This includes esoteric, or extraterrestrial, subjects which are considered pseudohistorical overall; few in Egyptology entertain views of the "New Age", ufology, occultism, "secret societies", or Atlantis ideas. Pseudohistory is a term applied to texts which purport to be historical in nature but which depart from standard historiographical conventions in a way which undermines New Age ( New Age Movement and New Age Spirituality) is a Social Collective Phenomenon and a Spiritual Nature Ufology is a Neologism coined to describe the collective efforts of those who study Unidentified flying object reports and associated evidence The word occult comes from the Latin word occultus (clandestine hidden secret referring to "knowledge of the hidden" Secret society is a term used to describe a variety of organizations Atlantis (in Greek,, "island of Atlas " is the name of a Legendary Island, first mentioned in Plato 's dialogues
There are many open problems concerning Ancient Egypt, and some of them may never be solved. Egyptian archaeology is in a state of constant transition, with much of the terminology and chronology in dispute. Definition A chronology may be either relative &mdashthat is locating related events relative to each other&mdashor ''absolute'' &mdashlocating All archaeological record are incomplete, with countless relics and artifacts missing or destroyed. The archaeological record is a term used in Archaeology to denote all archaeological evidence, including the physical remains of past human activities which Archaeologists New archaeological discoveries can call into question previous conclusions about Ancient Egypt. Furthermore, there are internal problems of overall cohesion of various dynasties and there are problems reconciling the Egyptian civilization with other concurrent civilizations.
Ancient Egypt appeared as a unified state no earlier than 3300 BC. The creation of a reliable Chronology of Ancient Egypt is a task fraught with problems For a general discussion see Egyptian chronology. For a similar list see List of Pharaohs. Pharaoh is the title given in modern parlance to the ancient Egyptian kings of all periods Egyptian hieroglyphs (ˈhaɪərəʊɡlɪf from Greek grc-Grek ἱερογλύφος " sacred carving " also hieroglyphic = grc-Grek Ancient Egypt was an Ancient Civilization in eastern North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in what is now It survived as an independent state until about 300 BC. Archaeological evidence suggests that a developed Egyptian society may have existed for much longer. The creation of a reliable Chronology of Ancient Egypt is a task fraught with problems. The creation of a reliable Chronology of Ancient Egypt is a task fraught with problems There is a "Conventional Egyptian chronology" that has a general consensus. For a general discussion see Egyptian chronology. For a similar list see List of Pharaohs. While the overwhelming majority of Egyptologists agree on the outline and many of the details of a common chronology, disagreements either individually or in groups have resulted in a variety of dates offered for rulers and events. This variation begins with only a few years in the Late Period, gradually growing to a decade at the beginning of the New Kingdom, and eventually to as much as a century by the start of the Old Kingdom. The reader is advised to include this factor of uncertainty with any date offered either in Wikipedia or any history of Ancient Egypt.
Many Egyptian temples are still standing today. The Egyptian pyramids are pyramid shaped structures located in Egypt, and were built as a tomb for dead pharaohs There have been many hypotheses about the Egyptian pyramid construction techniques. Some are in ruin from wear and tear, while others have been lost entirely. The Egyptian structures are among the largest man-made constructions ever conceived. They constitute one of the most potent and enduring symbols of Ancient Egyptian civilization.
Mummification of the dead was not always practised in Egypt. A mummy is a Corpse whose Skin and Flesh have been preserved by either intentional or Incidental exposure to Chemicals extreme Once the practice began, an individual was placed at his or her final resting place through a set of rituals and protocol. The Egyptian funeral was a complex ceremony including various monuments, prayers, and rituals undertaken in the deads' honor. The poor, who could not afford expensive tombs, were buried in shallow graves in the sand; because of the arid environment they were often naturally mummified.