|King Edward VII, after whom the Edwardian period is named. |
|Preceded by||Victorian era|
|Followed by||Britain in World War I|
The Edwardian period or Edwardian era in the United Kingdom is the period covering the reign of King Edward VII, 1901 to 1910. Culture The Victorian fascination with novelty resulted in a deep interest in the relationship between modernity and cultural continuities Zeppelins German Zeppelins bombed towns on the East Coast in January 1915 The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located
The death of Queen Victoria, Empress of India in January 1901 and the succession of her son, Edward, marked the start of a new century and the end of the Victorian period. Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901 was from 20 June 1837 the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Emperor/Empress of India ( Badishah -e-Hind in Hindustani) was used as a Title by the last Mughal emperor Bahadur Culture The Victorian fascination with novelty resulted in a deep interest in the relationship between modernity and cultural continuities While Victoria had shunned society, Edward was the leader of a fashionable elite which set a style influenced by the art and fashions of continental Europe—perhaps because of the King's fondness for travel. The era was marked by significant shifts in politics as sections of society which had been largely excluded from wielding power in the past, such as common labourers and women, became increasingly politicised. 
The period is often extended beyond Edward's death in 1910 to include the years up to the sinking of the RMS Titanic in 1912, the start of World War I in 1914, or even the end of the war in 1918. Construction The Titanic was a White Star Line ocean liner built at the Harland and Wolff shipyard in Belfast, Ireland World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All The war sealed the end of the period as the Edwardian way of life, with its inherent imbalance of wealth and power, became increasingly anachronistic in the eyes of a population suffering in the face of war, and exposed to mass propaganda decrying the injustice of class division.
Socially, the Edwardian era was a period during which the British class system was very rigid. Social class refers to the hierarchical distinctions (or stratification) between individuals or groups in Societies or Cultures. However, economic and social changes also created an environment in which there was more social mobility than previously. Such changes included rising interest in socialism, attention to the plight of the poor and the status of women, including the issue of women's suffrage, together with increased economic opportunities as a result of rapid industrialization. Socialism refers to a broad set of economic theories of social organization advocating state or collective ownership and administration of the Means of production and distribution These changes were to be hastened in the aftermath of the first World War.
The lower classes, as with earlier periods, were segregated from the aristocratic and mercantile "society", and led lives far removed from the relative luxury enjoyed by the other classes.
The upper classes embraced leisure sports, which led to rapid developments in fashion, as more mobile and flexible clothing styles were needed. Fashion in the period throughout the years 1900-1909 in European and European-influenced and American women with the countries continued the period as do women's broad hats and full " Is a concept in Sociology that refers to the group of people at the top of a Social hierarchy. Leisure or free time, is a period of Time spent out of work and essential domestic Activity. Sport is an Activity that is governed by a set of rules or Customs and often engaged in competitively Fashion refers to styles of dress (but can also include cuisine literature art architecture and general comportment that are popular in a culture at any given time Clothing (also called clothes, accoutrements, accouterments, or habiliments) protects the Human body from extreme Weather The corset was modified, and later its everyday wearing was gradually abandoned. A corset is a Garment worn to mold and shape the Torso into a desired shape for Aesthetic or medical purposes (either for the duration of wearing it or
The Edwardian period was also known as the Belle Époque—meaning beautiful era. The Belle Époque (bɛːl e'pɔk French for "Beautiful Era" was a period in European history that began during the late 19th century and lasted until Despite its short pre-eminence, the period is characterized by its own unique architectural style, fashion, and way of life. Art Nouveau held a particularly strong influence. Art Nouveau ( nu vo anglicised /ˈɑːt nuːvəu/ ( French for 'new art' also known as Jugendstil ( German for 'youth style' is an international
In fiction, some of the best-known names are H.G. Wells, John Galsworthy, Arnold Bennett, Joseph Conrad, E.M. Forster, Kenneth Grahame and P.G. Wodehouse. Herbert George Wells (21 September 1866 &ndash 13 August 1946 He was an outspoken socialist and a pacifist, his later works becoming increasingly political John Galsworthy OM (ˈgɔːlzwɝːðɪ ( 14 August, 1867 — 31 January, 1933) was an English Novelist and Enoch Arnold Bennett ( 27 May 1867 - 27 March 1931) was an English Novelist. Joseph Conrad (born Józef Teodor Konrad Korzeniowski, 3 December 1857 – 3 August 1924 was a Polish-born English novelist Edward Morgan Forster OM, CH (1 January 1879–7 June 1970 was an English novelist Short story writer Essayist, and Librettist Kenneth Grahame ( March 8, 1859 – July 6, 1932) was a British Writer, most famous for The Wind in the Willows Sir Pelham Grenville Wodehouse, KBE (15 October 1881 – 14 February 1975 (ˈwʊdhaʊs was an English Comic novelist who enjoyed enormous popular success Apart from these famous writers, this was a period when an enormous number of novels and short stories were being published and consumed, and a significant distinction between highbrow literature and popular fiction was emerging. Used colloquially as a Noun or Adjective, highbrow is synonymous with Intellectual; as an adjective it also means Elite Literature is the Art of written works Literally translated the word means "acquaintance with letters" (from Latin littera letter Genre fiction is a term for fictional works ( Novels short stories) written with the intent of fitting into a specific Literary genre Among the most famous works of literary criticism was A.C. Bradley's Shakespearean Tragedy (1904). Andrew Cecil Bradley (1851–1935 was an English Literary Scholar, best remembered for his work on Shakespeare. Mass audience newspapers, controlled by press barons such as the Harmsworth brothers, Alfred Harmsworth, 1st Viscount Northcliffe and Harold Harmsworth, 1st Viscount Rothermere, became increasingly important. Alfred Charles William Harmsworth 1st Viscount Northcliffe ( 15 July[[ 865]] - 14 August[[ 922]] rose from childhood poverty to become a powerful British newspaper Harold Sidney Harmsworth 1st Viscount Rothermere ( 26 April 1868 – 26 November 1940) was a highly successful British Newspaper 
The available recordings of music, such as wax cylinders played on phonographs, were poor in quality. The phonograph, or gramophone, was the most common device for playing recorded Sound from the 1870s through the 1980s Live performances, both amateur and professional, were popular. Henry Wood, Edward Elgar, George Butterworth and Thomas Beecham were all active. Henry Wood is the name of Henry Wood (writer (1834–1908 New Thought writer and novelist Evelyn Wood (British Army officer (1838–1919 For George Butterworth Illustrator & Cartoonist see George Butterworth (Cartoonist. Sir Thomas Beecham 2nd Baronet, CH (29 April 1879 &ndash 8 March 1961 was a British conductor and Impresario. Military brass bands often played outside in parks during the summer. 
Film was in its infancy and audiences preferred live performances to picture shows. Music hall was very popular and widespread; influential performers included male impersonator Vesta Tilley and comic Little Tich. Music hall is a form of British theatrical Entertainment which was popular between 1850 and 1960 Matilda Alice Powles ( May 13, 1864 &ndash September 16, 1952) was an English male impersonator. Harry Relph, known on the stage as ' Little Tich', ( July 21, 1867 - February 10, 1928) was an English Music hall 
The theatre was marked by the rise of the New Drama, or plays by George Bernard Shaw, Harley Granville Barker, and Continental imports by Henrik Ibsen and Gerhardt Hauptmann. George Bernard Shaw ( (26 July 1856 &ndash 2 November 1950 was an Irish Playwright. Harley Granville-Barker ( November 25 1877 &ndash August 31 1946) was an English Actor, director, producer "Ibsen" redirects here For other people named Ibsen see Ibsen (disambiguation. Gerhart Hauptmann ( November 15, 1862 — June 6, 1946) was a German Dramatist who received the Nobel Prize in Literature The actor/manager system, as headed by Sir Henry Irving, Sir George Alexander, and Sir Herbert Beerbohm Tree, was in decline. Sir Henry Irving ( February 6 1838 &ndash October 13 1905) born John Henry Brodribb was an English stage actor in the Victorian era Sir George Alexander ( June 19, 1858 – March 15, 1918) born George Alexander Gibb Samson, was an English Actor Sir Herbert Beerbohm Tree ( 17 December 1852 – 2 July 1917) was an English Actor -manager
Notable architects included Edwin Lutyens, Charles Rennie Mackintosh and Giles Gilbert Scott. Sir Edwin Landseer Lutyens, OM, KCIE, PRA, FRIBA, LLD ( 29 March 1869 – 1 January 1944 Sir Giles Gilbert Scott, OM, FRIBA ( November 9 1880 – February 8 1960) was an English Architect
The turn of the century saw many great innovations. Continental Europeans, such as Max Planck, Albert Einstein, and Sigmund Freud were producing some of their greatest work. Albert Einstein ( German: ˈalbɐt ˈaɪ̯nʃtaɪ̯n; English: ˈælbɝt ˈaɪnstaɪn (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955 was a German -born theoretical Sigmund Freud (ˈziːkmʊnt ˈfʁɔʏt born Sigismund Shlomo Freud (May 6 1856 &ndash September 23 1939 was an Austrian Psychiatrist who founded The first Nobel prizes were awarded, and Ernest Rutherford published his book on radioactivity. The Nobel Prize (Nobelpriset (Nobelprisen is a Swedish prize established in the 1895 will of Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel; it was first awarded in Peace, Literature Ernest Rutherford 1st Baron Rutherford of Nelson, OM, PC, FRS (30 August 1871 – 19 October 1937 was a New Zealand Physicist Radioactive decay is the process in which an unstable Atomic nucleus loses energy by emitting ionizing particles and Radiation. The first transatlantic wireless signals were sent by Guglielmo Marconi, and the Wright brothers took their first flight. Marchese Guglielmo Marconi mar'koni (25 April 1874 – 20 July 1937 was an Italian inventor best known for his development of a Radiotelegraph system WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout
By the end of the era, Louis Blériot had crossed the English Channel by air, the largest ship in the world, RMS Olympic, had sailed on her maiden voyage, automobiles were common, and the South Pole was reached for the first time by Roald Amundsen's and then Robert Falcon Scott's teams. Louis Blériot ( July 1 1872 in Cambrai, France &ndash August 1 1936 in Paris, France) was a History J Bruce Ismay, the chairman of White Star Line, and William Pirrie, the chairman of Harland and Wolff Shipyard The South Pole, also known as the Geographic South Pole or Terrestrial South Pole, is the southernmost point on the surface of the Earth. Roald Engelbregt Gravning Amundsen (ˈɾuːɑl ˈɑmʉnsən ( July 16, 1872 – c
The 1908 Summer Olympics were held in London. The 1908 Summer Olympics, officially the Games of the IV Olympiad, were an International Multi-sport event which was held in 1908 in London London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. Popularity of sports tended to follow class divisions, with tennis and yachting popular amongst the very wealthy and soccer favoured by the poorest.
In the early years of the period, the Second Boer War in South Africa split the country into anti- and pro-War factions. See also First Boer War,, South African Wars (1879-1915 The Second Boer War ( Dutch: Tweede Boerenoorlog, Afrikaans: The Republic of South Africa (also known by other official names) is a country located at the southern tip of the continent of Africa Great orators, such as the liberal David Lloyd George who spoke against the war, became increasingly influential although pro-war politicians, such as conservative Joseph Chamberlain, held power. The Liberal Party was one of the two major British political parties from the early 19th century until the rise of the Labour Party in the 1920s and a third party David Lloyd George 1st Earl Lloyd George of Dwyfor OM, PC (17 January 1863 &ndash 26 March 1945 was a British Statesman and the only The Conservative Party (officially the Conservative and Unionist Party) is a Political party in the United Kingdom. Joseph Chamberlain ( 8 July 1836 &ndash 2 July 1914) was an influential British businessman politician and statesman The Imperial policies of the conservatives eventually proved unpopular and in the general election of 1906 the liberals won a huge landslide. The United Kingdom general election of 1906 was held from 12 January to 8 February 1906 The liberal government was unable to proceed with all of its radical programme without the support of the House of Lords, which was largely conservative. The House of Lords is the second house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom and is also commonly referred to as "the Lords" Conflict between the two Houses of Parliament over the People's Budget led to a reduction in the power of the peers in 1910. The 1909 (UK People's Budget was a product of Herbert Asquith 's Liberal government that introduced many unprecedented taxes on the wealthy and radical social welfare programmes The general election in January that year returned a hung parliament with the balance of power held by Labour and Irish nationalist members. The United Kingdom general election of January 1910 was held from 15 January to 10 February 1910. The Labour Party is a Political party in the United Kingdom. Founded at the start of the 20th century it has been since the 1920s the principal party of the The Nationalist Party was a term commonly used to describe a number of parliamentary political parties and constituency organisations supportive of Home Rule for Ireland from
The Edwardian period is often regarded as a romantic Golden Age of long summer afternoons, garden parties and big hats—this cultural perception was created by those that remembered the Edwardian age with nostalgia looking back to their childhood across the vast, dark, horrid abyss of the Great War. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All  Today, the immense and real chasm between the wealthy and the poor during the Edwardian era has led to more sober assessments, which seek to portray the age as heralding the great changes in political and social life that it presaged.