Edward Teller in 1958 as Director of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
|Born||15 January 1908|
|Died||September 9, 2003 (aged 95)|
|Institutions||University of Göttingen|
George Washington University
University of Chicago
|Alma mater||University of Karlsruhe|
University of Leipzig
|Doctoral advisor||Werner Heisenberg|
|Doctoral students||Chen Ning Yang|
|Known for||Jahn-Teller effect|
Edward Teller (original Hungarian name Teller Ede) (January 15, 1908 – September 9, 2003) was a Hungarian-born American theoretical physicist, known colloquially as "the father of the hydrogen bomb," even though he claimed that he did not care for the title. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory ( LLNL) in Livermore California is a scientific research laboratory founded by the University of California in 1952 Events 588 BC - Nebuchadrezzar II of Babylon lays siege to Jerusalem under Zedekiah 's reign Year 1908 ( MCMVIII) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year Budapest ( also /ˈbʊ-/) is the capital city of Hungary. As the largest city of Hungary it serves as the country's principal Political, Events 1000 - Battle of Svolder, Viking Age. 1379 - Treaty of Neuberg, splitting the Austrian Year 2003 ( MMIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. Stanford is a Census-designated place (CDP in Santa Clara County, California, United States. California ( is a US state on the West Coast of the United States, along the Pacific Ocean. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Hungary (Magyarország 'mɔɟɔrorsaːg) officially in English the Republic of Hungary ( Magyar Köztársaság, literally Magyar (Hungarian Republic The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The University of Göttingen ( German: Georg-August-Universität Göttingen) is a University in the city of Göttingen, Germany. The Niels Bohr Institute is part of the Niels Bohr Institute for Astronomy Physics and Geophysics of the University of Copenhagen. The George Washington University ( GW or GWU) is a private coeducational university located in Washington D The World War II Manhattan Project developed the first Nuclear weapon (atomic bomb The University of Chicago is a Private university located principally in the Hyde Park neighborhood of Chicago. The University of California Davis, commonly known as UC Davis, or just UCD, is a public coeducational university located in the city of Davis, The University of California Berkeley (also referred to as Cal, Berkeley and UC Berkeley) is a major research university located in Berkeley The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory ( LLNL) in Livermore California is a scientific research laboratory founded by the University of California in 1952 The Hoover Institution on War Revolution and Peace is a libertarian Public policy Think tank and Library founded in 1919 by U Alma mater is Latin for "nourishing mother" It was used in Ancient Rome as a title for the mother Goddess, and in Medieval The University of Karlsruhe, also known as Fridericiana, was founded in 1825 The University of Leipzig (Universität Leipzig located in Leipzig in the Free State of Saxony, Germany, is one of the oldest universities A doctorate is an Academic degree that indicates the highest level of academic achievement Werner Heisenberg (5 December 1901 in Würzburg &ndash1 February 1976 in Munich) was a German theoretical physicist best known for enunciating the Chen-Ning Franklin Yang ( (born October 1, 1922) is a Chinese -born American Physicist who worked on Statistical mechanics Lincoln Wolfenstein (born 1923 is an American particle Physicist who studies the Weak interaction. The Teller–Ulam design is a Nuclear weapon design which is used in Megaton -range Thermonuclear weapons and is more colloquially referred to as "the Events 588 BC - Nebuchadrezzar II of Babylon lays siege to Jerusalem under Zedekiah 's reign Year 1908 ( MCMVIII) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year Events 1000 - Battle of Svolder, Viking Age. 1379 - Treaty of Neuberg, splitting the Austrian Year 2003 ( MMIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. Hungary (Magyarország 'mɔɟɔrorsaːg) officially in English the Republic of Hungary ( Magyar Köztársaság, literally Magyar (Hungarian Republic The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Theoretical physics employs Mathematical models and Abstractions of Physics in an attempt to explain experimental data taken of the natural world A physicist is a Scientist who studies or practices Physics. Physicists study a wide range of physical phenomena in many branches of physics spanning The Teller–Ulam design is a Nuclear weapon design which is used in Megaton -range Thermonuclear weapons and is more colloquially referred to as "the 
Teller is best known for his work on the American nuclear program, specifically as a member of the Manhattan Project during World War II, his role in the development of the hydrogen bomb, and his long association with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (which he co-founded and served as a director). The World War II Manhattan Project developed the first Nuclear weapon (atomic bomb World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory ( LLNL) in Livermore California is a scientific research laboratory founded by the University of California in 1952 He invited contention in the 1950s by his controversial testimony in the security clearance hearing of his former Los Alamos colleague Robert Oppenheimer, and thus became ostracized by much of the scientific community. For use by the United Nations, see Security Clearance (UN A security clearance is a status granted to individuals allowing them access to Classified Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL (previously known at various times as Site Y, Los Alamos Laboratory, and Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory) is a He continued to find support from the U. S. government and military research establishment, particularly for his advocacy for nuclear energy development, a strong nuclear arsenal, and a vigorous nuclear testing program. Nuclear Energy is released by the splitting (fission or merging together (fusion of the nuclei of Atom (s Nuclear weapons tests are experiments carried out to determine the effectiveness yield and explosive capability of Nuclear weapons Throughout the twentieth century most nations
In his later years he became especially known for his advocacy of controversial technological solutions to both military and civilian problems, including a plan to excavate an artificial harbor in Alaska using thermonuclear explosives. In Physics and Nuclear chemistry, nuclear fusion is the process by which multiple- like charged atomic nuclei join together to form a heavier nucleus He was a vigorous advocate of Ronald Reagan's Strategic Defense Initiative, perhaps overselling the feasibility of the program. The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI was a proposal by US President Ronald Reagan on March 23, 1983 to use ground and space-based systems to protect Over the course of his life, Teller was known both for his scientific ability and his difficult interpersonal relations and volatile personality, and is considered one of the inspirations for the character Dr. Strangelove in the 1964 movie of the same name.
Teller was born in Budapest, Austria-Hungary to a Jewish family. Budapest ( also /ˈbʊ-/) is the capital city of Hungary. As the largest city of Hungary it serves as the country's principal Political, PLEASE TAKE NOTE************ He left Hungary in 1926. The political climate and revolutions in Hungary during his youth instilled a lingering animosity for both Communism and Fascism in Teller. This article is about the history of Hungary from March 1919 to November 1940 Communism is a Socioeconomic structure that promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless, stateless Society based Fascism is a totalitarian nationalist and corporatist ideology  When he was a young student, his leg was severed in a streetcar accident in Munich, requiring him to wear a prosthetic foot and leaving him with a life-long limp. In Medicine, a prosthesis (plural prostheses) is an Artificial extension that replaces a missing Body part. Teller graduated in chemical engineering at the University of Karlsruhe and received his Ph. Chemical engineering is the branch of Engineering that deals with the application of Physical science (e The University of Karlsruhe, also known as Fridericiana, was founded in 1825 D. in physics under Werner Heisenberg at the University of Leipzig. Physics (Greek Physis - φύσις in everyday terms is the Science of Matter and its motion. Werner Heisenberg (5 December 1901 in Würzburg &ndash1 February 1976 in Munich) was a German theoretical physicist best known for enunciating the The University of Leipzig (Universität Leipzig located in Leipzig in the Free State of Saxony, Germany, is one of the oldest universities Teller's Ph.D. dissertation dealt with one of the first accurate quantum mechanical treatments of the hydrogen molecular ion. "PhD" redirects here for other uses see PhD (disambiguation. A dissertation (also called thesis or disquisition) is a document that presents the author's Research and findings and is submitted in support of candidature Quantum mechanics is the study of mechanical systems whose dimensions are close to the Atomic scale such as Molecules Atoms Electrons Hydrogen (ˈhaɪdrədʒən is the Chemical element with Atomic number 1 In 1930 he befriended Russian physicists George Gamow and Lev Landau. George Gamow (pronounced as ˈgamof ( March 4, 1904 &ndash August 19, 1968), born Georgiy Antonovich Gamov (Георгий Антонович Lev Davidovich Landau ( Russian language: Ле́в Дави́дович Ланда́у ( January 22, 1908 &ndash April 1, 1968 Very important for Teller's scientific and philosophical development was his life-long close friendship with a Czech physicist George Placzek. George Placzek ( September 26, 1905 - October 9, 1955) was a Czech physicist It was Placzek who arranged for young Teller a summer stay in Rome with Enrico Fermi and oriented his scientific career to nuclear physics. 
He spent two years at the University of Göttingen and left Germany in 1933 through the aid of the Jewish Rescue Committee. The University of Göttingen ( German: Georg-August-Universität Göttingen) is a University in the city of Göttingen, Germany. He went briefly to England and moved for a year to Copenhagen, where he worked under Niels Bohr. Niels Henrik David Bohr (nels ˈb̥oɐ̯ˀ in Danish 7 October 1885 – 18 November 1962 was a Danish Physicist who made fundamental contributions to understanding In February 1934, he married "Mici" (Augusta Maria) Harkanyi, the sister of a longtime friend.
In 1935, thanks to George Gamow's incentive, Teller was invited to the United States to become a Professor of Physics at the George Washington University (GWU), where he worked with Gamow until 1941. The George Washington University ( GW or GWU) is a private coeducational university located in Washington D Prior to the discovery of fission in 1939, Teller was engaged as a theoretical physicist working in the fields of quantum, molecular, and nuclear physics. Nuclear fission is the splitting of the nucleus of an atom into parts (lighter nuclei) often producing Free neutrons and other smaller nuclei which may Molecular physics is the study of the physical properties of Molecules and of the Chemical bonds between Atoms that bind them Nuclear physics is the field of Physics that studies the building blocks and interactions of Atomic nuclei. In 1941, after becoming a naturalized citizen of the United States, his interest turned to the use of nuclear energy, both fusion and fission. Naturalization is the acquisition of Citizenship or Nationality by somebody who was not a citizen or national of that country when he or she was born
At GWU, Teller predicted the Jahn-Teller Effect (1937), which distorts molecules in certain situations; this affects the chemical reactions of metals, and in particular the coloration of certain metallic dyes. A chemical reaction is a process that always results in the interconversion of Chemical substances The substance or substances initially involved in a chemical reaction are called Teller and Hermann Arthur Jahn analyzed it as a piece of purely mathematical physics. Hermann Arthur Jahn (b 31 May 1907, Colchester, England d 24 October 1979 Southampton) was an English scientist In collaboration with Brunauer and Emmet, Teller also made an important contribution to surface physics and chemistry; the so-called Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) isotherm. Surface science is the study of physical and chemical phenomena that occur at the interface of two phases, including Solid - Liquid General BET theory is a well-known rule for the physical Adsorption of Gas Molecules on a Solid Surface, that is basis
When World War II began, Teller wanted to contribute to the war effort. On the advice of the well-known Caltech aerodynamicist and fellow Hungarian émigré Theodore von Kármán, Teller collaborated with his friend Hans Bethe in developing a theory of shock-wave propagation. The California Institute of Technology (commonly referred to as Caltech) is a private, Coeducational research university located in Pasadena Hans Albrecht Bethe (/hans ˈalbʀɛçt ˈbeːtə/ ( July 2 1906 &ndash March 6, 2005) was a German - American Physicist In later years, their explanation of the behavior of the gas behind such a wave proved valuable to scientists who were studying missile re-entry. A missile (see also pronunciation differences) is a self-propelled explosive Projectile used as a weapon towards a target 
In 1942, Teller was invited to be part of Robert Oppenheimer's summer planning seminar at UC Berkeley for the origins of the Manhattan Project, the Allied effort to develop the first nuclear weapons. The University of California Berkeley (also referred to as Cal, Berkeley and UC Berkeley) is a major research university located in Berkeley The World War II Manhattan Project developed the first Nuclear weapon (atomic bomb In general allies are people groups or nations that have joined together in an association for mutual benefit or to achieve some common purpose A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from Nuclear reactions either fission or a combination of fission and fusion. A few weeks earlier, Teller had been meeting with his friend and colleague Enrico Fermi about the prospects of atomic warfare, and Fermi had nonchalantly suggested that perhaps a weapon based on nuclear fission could be used to set off an even larger nuclear fusion reaction. Nuclear fission is the splitting of the nucleus of an atom into parts (lighter nuclei) often producing Free neutrons and other smaller nuclei which may In Physics and Nuclear chemistry, nuclear fusion is the process by which multiple- like charged atomic nuclei join together to form a heavier nucleus Even though he initially explained to Fermi why he thought the idea would not work, Teller was fascinated by the possibility and was quickly bored with the idea of "just" an atomic bomb (even though this was not yet anywhere near completion). At the Berkeley session, Teller diverted discussion from the fission weapon to the possibility of a fusion weapon—what he called the "Super" (an early version of what was later known as a hydrogen bomb). 
On December 6, 1941, the United States had begun development of the atomic bomb, under the supervision of Arthur Compton, chairman of the University of Chicago physics department, who coordinated uranium research with Columbia University, Princeton University, University of Chicago, and University of California at Berkeley. Events 1060 - Béla I of Hungary is crowned king of Hungary 1240 - Mongol invasion of Rus: Kiev Year 1941 ( MCMXLI) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (the link will display 1941 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Arthur Holly Compton (September 10 1892 &ndash March 15 1962 was an American physicist and Nobel laureate in physics for his discovery of the Compton effect The University of Chicago is a Private university located principally in the Hyde Park neighborhood of Chicago. Uranium (jʊˈreɪniəm is a silvery-gray Metallic Chemical element in the Columbia University is a private University in the United States and a member of the Ivy League. Princeton University is a private Coeducational research university located in Princeton, New Jersey. The University of California Berkeley (also referred to as Cal, Berkeley and UC Berkeley) is a major research university located in Berkeley Eventually Compton transferred the Columbia and Princeton scientists to the Metallurgical Laboratory at Chicago, and Enrico Fermi moved in at the end of April 1942 and the construction of a Chicago Pile 1 began. The Metallurgical Laboratory or "Met Lab" at the University of Chicago was part of the World War II –era Manhattan Project, created by the Chicago Pile-1 ( CP-1) was the world's first artificial Nuclear reactor. Teller was left behind at first, but then called to Chicago two months later. In early 1943, the Los Alamos laboratory was built to design an atomic bomb under the supervision of Oppenheimer in Los Alamos, New Mexico. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL (previously known at various times as Site Y, Los Alamos Laboratory, and Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory) is a A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from Nuclear reactions either fission or a combination of fission and fusion. Los Alamos (Los Álamos meaning "The Cottonwoods quot is a Townsite and Census-designated place (CDP in Los Alamos County, New Mexico ( is a state located in the southwestern region of the United States of America. Teller moved there in April 1943. 
Teller became part of the Theoretical Physics division at the then-secret Los Alamos laboratory during the war, and continued to push his ideas for a fusion weapon even though it had been put on a low priority during the war (as the creation of a fission weapon was proving to be difficult enough by itself). Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL (previously known at various times as Site Y, Los Alamos Laboratory, and Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory) is a Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL (previously known at various times as Site Y, Los Alamos Laboratory, and Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory) is a Because of his interest in the H-bomb, and his frustration at having been passed over for director of the theoretical division (the job was instead given to Hans Bethe), Teller refused to engage in the calculations for the implosion of the fission bomb. Hans Albrecht Bethe (/hans ˈalbʀɛçt ˈbeːtə/ ( July 2 1906 &ndash March 6, 2005) was a German - American Physicist This caused tensions with other researchers, as additional scientists had to be employed to do that work—including Klaus Fuchs, who later was revealed to be a Soviet spy. Klaus Emil Julius Fuchs ( December 29, 1911 &ndash January 28, 1988) was a German -born theoretical physicist and  Apparently, Teller managed to also irk his neighbors by playing the piano late in the night.  However, Teller made some valuable contributions to bomb research, especially in the elucidation of the implosion mechanism. Nuclear weapon designs are physical chemical and engineering arrangements that cause the physics package of a nuclear weapon to detonate
In 1946, Teller participated in a conference in which the properties of thermonuclear fuels such as deuterium and the possible design of a hydrogen bomb were discussed. Deuterium, also called heavy hydrogen, is a Stable isotope of Hydrogen with a Natural abundance in the Oceans of Earth It was concluded that Teller's assessment of a hydrogen bomb had been too favourable, and that both the quantity of deuterium needed, as well as the radiation losses during deuterium burning, would shed doubt on its workability. Addition of expensive tritium to the thermonuclear mixture would likely lower its ignition temperature, but even so, nobody knew at that time how much tritium would be needed, and whether even tritium addition would encourage heat propagation. Tritium (ˈtɹɪtiəm symbol or, also known as Hydrogen-3) is a radioactive Isotope of Hydrogen. At the end of the conference, in spite of opposition by some members such as Robert Serber, Teller submitted an unduly optimistic report in which he said that a hydrogen bomb was feasible, and that further work should be encouraged on its development. Robert Serber ( March 14 1909 - June 1 1997) was an American physicist who participated in the Manhattan Project. Fuchs had also participated in this conference, and transmitted this information to Moscow. The model of Teller's "classical Super" was so uncertain that Oppenheimer would later say that he wished the Russians were building their own hydrogen bomb based on that design, so that it would almost certainly retard their progress on it. 
In 1946, Teller left Los Alamos to return to the University of Chicago as a professor and close associate of Enrico Fermi and Maria Mayer. 
Following the Soviet Union's first test detonation of an atomic bomb in 1949, President Truman announced a crash development program for a hydrogen bomb. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 Teller returned to Los Alamos in 1950 to work on the project. Teller quickly grew impatient with the progress of the program, insisted on involving more theorists, and accused his colleagues of lacking imagination. This worsened his relations with other researchers. None of his designs (or anyone else's), however, were yet workable. Bethe thought that had Teller not pressed for an early H-bomb test, the Russians' own development might possibly have been slowed, particularly as the information Klaus Fuchs gave them contained many incorrect technical details that rendered a workable H-bomb infeasible. Klaus Emil Julius Fuchs ( December 29, 1911 &ndash January 28, 1988) was a German -born theoretical physicist and Russian scientists who had worked on the Soviet hydrogen bomb have claimed that they could see that the early ideas were infeasible as well as anyone else who had looked at them did, and also claimed that they developed their H-bomb wholly independently. 
In 1950, calculations by the Polish mathematician Stanislaw Ulam and his collaborator Cornelius Everett, along with confirmations by Fermi, had shown that not only was Teller's earlier estimate of the quantity of tritium needed for the H-bomb a low one, but that even with a higher amount of tritium, the energy losses in the fusion process would be too great to enable the fusion reaction to propagate. Stanisław Marcin Ulam ( April 13, 1909 &ndash May 13, 1984) was a Polish Mathematician who participated in the Manhattan Tritium (ˈtɹɪtiəm symbol or, also known as Hydrogen-3) is a radioactive Isotope of Hydrogen. However, in 1951, after still many years of fruitless labor on the "Super," an innovative idea from Ulam was seized upon by Teller and developed into the first workable design for a megaton-range hydrogen bomb. The exact contribution provided respectively from Ulam and Teller to what became known as the Teller-Ulam design is not definitively known in the public domain, and the exact contributions of each and how the final idea was arrived upon has been a point of dispute in both public and classified discussions since the early 1950s. The Teller–Ulam design is a Nuclear weapon design which is used in Megaton -range Thermonuclear weapons and is more colloquially referred to as "the 
In an interview with Scientific American from 1999, Teller told the reporter:
The issue is controversial. Bethe considered Teller's contribution to the invention of the H-bomb a true innovation as early as 1952, and referred to his work as a "stroke of genius" in 1954.  In both cases, however, Bethe emphasized Teller's role as a way of stressing that the development of the H-bomb could not have been hastened by additional support or funding, and Teller greatly disagreed with Bethe's assessment. Other scientists (antagonistic to Teller, such as J. Carson Mark) have claimed that Teller would have never gotten any closer without the assistance of Ulam and others. J Carson Mark ( July 6, 1913 &ndash March 2, 1997) was a Canadian -born American Mathematician known especially  Ulam himself claimed that Teller only produced a "more generalized" version of Ulam's original design. 
The breakthrough—the details of which are still classified—was apparently the separation of the fission and fusion components of the weapons, and to use the radiation produced by the fission bomb to first compress the fusion fuel before igniting it. Radiation, as in Physics, is Energy in the form of waves or moving Subatomic particles emitted by an atom or other body as it changes from a higher energy However, compression alone would not have been enough and the other crucial idea—staging the bomb by separating the primary and secondary—seems to have been exclusively contributed by Ulam. Also, Ulam's idea seems to have been to use mechanical shock from the primary to encourage fusion in the secondary, while Teller quickly realized that radiation from the primary would do the job much earlier and more efficiently. Some members of the laboratory (J. Carson Mark in particular) later expressed that the idea to use the radiation would have eventually occurred to anyone working on the physical processes involved, and that the obvious reason why Teller thought of radiation right away was because he was already working on the "Greenhouse" tests for the spring of 1951, in which the effect of the energy from a fission bomb on a mixture of deuterium and tritium was going to be investigated. Operation Greenhouse was the fifth American nuclear test series the second conducted in 1951 and the first to test principles that would lead to developing thermonuclear weapons 
Whatever the actual components of the so-called Teller-Ulam design and the respective contributions of those who worked on it, after it was proposed it was immediately seen by the scientists working on the project as the answer which had been so long sought. Those who previously had doubted whether a fission-fusion bomb would be feasible at all were converted into believing that it was only a matter of time before both the USA and the USSR had developed multi-megaton weapons. Even Oppenheimer, who was originally opposed to the project, called the idea "technically sweet. "
Though he had helped to come up with the design and had been a long-time proponent of the concept, Teller was not chosen to head the development project (his reputation of a thorny personality likely played a role in this). In 1952 he left Los Alamos and joined the newly established Livermore branch of the University of California Radiation Laboratory, which had been created largely through his urging. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory ( LLNL) in Livermore California is a scientific research laboratory founded by the University of California in 1952 The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory ( LBNL) is a U After the detonation of "Ivy Mike", the first thermonuclear weapon to utilize the Teller-Ulam configuration, on November 1, 1952, Teller became known in the press as the "father of the hydrogen bomb. Ivy Mike was the codename given to the first US test of a fusion device where a major part of the explosive yield came from fusion Events 996 - Emperor Otto III issues a deed to Gottschalk Bishop of Freising which is the oldest known document using the name Ostarrîchi Year 1952 ( MCMLII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. " Teller himself refrained from attending the test—he claimed not to feel welcome at the Pacific Proving Grounds—and instead saw its results on a seismograph in the basement of a hall in Berkeley. The Pacific Proving Grounds was the name used to describe a number of sites in the Marshall Islands and a few other sites in the Pacific Ocean, used by the Seismometers (from Greek Seism - "the shakes" - and Metro - "I measure" are instruments that measure and record motions of the ground including 
By analyzing the fallout from this test, the Soviets (led in their H-bomb work by Soviet scientist Andrei Sakharov) could have easily deduced that the new design had used compression as the key initiator. Andrei Dmitrievich Sakharov (Андре́й Дми́триевич Са́харов (May 21 1921 – December 14 1989 was an eminent Soviet nuclear Physicist However, this was later denied by the Soviet bomb researchers, who later claimed that they were not yet at that time organized to collect fallout data from U. S. tests. Because of official secrecy, little information about the bomb's development was released by the government, and press reports often attributed the entire weapon's design and development to Teller and his new Livermore Laboratory (when it was actually developed by Los Alamos). 
Many of Teller's colleagues were irritated that he seemed to enjoy taking full credit for something he had only a part in, and in response, with encouragement from Enrico Fermi, Teller authored an article titled "The Work of Many People," which appeared in Science magazine in February 1955, emphasizing that he was not alone in the weapon's development. He would later write in his memoirs that he had told a "white lie" in the 1955 article in order to "soothe ruffled feelings", and claimed full credit for the invention. 
Teller was known for getting engrossed in projects which were theoretically interesting but practically unfeasible (the classic "Super" was one such project. ) About his work on the hydrogen bomb, Bethe said:
During the Manhattan Project, Teller also advocated the development of a bomb using uranium hydride, which many of his fellow theorists said would be unlikely to work. Uranium (jʊˈreɪniəm is a silvery-gray Metallic Chemical element in the At Livermore, Teller continued work on the hydride bomb, and the result was a dud. Ulam once wrote to a colleague about an idea he had shared with Teller: "Edward is full of enthusiasm about these possibilities; this is perhaps an indication they will not work. " Fermi once said that Teller was the only monomaniac he knew who had several manias. In Psychiatry, monomania (from Greek monos, one and mania, Mania) is a type of Paranoia in which the patient has only one idea Mania (from Greek μανία and that from μαίνομαι - mainomai, "to rage to be furious" is a severe medical condition 
Carey Sublette of Nuclear Weapon Archive argues that Ulam came up with the radiation implosion compression design of thermonuclear weapons, but that on the other hand Teller has gotten little credit for being the first to propose fusion boosting in 1945, which is essential for miniaturization and reliability and is used in all of today's nuclear weapons. A boosted fission weapon usually refers to a type of Nuclear bomb that uses a small amount of fusion fuel to increase the rate and thus yield of a fission 
The rift between Teller and many of his colleagues was widened in 1954 when he testified against Robert Oppenheimer, former head of Los Alamos and member of the Atomic Energy Commission, at Oppenheimer's security clearance hearing. The United States Atomic Energy Commission (AEC was an agency of the United States government established after World War II by Congress to foster and control Teller had clashed with Oppenheimer many times at Los Alamos over issues relating both to fission and fusion research, and during Oppenheimer's trial he was the only member of the scientific community to label Oppenheimer a security risk.
Asked at the hearing by prosecutor Roger Robb whether he was planning "to suggest that Dr. Oppenheimer is disloyal to the United States," Teller replied that:
However, he was immediately asked whether he believed that Oppenheimer was a "security risk", to which he testified:
Teller also testified that Oppenheimer's opinion about the thermonuclear program seemed to be based more on the scientific feasibility of the weapon than anything else. He additionally testified that Oppenheimer's direction of Los Alamos was "a very outstanding achievement" both as a scientist and an administrator, lauding his "very quick mind" and that he made "just a most wonderful and excellent director. "
After this, however, he detailed ways in which he felt that Oppenheimer had hindered his efforts towards an active thermonuclear development program, and at length criticized Oppenheimer's decisions not to invest more work onto the question at different points in his career, saying:
After a public hearing, the authorities agreed with Teller. Oppenheimer's security clearance was eventually stripped, and Teller was treated as a pariah by many of his former colleagues. In response, Teller began to run with a more military and governmental crowd, becoming the scientific darling of conservative politicians and thinkers for his advocacy of American scientific and technological supremacy. Conservatism is a term used to describe political philosophies that favour Tradition, where tradition refers to various religious cultural or nationally defined After the fact, Teller consistently denied that he was intending to damn Oppenheimer, and even claimed that he was attempting to exonerate him. Documentary evidence has suggested that this was likely not the case, however. Six days before the testimony, Teller met with an AEC liaison officer and suggested "deepening the charges" in his testimony.  It has been suggested that Teller's testimony against Oppenheimer was an attempt to remove Oppenheimer from power so that Teller could become the leader of the American nuclear scientist community. 
Teller was Director of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (1958–1960), which he helped to found (along with Ernest O. Lawrence), and after that he continued as an Associate Director. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory ( LLNL) in Livermore California is a scientific research laboratory founded by the University of California in 1952 Ernest Orlando Lawrence ( August 8, 1901 – August 27, 1958) was an American physicist and Nobel Laureate best known for his He chaired the committee that founded the Space Sciences Laboratory at Berkeley. The Samuel Silver Space Sciences Laboratory (SSL is an Organized Research Unit of the University of California He also served concurrently as a Professor of Physics at the University of California, Berkeley. The University of California Berkeley (also referred to as Cal, Berkeley and UC Berkeley) is a major research university located in Berkeley He was a tireless advocate of a strong nuclear program and argued for continued testing and development—in fact, he stepped down from the directorship of Livermore so that he could better lobby against the proposed test ban. Lobbying includes all attempts to influence Legislators and officials whether by other legislators constituents or organized groups The Treaty banning Nuclear Weapon Tests In The Atmosphere In Outer Space And Under Water, often abbreviated as the Partial Test Ban Treaty ( PTBT)  He testified against the test ban both before Congress as well as on television.
After the Oppenheimer controversy, Teller became ostracized by much of the scientific community, but for obvious reasons was still quite welcome in the government and military science circles. Along with his traditional advocacy for nuclear energy development, a strong nuclear arsenal, and a vigorous nuclear testing program, he had helped to develop nuclear reactor safety standards as the chair of the Reactor Safeguard Committee of the AEC in the late 1940s, and later headed an effort at General Atomics to design research reactors in which a nuclear meltdown would be theoretically impossible (the TRIGA). This article is a subarticle of Nuclear power. A nuclear reactor is a device in which Nuclear chain reactions are initiated controlled General Atomics is a nuclear physics and Defense contractor headquartered in San Diego California. A nuclear meltdown is a term for a severe Nuclear reactor accident TRIGA is a class of small Nuclear reactor designed and manufactured by General Atomics of the USA. 
Teller established the Department of Applied Science at the University of California, Davis and LLNL in 1963, which holds the Edward Teller endowed professorship in his honor. The University of California Davis, commonly known as UC Davis, or just UCD, is a public coeducational university located in the city of Davis, The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory ( LLNL) in Livermore California is a scientific research laboratory founded by the University of California in 1952  In 1975 he retired from both the lab and Berkeley, and was named Director Emeritus of the Livermore Laboratory and appointed Senior Research Fellow at the Hoover Institution. The Hoover Institution on War Revolution and Peace is a libertarian Public policy Think tank and Library founded in 1919 by U  After the fall of communism in Hungary in 1989, he made several visits to his country of origin, and paid careful attention to the political changes there. Communism is a Socioeconomic structure that promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless, stateless Society based
Teller was one of the strongest and best-known advocates for investigating non-military uses of nuclear explosives, known as Operation Plowshare. Peaceful nuclear explosions (PNEs are Nuclear explosions conducted for non-military purposes such as activities related to Economic development including the Operation Plowshare, better known as Project Plowshare not to be confused with the anti-nuclear Plowshares Movement, was the overall United States term for the development of One of the most controversial projects he proposed was a plan to use a multi-megaton hydrogen bomb to dig a deep-water harbor more than a mile long and half a mile wide to use for shipment of resources from coal and oil fields through Point Hope, Alaska. Point Hope is a city in North Slope Borough, Alaska, United States. Alaska ( Аляска Alyaska) is a state in the United States of America, in the northwest of the North American continent The Atomic Energy Commission accepted Teller's proposal in 1958 and it was designated Project Chariot. The United States Atomic Energy Commission (AEC was an agency of the United States government established after World War II by Congress to foster and control Project Chariot was a 1958 US Atomic Energy Commission proposal to construct an artificial harbor at Cape Thompson on the North Slope of the U While the AEC was scouting out the Alaskan site, and having withdrawn the land from the public domain, Teller publicly advocated the economic benefits of the plan, but was unable to convince local government leaders that the plan was financially viable. 
Other scientists criticized the project as being potentially unsafe for the local wildlife and the Inupiat people living near the designated area, who were not officially told of the plan until March 1960. The Inupiat or Iñupiaq (from inuit- people - and piaq/t real i  Additionally, it turned out that the harbor would be ice-bound for nine months out of the year. In the end, due to the financial infeasibility of the project and the concerns over radiation-related health issues, the project was cancelled in 1962.
A related experiment which also had Teller's endorsement was a plan to extract oil from the Athabasca oil sands in northern Alberta with nuclear explosions. The Athabasca Oil Sands (also known as the Athabasca Tar Sands) are large deposits of Bitumen, or extremely Heavy crude oil, located in northeastern Alberta (ælˈbɝtə is one of Canada's prairie provinces. It became a province on September 1 1905 The plan actually received the endorsement of the Alberta government, but was rejected by the Government of Canada under Prime Minister John Diefenbaker, who was opposed to having any nuclear weapons in Canada. The Canadian Government, formally Her Majesty's Government in Canada, is the Federal government of Canada. The Prime Minister of Canada ( French: Premier ministre du Canada) is the primary Minister of the Crown, chairman of the Cabinet, and thus Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page 
For some twenty years, Teller advised Israel on nuclear matters in general, and on the building of a hydrogen bomb in particular. Israel is widely believed to be the sixth country in the world to develop Nuclear weapons and to be one of four nuclear-armed countries not recognized  In 1952, Teller and Oppenheimer had a long meeting with Ben-Gurion in Tel Aviv, telling him that the best way to accumulate plutonium was to burn natural uranium in a nuclear reactor. Starting in 1964, a connection between Teller and Israel was made by the physicist Yuval Neeman, who had similar political views. Yuval Ne'eman (יובל נאמן born 14 May 1925, died 26 April 2006) was an Israeli Soldier, physicist Between 1964 and 1967, Teller visited Israel six times, lecturing at Tel Aviv University, and advising the chiefs of Israel's scientific-security circle as well as prime ministers and cabinet members. At each of his talks with members of the Israeli security establishment's highest levels he would make them swear that they would never be tempted into signing the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, also Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty ( NPT or NNPT) is a Treaty to limit the spread In 1967 when the Israeli program was nearing completion, Teller informed Neeman that he was going to tell the CIA that Israel had built nuclear weapons and explain that it was justified by the background of the Six-Day War. near as long as it used to be several months ago It has been actively summarized and split into sub-articles and there is a dynamic talk page discussion of all Background Suez Crisis aftermath The Suez Crisis of 1956 represented a military defeat but a political victory for Egypt After Neeman cleared it with Prime Minister Levi Eshkol, Teller briefed the head of the CIA's Office of Science and Technology, Carl Duckett. (לֵוִי אֶשְׁכּוֹל born Levi Školnik (לֵוִי שׁקוֹלנִיק on 25 October 1895, died 26 February 1969) It took a year for Teller to convince the CIA that Israel had contained nuclear capability; the information then went through CIA Director Richard Helms and then to the US president. Richard McGarrah Helms ( March 30, 1913 &ndash October 23, 2002) was the Director of Central Intelligence (DCI from 1966 to 1973 Teller also persuaded them to end the American attempts to inspect the Negev Nuclear Research Center in Dimona. The Negev Nuclear Research Center is an Israeli nuclear installation located in the Negev Desert, about ten kilometers to the south of the city of Dimona
Teller suffered a heart attack in 1979, which he blamed on Jane Fonda; after the Three Mile Island accident, the actress had outspokenly lobbied against nuclear power while promoting her latest movie, The China Syndrome (a movie depicting a nuclear accident which had coincidentally been released only a little over a week before the actual incident. Three Mile Island Nuclear Generating Station is a civilian Nuclear power plant located on an island (Three Mile Island in the Susquehanna River near Harrisburg Myocardial infarction ( MI or AMI for acute myocardial infarction) also known as a heart attack, occurs when the blood supply Jane Fonda (born December 21 1937 is an American Academy Award winning Actress, Writer, political activist, former Fashion The Three Mile Island accident of 1979 was the most significant accident in the history of the American commercial Nuclear power generating industry This article is a subarticle of Nuclear power. A nuclear reactor is a device in which Nuclear chain reactions are initiated controlled The China Syndrome is a 1979 Thriller film which tells the story of a reporter and cameraman who discover safety coverups at a Nuclear power ) In response, Teller acted quickly to lobby in favor of nuclear energy, testifying to its safety and reliability, and after such a flurry of activity suffered the attack. Teller authored a two-page spread in the Wall Street Journal which appeared on July 31, 1979, under the headline "I was the only victim of Three-Mile Island", which opened with:
|“||On May 7, a few weeks after the accident at Three-Mile Island, I was in Washington. Events 30 BC - Battle of Alexandria: Mark Antony achieves a minor victory over Octavian 's forces but most of his army subsequently Year 1979 ( MCMLXXIX) was a Common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1979 Gregorian calendar) I was there to refute some of that propaganda that Ralph Nader, Jane Fonda and their kind are spewing to the news media in their attempt to frighten people away from nuclear power. Propaganda is a concerted set of messages aimed at influencing the opinions or behaviors of large numbers of people Ralph Nader (born February 27 1934 is an American Attorney, Author, Lecturer, political activist, and independent candidate for President I am 71 years old, and I was working 20 hours a day. The strain was too much. The next day, I suffered a heart attack. You might say that I was the only one whose health was affected by that reactor near Harrisburg. No, that would be wrong. It was not the reactor. It was Jane Fonda. Reactors are not dangerous. ||”|
The next day, The New York Times ran an editorial criticizing the ad, noting that it was sponsored by Dresser Industries, the firm which had manufactured one of the defective valves which contributed to the Three Mile Island accident. Dresser Industries was a Multinational corporation headquartered in Dallas, Texas, which provided a wide range of technology products and services used 
In the 1980s, Teller began a strong campaign for what was later called the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI), derided by critics as "Star Wars," the concept of using lasers or satellites to destroy incoming Russian ICBMs. The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI was a proposal by US President Ronald Reagan on March 23, 1983 to use ground and space-based systems to protect Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending Teller lobbied with government agencies—and got the sanction of President Ronald Reagan—for his plan to develop a system using elaborate satellites which used atomic weapons to fire X-ray lasers at incoming missiles— as part of a broader scientific research program into defenses against nuclear weapons. This article is about artificial satellites For natural satellites also known as moons see Natural satellite. X-radiation (composed of X-rays) is a form of Electromagnetic radiation. However, scandal erupted when Teller (and his associate Lowell Wood) were accused of deliberately overselling the program and perhaps had encouraged the dismissal of a laboratory director (Roy Woodruff) who had attempted to correct the error.  His claims led to a joke which circulated in the scientific community, that a new unit of unfounded optimism was designated as the teller; one teller was so large that most events had to be measured in nanotellers or picotellers. Many prominent scientists argued that the system was futile. Bethe, along with IBM physicist Richard Garwin and Cornell University colleague Kurt Gottfried, wrote an article in Scientific American which analyzed the system and concluded that any putative enemy could disable such a system by the use of suitable decoys. International Business Machines Corporation abbreviated IBM and nicknamed "Big Blue", is a multinational Computer Technology Richard Lawrence Garwin (born April 19, 1928 in Cleveland Ohio) is an American Physicist. The project's funding was eventually scaled back.
Many scientists opposed strategic defense on moral or political rather than purely technical grounds. They argued that, even if an effective system could be produced, it would undermine the system of Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD) that had prevented all-out war between the western democracies and the communist bloc. Mutual assured destruction ( MAD; sometimes written as mutually assured destruction) is a Doctrine of military Strategy in which a full-scale An effective defense, they contended, would make such a war "winnable" and therefore more likely. 
Despite (or perhaps because of) his hawkish reputation, Teller made a public point of noting that he regretted the use of the first atomic bombs on civilian cities during World War II. He further claimed that before the bombing of Hiroshima he had indeed lobbied Oppenheimer to use the weapons first in a "demonstration" which could be witnessed by the Japanese high-command and citizenry before using them to inflict thousands of deaths. The Japanese city of ( is the capital of Hiroshima Prefecture, and the largest city in the Chūgoku region of western Honshū, the largest of Japan 's The are the dominant Ethnic group of Japan. Worldwide approximately 130 million people are of Japanese descent of these approximately 127 million are residents of Japan The "father of the hydrogen bomb" would use this quasi-anti-nuclear stance (he would say that he believed nuclear weapons to be unfortunate, but that the arms race was unavoidable due to the intractable nature of Communism) to promote technologies such as SDI, arguing that they were needed to make sure that nuclear weapons could never be used again (Better a shield than a sword was the title of one of his books on the subject). The term arms race, in its original usage describes a competition between two or more parties for real or apparent military supremacy
The historian Barton Bernstein argued that it is an "unconvincing claim" by Teller that he was a "covert dissenter" to the use of the weapon.  In his 2001 Memoirs, Teller claims that he did lobby Oppenheimer, but that Oppenheimer had convinced him that he should take no action and that the scientists should leave military questions in the hands of the military; Teller claims he was not aware that Oppenheimer and other scientists were being consulted as to the actual use of the weapon and implies that Oppenheimer was being hypocritical. 
In his early career, Teller made contributions to nuclear and molecular physics, spectroscopy (the Jahn-Teller and Renner-Teller effects), and surface physics. Nuclear physics is the field of Physics that studies the building blocks and interactions of Atomic nuclei. Molecular physics is the study of the physical properties of Molecules and of the Chemical bonds between Atoms that bind them Spectroscopy was originally the study of the interaction between Radiation and Matter as a function of Wavelength (λ The Renner-Teller effect is an effect due to Rovibronic coupling on the electronic spectra of three- (or more atomic linear molecules in degenerate electronic (Π In Mathematics, specifically in Topology, a surface is a Two-dimensional Manifold. His extension of Fermi's theory of beta decay (in the form of the so-called Gamow-Teller transitions) provided an important stepping stone in the applications of this theory. In Nuclear physics, beta decay is a type of Radioactive decay in which a Beta particle (an Electron or a Positron) is emitted The Jahn-Teller effect and the BET theory have retained their original formulation and are still mainstays in physics and chemistry. General BET theory is a well-known rule for the physical Adsorption of Gas Molecules on a Solid Surface, that is basis  Teller also made contributions to Thomas-Fermi theory, the precursor of density functional theory, a standard modern tool in the quantum mechanical treatment of complex molecules. Density functional theory (DFT is a quantum mechanical theory used in Physics and Chemistry to investigate the Electronic structure (principally In 1953, along with Nicholas Metropolis and Marshall Rosenbluth, Teller co-authored a paper which is a standard starting point for the applications of the Monte Carlo method to statistical mechanics. Nicholas Constantine Metropolis ( June 11, 1915 &ndash October 17, 1999) was a Greek American Mathematician, Physicist Marshall Nicholas Rosenbluth ( 5 February 1927 – 28 September 2003) was an American plasma physicist and member of Monte Carlo methods are a class of Computational Algorithms that rely on repeated Random sampling to compute their results Statistical mechanics is the application of Probability theory, which includes mathematical tools for dealing with large populations to the field of Mechanics
Teller's vigorous advocacy for strength through nuclear weapons, especially when so many of his wartime colleagues later expressed regret about the arms race, made him an easy target for the "mad scientist" stereotype (his accent and eyebrows certainly did not help shake the image). In 1991 he was awarded one of the first Ig Nobel Prizes for Peace in recognition of his "lifelong efforts to change the meaning of peace as we know it". The Ig Nobel Prizes are a Parody of the Nobel Prizes and are given each year in early October — around the time the recipients of the genuine Nobel Prizes are He was also rumored to be the inspiration for the character of Dr. Strangelove in Stanley Kubrick's 1964 satirical film of the same name (other inspirations have been speculated to be RAND theorist Herman Kahn, rocket scientist Wernher von Braun, and Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara). Satire is often strictly defined as a literary genre or form; although in practice it is also found in the graphic and Performing arts In satire human The RAND Corporation ( R esearch AN d D evelopment is a Nonprofit global policy Think tank first formed to offer research and analysis Herman Kahn (February 15 1922 – July 7 1983 was a Military strategist and systems theorist employed at RAND Corporation, USA Wernher Magnus Maximilian Freiherr von Braun (March 23 1912 &ndash June 16 1977 a German rocket physicist and astronautics engineer became one of the leading figures in The United States Secretary of Defense ( SECDEF) is the head of the U Robert Strange McNamara (born June 9 1916 in Oakland, California) is an American business executive and former United States Secretary of Defense In the aforementioned Scientific American interview from 1999, he was reported as having bristled at the question: "My name is not Strangelove. I don't know about Strangelove. I'm not interested in Strangelove. What else can I say?. . . Look. Say it three times more, and I throw you out of this office. " Nobel Prize winning physicist Isidor I. Rabi once suggested that "It would have been a better world without Teller. Isidor Isaac Rabi ( July 29, 1898 &ndash January 11, 1988) Galician born Physicist, and Nobel laureate. " In addition, Teller's false claims that Stanislaw Ulam made no significant contribution to the development of the hydrogen bomb (despite Ulam's key insights of using compression and staging elements to generate the thermonuclear reaction) and his vicious personal attacks on Oppenheimer caused even greater animosity within the general physics community towards Teller. 
Teller died in Stanford, California on September 9, 2003. Stanford is a Census-designated place (CDP in Santa Clara County, California, United States. California ( is a US state on the West Coast of the United States, along the Pacific Ocean. Events 1000 - Battle of Svolder, Viking Age. 1379 - Treaty of Neuberg, splitting the Austrian Year 2003 ( MMIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar.  In 1986, he was awarded the United States Military Academy's Sylvanus Thayer Award. "USMA" redirects here For other uses see USMA (disambiguation The United States Military Academy (also known as USMA, The Sylvanus Thayer Award is an award that is given each year by the United States Military Academy at West Point  He was a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and the American Nuclear Society. The American Academy of Arts and Sciences (AAAS is an organization dedicated to scholarship and the advancement of learning The American Association for the Advancement of Science (or AAAS) is an organization that promotes cooperation between Scientists defends scientific freedom encourages The American Nuclear Society (ANS is an international not-for-profit 501(c (3 scientific and educational organization consisting of approximately 11000 engineers  Among the honors he received were the Albert Einstein Award, the Enrico Fermi Award, the Corvin Chain and the National Medal of Science. The Albert Einstein Award (sometimes called the Albert Einstein Medal because it is accompanied with a gold medal is an award in Theoretical physics, that was established The Enrico Fermi Award is a US government "Presidential" award honoring scientists of international stature for their lifetime achievement in the development use or production The National Medal of Science is an honor bestowed by the President of the United States to individuals in Science and Engineering who have made important  He was also named as part of the group of "U. S. Scientists" who were Time magazine's People of the Year in 1960, and an asteroid, 5006 Teller, is named after him. Time (trademarked in capitals as TIME) is a weekly American Newsmagazine, similar to Newsweek and Person of the Year (formerly Man of the Year) is an annual issue of the United States Newsmagazine Time that features and profiles  He was awarded with the Presidential Medal of Freedom by President George W. Bush less than two months before his death. The Presidential Medal of Freedom is a decoration bestowed by the President of the United States and is along with the equivalent Congressional Gold Medal bestowed George Walker Bush ( born July 6 1946 is the forty-third and current President of the United States. 
Herken (2002) is the source where not otherwise indicated.
Written by Teller
Books about Teller
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Teller Ede (Hungarian)|
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||Nuclear physicist and father of the hydrogen bomb|
|DATE OF BIRTH||15 January 1908|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Budapest, Austria-Hungary|
|DATE OF DEATH||9 September 2003|
|PLACE OF DEATH||Stanford, California|