|Place of birth||Łapszyn, Galicia|
|Place of death||Warsaw, Poland|
|Years of service||1910|
|Rank||Marshal of Poland (Marszałek Polski)|
|Battles/wars||World War I, Polish-Soviet War, Invasion of Poland (1939)|
Edward Rydz-Śmigły (pronounced [edvart rɨts ɕmigwɨ]) sometimes Edward Śmigły-Rydz (March 11, 1886 – December 2, 1941); nom de guerre Śmigły, Tarłowski, Adam Zawisza) was a Marshal of Poland, Polish political figure, Commander-in-Chief of Poland's armed forces, and a painter and poet. Galicia (Галичина ( Halychyna) Galicja is a historical region in East Central Europe, currently divided between Poland and Ukraine, Warsaw (Warszawa; also known by other names) is the Capital and Largest city of Poland. Poland (Polska officially the Republic of Poland Marshal of Poland ( Marszałek Polski) is the highest rank in the Polish Army. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All The Invasion of Poland (1939 precipitated World War II. It was carried out by Nazi Germany, the Soviet Union, and a small German-allied Events 1425 BC - Thutmose III, Pharaoh of Egypt, dies (according to the Low Chronology of the 18th Dynasty Year 1886 ( MDCCCLXXXVI) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Events 1409 - The University of Leipzig opens 1755 - The second Eddystone Lighthouse is destroyed by fire Year 1941 ( MCMXLI) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (the link will display 1941 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. A pseudonym is a fictitious alternative to a person's legal name (see Alias) Marshal of Poland ( Marszałek Polski) is the highest rank in the Polish Army. Poland (Polska officially the Republic of Poland A commander-in-chief is the Commander of a nation's Military forces or significant element of those forces The definition of an artist is wide-ranging and covers a broad spectrum of Activities to do with creating Art, practicing the Arts and/or demonstrating After many earlier successes as an army commander during the Polish-Soviet War, Rydz succeeded Józef Piłsudski as General Inspector of the Armed Forces in 1935, following Piłsudski's death. General Inspector of the Armed Forces (Generalny Inspektor Sił Zbrojnych was an office created in Poland in 1926 He served in that capacity during the Invasion of Poland, which marked the beginning of World War II. The Invasion of Poland (1939 precipitated World War II. It was carried out by Nazi Germany, the Soviet Union, and a small German-allied World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including
Edward Rydz was born in the village of Łapszyn near Brzeżany, Galicia, Austria-Hungary. Berezhany (Бережани Brzeżany is a City located in the Ternopil Oblast ( province) of western Ukraine. Galicia (Галичина ( Halychyna) Galicja is a historical region in East Central Europe, currently divided between Poland and Ukraine, He was the son of a professional NCO in the Austro-Hungarian Army, Tomasz Rydz, and Maria Babiak. A non-commissioned officer (sometimes noncommissioned officer) also known as an NCO or Noncom, is an enlisted member of an Armed force The Austro-Hungarian Army was the ground force of the Austro-Hungarian Dual Monarchy (1867 - 1918 The family endured rather humble circumstances and he was orphaned at the age of 13 years. He was then raised by his maternal grandparents and, after their deaths, by the family of Dr. Uranowicz, the town physician at Brzeżany. After graduating with distinction at the local Gymnasium Rydz went to Kraków where he completed studies in philosophy and history of art at the Jagiellonian University. A gymnasium (pronounced with ɡ- in several languages is a type of school providing Secondary education in some parts of Europe, comparable to English grammar Kraków, in English also spelled Krakow or Cracow (ˈkrækaʊ M-W: krăk'ou krāk'ō is one of the largest and oldest cities in Poland For several academies alternatively called "Krakow Academy" see Education in Kraków The Jagiellonian University (Uniwersytet He then studied to be a painter at the arts academy in Kraków, and later in Vienna and Munich. Jan Matejko Academy of Fine Arts or Academy of Fine Arts in Cracow (Akademia Sztuk Pięknych w Krakowie im Vienna ( in Wien; see also other names) is the Capital of Austria, and is also one of the nine States of Austria. Munich (München; Minga is the capital city of Bavaria, Germany. In 1910-1911 he attended the reserve officers' academy in Vienna, and received military training at the famous Austrian 4th Infantry Regiment "Deutschmeister" (so called after Archduke Eugene, a cousin of Emperor Francis Joseph I, who was Grand Master of the Teutonic Order). The grand master (Hochmeister Magister generalis is the holder of the supreme office of the Teutonic Order. The title of Archduke (feminine Archduchess) ( German: Erzherzog, feminine -also spousal- form Erzherzogin) denotes a rank above Duke Franz Joseph I Karl (- German, in English Francis Joseph I Charles, see the name in other languages) (18 August 1830 &ndash 21 November The Teutonic Order is a German Roman Catholic religious order.
He finished his military education with distinction and was offered a commission in the Imperial Army, which he declined. In 1912 Rydz was one of the founders of the Polish paramilitary organisation Riflemen's Association (Związek Strzelecki). Związek Strzelecki "Strzelec" (Riflemen's Association "Rifleman" was a Polish Paramilitary cultural and educational organization created At the same time he completed his art studies. He was regarded as a very promising talent in landscape and portrait painting, and praised by his professors and critics, who foresaw a great future for him.
Drafted into the Austrian Army in July 1914, Rydz was transferred in August to the Polish Legions and fought in World War I in the famous Polish 1st Brigade of Piłsudski. Polish Legions ( Polish Legiony Polskie) was the name of Polish armed forces created in August 1914 in Galicia. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All He took part in many battles against the Russians in the region of Southern Vistula, and rose quickly in rank. Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending By 1916, he was already a full colonel. Colonel ( RP ˈkɜnəl GA ˈkɜrnəl is a Military rank of a Commissioned officer, with corresponding ranks existing in almost every country However he did not forget his art and exhibited his work at a gallery in Kraków. In 1917, after refusing to swear an oath to the Austrian and German authorities, the Legions were disbanded, their soldiers interned and Piłsudski imprisoned in Magdeburg fortress. Year 1917 ( MCMXVII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Internment is the imprisonment or confinement of people commonly in large groups without trial Magdeburg ( Low Saxon: Meideborg ˈmaˑɪdebɔɐx the Capital city of the Bundesland of Saxony-Anhalt, Germany By Piłsudski's appointment, Rydz (who escaped prison on the grounds of bad health) became commander of Polish Military Organization (POW) and adopted the nom de guerre Śmigły (Fast or Agile), which he later added as an integral part to his surname. Polish Military Organisation (Polska Organizacja Wojskowa POW was a secret military organization created by Józef Piłsudski in August 1914 and officially named in November A pseudonym is a fictitious alternative to a person's legal name (see Alias) A surname is a name added to a Given name and is part of a Personal name.
In October 1918 Rydz entered the socialist government of Ignacy Daszyński in Lublin as Minister of War. Ignacy Daszyński (1866-1936 was a Polish politician In his youth a founder of the Polish Socialist Party, he suffered extremely impoverished circumstances as Lublin is the largest city in eastern Poland and the capital of Lublin Voivodeship with a population of 355954 Having been promoted to brigadier general (the equivalent one-star general in the Polish army), he emphasised that he had accepted the office as a deputee of Piłsudski. Brigadier General is the lowest ranking General Officer in some countries usually sitting between the ranks of Colonel and Major General. It was at this time he began using the double-barrelled name of Rydz-Śmigły. On November 11, 1918 the Government relinquished all power to Piłsudski, who became Provisional Head of State. Events 308 - The Congress of Carnuntum: Attempting to keep peace within the Roman Empire, the leaders of the Tetrarchy declare Year 1918 ( MCMXVIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common After some hesitation, Piłsudski (who was displeased by Rydz-Śmigły's cooperation with the socialists - he himself "having left the streetcar of Socialism at the stop called Independence") confirmed him as a brigadier.
During the Polish-Soviet War (1919 – 1921), Rydz commanded Polish armies in several offensives. Among the victorious engagements, he captured Wilno and Dünaburg. Daugavpils (daugavpils) is the second largest City in Latvia. After that, he was appointed Commander-in-Chief of the Latvian armed forces, and liberated Livonia from Red Army oppression. A commander-in-chief is the Commander of a nation's Military forces or significant element of those forces Latvia ( Latvija officially the Republic of Latvia (Latvijas Republika is a Country in Northern Europe in the Baltic region. Livonia (Līvõmō Latvian and Livonija Estonian: Liivimaa; Finnish: Liivinmaa; German and Swedish: Livland The Red Army ( Russian: Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия R aboche- K rest'yanskaya K rasnaya A rmiya Subsequently, he completely annihilated the Red Army's 12th Division and took Kiev. Kiev, also known as Kyiv ( Ukrainian:, Kyiv, ˈkɪjiw Russian:, Kiyev; see also Cities' alternative names) is the He then commanded the Central Front of Polish forces during the Battle of Warsaw, known as the Miracle on the Vistula. The Battle of Warsaw (Russian Варшáвское сражéние Polish: Bitwa Warszawska sometimes referred to as the Miracle at the Vistula, Polish In this decisive battle, Polish commander Józef Piłsudski outwitted the Soviet commander Mikhail Tukhachevsky. Mikhail Nikolayevich Tukhachevsky (Михаи́л Никола́евич Тухаче́вский Michał Tuchaczewski ( &ndash June 12, 1937) was a Rydz-Śmigły's Central Front held against the Soviet attack, and later blocked the escape routes for the defeated 4th and 15th Armies and the 3rd Cavalry Corps of Soviet General Gay Dimitrievich Gay, which had to fly ungloriously to East Prussia, where they were interned by the Germans. A soviet (сове́т, "council" originally was a workers' local council in late Imperial Russia. Gayk Bzhishkyan (Հայկ Բժիշկյան Russian: Гайк Бжишкян also known as Guy Dmitrievich Guy (Гай Дмитриевич Гай – December East Prussia (Ostpreußen; Rytų Prūsija or Rytprūsiai; Prusy Wschodnie Восточная Пруссия or Vostochnaya Prussiya) refers to the main part
After the 1919-21 war he was appointed the Inspector-General of the Polish Army in the Vilna district and later in Warsaw. Warsaw (Warszawa; also known by other names) is the Capital and Largest city of Poland. In 1926, during Piłsudski's coup d'état (the May Coup), he took the Marshal's side and sent troops from Wilno to reinforce anti-government troops in Warsaw. The May Coup d'Etat ( Polish: Przewrót majowy or zamach majowy) was a Coup d'état successfully carried out in Poland by Józef Piłsudski never forgot this fidelity and in 1929 Rydz was appointed as the Marshal's deputy on all matters concerning the East. On May 13, 1935, following Piłsudski's death, Rydz was nominated by the president and the government of Poland to serve in the capacity of the Inspector-General of the Polish Armed Forces (the highest Polish military office). Events 1497 - Pope Alexander VI excommunicates Girolamo Savonarola. Year 1935 ( MCMXXXV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. General Inspector of the Armed Forces (Generalny Inspektor Sił Zbrojnych was an office created in Poland in 1926 This was done in accordance with Piłsudski's wishes. Piłsudski's death saw his followers (the Sanacja), divide themselves into three main factions: those supporting President Ignacy Mościcki as Piłsudski's successor, those supporting Rydz, and those supporting prime minister Walery Slawek. Sanacja (Sanation was a Coalition Political movement in the Interbellum Second Polish Republic. Ignacy Mościcki ( December 1, 1867 &ndash October 2, 1946) was a Polish Politician and Chemist, President Walery Sławek ( 2 November 1879 &ndash 3 April 1939) was a Polish politician who in the early 1930s served three times as With a view to eliminating Slawek from the game, Mościcki concuded a power-sharing agreement with Rydz-Śmigły, which saw Slawek marginalised as a serious political player by the end of the year. As a result of this agreement, Rydz-Śmigły was to become the de facto leader of Poland, until the outbreak of the war, whilst Mościcki remained influential through continuing in the highest office of president. From 1935, Rydz saw himself rapidly elevated in rank and position. On the 15 July 1936 he was officially awarded the title of "Second Man in the State after the President", by the Polish prime minister. Events 1099 - First Crusade: Christian soldiers take the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem after the final Year 1936 ( MCMXXXVI) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. On November 10, he was promoted to the rank of Marshal of Poland (at this time he reversed the sequence of his name, calling himself Śmigły-Rydz). Events 1444 - Battle of Varna: The crusading forces of King Vladislaus III of Varna (aka Ulaszlo I of Hungary and Wladyslaw Rydz's image as Piłsudski's anointed successor was popularized by the Obóz Zjednoczenia Narodowego movement, but alienated many of Piłsudski's supporters, offended by what they saw as Rydz's acts of self-promotion. Obóz Zjednoczenia Narodowego (ˈɔbus zjɛdnɔˈtʃɛɲa narɔdɔˈvɛgɔ Polish for "Camp of National Unity" abbreviated " OZN "
The period of Rydz's rule, 1935-39, was often referred to as "a dictatorship without a dictator". Rydz lacked the moral authority of Piłsudski, and the piłsudskites were bitterly divided after 1935. The ruling regime was divided between the Mościski faction (known as the 'President's men' or the 'Castle Group'), made up mainly of civilians, and Rydz's group, known as the 'Marshal's Men', made up mostly of old comrades of Piłsudski and professional officers. Besides these two major groups, were the supporters of Slawek and other disgruntled piłsudskite groups, which were deprived of influence following the Rydz-Mościcki pact. Walery Sławek ( 2 November 1879 &ndash 3 April 1939) was a Polish politician who in the early 1930s served three times as
The regime became increasingly authoritarian and conservative. Authoritarianism describes a Form of government characterized by an emphasis on the Authority of the State in a republic or union Conservatism is a term used to describe political philosophies that favour Tradition, where tradition refers to various religious cultural or nationally defined This was exemplified by the creation of the Obóz Zjednoczenia Narodowego (Ozon) movement, which was nationalistic and anti-semitic. Obóz Zjednoczenia Narodowego (ˈɔbus zjɛdnɔˈtʃɛɲa narɔdɔˈvɛgɔ Polish for "Camp of National Unity" abbreviated " OZN " Ozon never achieved its goal of developing into a popular mass movement, and transforming Rydz into "Poland's second great leader" (after Piłsudski himself). Several of Poland's powerful politicians, including foreign minister, Jozef Beck, and Mościcki himself, made a point of distancing themselves from this movement. Beck J expose 5051939jpg|200px|thumb|right|Józef Beck delivers a speech on May 5, 1939 in Polish Sejm rejecting Hitler's demands towards Poland]] Józef Beck (
In March 1939, Hitler occupied Bohemia and Moravia and created the satellite client-state of Slovakia. Year 1939 ( MCMXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Hi and welcome to Wikipedia! Please understand that this article is frequently vandalized and vandalism is reverted immediately Bohemia (Čechy; Bohemia Czechy is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western two-thirds of the traditional Czech Lands, currently the Moravia (Morava; Morawy Moravie Moravia is a historical region in central Europe in the east of the Czech Republic, one of the former Czech lands. Satellite state is a political term that refers to a country which is formally independent but under heavy influence or control by another country Slovakia (long form Slovak Republic; Slovak:, long form, is a Landlocked country in Central Europe with a population of over five million This encircled Poland with an iron ring on all sides except the east. Rydz was the only member of the government who clearly saw the impending danger of a conflict with Germany. However, time remaining was too short for the creation of completely new Polish operation plans in the west. During negotiations in Moscow during August of 1939, Rydz refused all attempts by the Western Powers to obtain Polish permission for the Red Army to march westward, stating: "there is no guarantee that the Soviets will really take active part in the war; furthermore, once having entered Polish territory, they will never leave it". Moscow (Москва́ romanised: Moskvá, IPA: see also other names) is the Capital and the largest city of Year 1939 ( MCMXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
On 1 September 1939 when the Germans invaded Poland, Śmigły-Rydz was named Commander-in-Chief of Polish forces. The Invasion of Poland (1939 precipitated World War II. It was carried out by Nazi Germany, the Soviet Union, and a small German-allied On 7th September, along with most of the government, he evacuated Warsaw as it came under attack. Soon afterwards, Polish coordination began to suffer from communications problems, which impaired Rydz's ability to command the forces. In Brest (Brześć) on 11 September he ordered that the Polish capital be defended at all costs. In his plan, Warsaw and the nearby Modlin Fortress were to become two redoubt citadels in central Poland, fighting on for months, while the bulk of Polish forces were to defend the Romanian bridgehead and await the counterattack promised by Poland's French and British allies. Modlin Fortress ( Polish Twierdza Modlin) is one of the biggest 19th century Fortresses in Poland The Romanian Bridgehead (Przedmoście rumuńskie was an area in southeastern Poland, now located in Ukraine. Unknown to Śmigły-Rydz, the Western Allies had no such plans and expected Poland's fall. Western betrayal or Yalta betrayal are popular terms in many Central European countries especially in Poland and the Czech Republic which refers His plan was further crippled when Soviet forces attacked Poland from the east on 17th September. Realizing that defence against both neighbours was impossible, Śmigły-Rydz issued orders for Polish forces to retreat towards Romania and avoid fighting the Soviet aggressors.
After avoiding capture by Soviet and German troops, on September 18, 1939 Śmigły-Rydz, escaped to Romania and was interned. Events 96 - Nerva is proclaimed Roman Emperor after Domitian is assassinated Year 1939 ( MCMXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Polish government’s crossing into Romania prevented Poland from having to officially surrender, and allowed Polish soldiers to carry on fighting against Nazi Germany, though Rydz's flight sparked some controversy, considering his position as supreme commander of the armed forces. The European theater of World War II opened with the German invasion of Poland on September 1 1939 Large numbers of Polish soldiers and airmen escaped into southern Europe and regrouped in France, and after her surrender, in the Britain. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located
Śmigły-Rydz, as the Commander-in-Chief of Polish Armed Forces, took complete responsibility for Poland’s military defeat in the September 1939. Rydz was an extremely able Commander on smaller fronts, but was not an experienced strategist in a great conflict. In 1922, in an evaluation of Polish generals, Piłsudski had written about him: "in operational work he displays healthy common sense and a lot of stubborn energy. Year 1922 ( MCMXXII) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. I could recommend him to everybody as a commander of an army, I am however not sure if he possesses sufficient abilities to function as commander-in-chief in a war between two states. "
During his internment in Romania, Śmigły-Rydz initiated the creation of the Polish underground. The European theater of World War II opened with the German invasion of Poland on September 1 1939 This was based on officers who were loyal to the memory of Piłsudski. Still in Romania, on October 27, he relinquished his function as the Commander-in-Chief and Inspector-General of the Armed Forces. Events 312 - Constantine the Great is said to have received his famous Vision of the Cross. This role was assumed by Władysław Sikorski, who was serving in the new Polish government in exile in France (and after 1940 in the United Kingdom). Władysław Eugeniusz Sikorski (May 20 1881 – July 4 1943 pronounced) was a Polish military and political leader The Government of the Polish Republic in Exile was the government of Poland after the country had been occupied by Germany and the Soviet Union during September–October Śmigły-Rydz was transferred from the internment camp to the villa of a former Romanian prime minister in Dragoslavele, from where he escaped on 10th December 1940 and crossed illegally into Hungary.
His flight to Hungary and rumours about his planned return to Poland were a source of considerable displeasure to his rival Sikorski, now Prime Minister. Sikorski had been in opposition to Śmigły-Rydz and Piłsudski from the time of the 1926 May Coup. Sikorski declared in a telegram to General Stefan Grot-Rowecki, leader of the Armia Krajowa (AK) underground resistance in Poland: "the Polish Government will regard a sojourn of the Marshal in Poland as a sabotage of its work in the country. Stefan Paweł Rowecki (pseudonym "Grot" hence the alternate name Stefan Grot-Rowecki, December 25 1895 - August 2 1944 was a Polish general journalist Marshal of Poland ( Marszałek Polski) is the highest rank in the Polish Army. The Marshal must as soon as possible move to some country of the British Empire". The British Empire was the largest empire in history and for over a century was the foremost global power. However Śmigły-Rydz left Hungary on October 25, 1941, and travelling through Slovakia reached Poland. Events 1147 - The Portuguese, under Afonso I, and Crusaders from England and Flanders conquer Lisbon after a Year 1941 ( MCMXLI) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (the link will display 1941 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. On October 30, in strict secrecy, Śmigły came back to Warsaw to participate in the resistance movement as a common underground soldier, thus voluntarily suspending his rank of Marshal of Poland. Events 637 - Antioch surrenders to the Muslim forces under Rashidun Caliphate after the Battle of Iron bridge. Warsaw (Warszawa; also known by other names) is the Capital and Largest city of Poland. He contacted Grot-Rowecki, but did not partake in any combat as he suddenly died of heart failure on December 2, 1941, just 5 weeks after his arrival in Warsaw. Events 1409 - The University of Leipzig opens 1755 - The second Eddystone Lighthouse is destroyed by fire Year 1941 ( MCMXLI) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (the link will display 1941 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. He was buried in Warsaw under his conspiratorial name "Adam Zawisza". A pseudonym is a fictitious alternative to a person's legal name (see Alias) His grave on the Powązki Cemetery carried that name until 1991. Powązki Cemetery ( Polish Cmentarz Powązkowski) is the oldest and most famous cemetery in Warsaw, Poland, and is situated in the Year 1991 ( MCMXCI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar. A new, impressive tombstone was erected by the people of Warsaw in 1994. Year 1994 ( MCMXCIV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1994 Gregorian calendar)
Rydz was married to Marta (née Thomas) (by a previous marriage, Zaleska), who was killed in unknown circumstance in Nice in 1951. Nice (nis Niçard Occitan: Niça norm or Nissa, Italian: Nizza or Nizza Marittima, Greek Year 1951 ( MCMLI) was a Common year starting on Monday. Events of 1951 January Her body had quartered. The couple had no children.
Order of the White Eagle, Commander and Knight of Virtuti Militari, Grand Cross, Grand Officer and Officer of Order of Polonia Restituta, four times Cross of the Valiant, Golden Cross of Merit (Złoty Krzyż Zasługi), and Cross of Independence with Swords. The Order of the White Eagle (Order Orła Białego is Poland 's highest decoration awarded to both civilians and the military for their merits The Order Virtuti Militari ( Latin for "For Military Virtue" is Poland 's highest Military decoration for valor in the face of The Order of Polonia Restituta (Order Odrodzenia Polski Order of Poland Reborn is one of Poland 's highest Orders. The Cross of Valor (Krzyż Walecznych is a Polish military decoration The Cross of Merit (Krzyż Zasługi is a Polish civil state award established on June 23, 1923 to recognize services to the state Cross of Independence ( Krzyż Niepodległości) was one of the highest Polish military decorations between World Wars I and II.
Grand Cross of the Order of the Star of Romania, Grand Cross of the Order of the Crown of Italy, Grand Cross, Grand Officer and Commander of the French Order of the Legion of Honour, Grand Officer of the Finnish Order of the White Rose, Grand Cross of the Order of the White Eagle (Yugoslavia) and Order of Saint Sava of Yugoslavia, Grand Cross of the Hungarian Order of Merit, Grand Cross of the Japanese Order of the Rising Sun, Knight of Latvia's highest military award, Lāčplēsis Military Order, (the Order of the Bearslayer), Pulaski Medal (USA) and Italian Cross of Military Merit. The Order of the Star of Romania (Romanian Steaua României or Ordinul Naţional "Steaua României" - National Order "Star of The Order of the Crown of Italy (Ordine della Corona d'Italia was an order conferred by the Kingdom of Italy. The Order of the White Rose of Finland ( Valkoisen Ruusun ritarikunta) is one of three official orders in Finland, along with the Order of the King Milan I of Serbia instituted the Order of the White Eagle on 23 January 1883, concurrently with the Order of St The Order of St Sava was a decoration instituted by the order King Milan I of Serbia in 1883 The Order of the Rising Sun (旭日章 Kyokujitsu shō ? Latvia ( Latvija officially the Republic of Latvia (Latvijas Republika is a Country in Northern Europe in the Baltic region. The first and the highest Latvian Military Award (the Bear-slayer was established in 1919 on the initiative of the Supreme Commander of Latvia's Army Colonel Janis Balodis The first and the highest Latvian Military Award (the Bear-slayer was established in 1919 on the initiative of the Supreme Commander of Latvia's Army Colonel Janis Balodis
Rydz was Honorary Doctor of the Universities of Warsaw and Vilnius (at that time in Poland) and Warsaw Polytechnic and Honorary Citizen of various Polish cities. Warsaw University of Technology ( Polish: Politechnika Warszawska) is the largest academic school of technology in Poland, and one of the largest in
Edward Rydz-Śmigły's reputation after World War II was mixed. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including In communist Poland and the Soviet Union, he was decried for his participation in the Polish-Soviet War in 1920, and the political repression under his military government of the late 1930s. The People's Republic of Poland or Polish People's Republic ( Polish: Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa, PRL Russian The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 Year 1920 ( MCMXX) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display 1920 of the Gregorian calendar The 1930s were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression. In the West, due to the influence of anti-Piłsudski circles with Władysław Sikorski as their foremost representative, he was seen as having fled from the battlefield in 1939, with little recognition given to the circumstances of Poland's defeat by the Germans and Soviets. Władysław Eugeniusz Sikorski (May 20 1881 – July 4 1943 pronounced) was a Polish military and political leader Year 1939 ( MCMXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
|General Inspector of the Armed Forces|
Military Tactics and Theory
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