Education in Poland starts at the age of six (or seven) years in primary school (Polish szkoła podstawowa). See also Primary education A primary school (from French école primaire) is an institution where children receive the first stage of Compulsory Polish ( język polski, polszczyzna) is the Official language of Poland. Next is the lower secondary level consisting of three years in gymnasium (gimnazjum), starting at the age of 13, ends with an exam. A gymnasium (pronounced with ɡ- in several languages is a type of school providing Secondary education in some parts of Europe, comparable to English grammar This is followed by upper secondary level, which has several alternatives, the most common being the three years in a liceum or four years in a technikum. Technicum ( Russian: те́хникум tekhnikum,) was a Soviet mass-education facility of "special middle education" category 1 step higher Both end with a maturity examination (matura, roughly equivalent to British A-levels examination and quite similar to French baccalauréat), and may be followed by several forms of upper education, leading to licencjat or inżynier (Polish equivalents of Bachelor's degree), magister (Polish equivalent of Master's degree) and eventually doktor (Polish equivalent of Ph. D. degree). Matura (Matur Maturita Maturità Maturität матура is the word commonly used in Austria, Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The A-level, short for Advanced Level, is a General Certificate of Education qualification in England, Northern Ireland and Wales, The baccalauréat (bakaloʁeˈa often known in France colloquially as le bac or le bachôt, is an academic qualification which A bachelor's degree is usually an Undergraduate Academic degree awarded for a course or major that generally lasts for three four or in some cases and Doktor nauk (доктор наук literally transtated as " Doctor of Sciences quot is a Higher doctorate degree the second and the highest post-graduate academic "PhD" redirects here for other uses see PhD (disambiguation.
The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth's Commission of National Education (Polish: Komisja Edukacji Narodowej) formed in 1773 counts as the first Ministry of Education in the history of humankind. The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, officially the Commonwealth of the Crown of the Polish Kingdom and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania also known as the Most Serene Republic The Commission of National Education (Komisja Edukacji Narodowej abbreviated KEN) was the central educational authority in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, created Year 1773 ( MDCCLXXIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common
During partitions of Poland and Second World War, many of Poland's education was carried on in secret (see Education in Poland during World War II and Flying University). The Partitions of Poland or Partitions of the Polish Lithuanian Commonwealth took place in the second half of the 18th century and ended the existence of the World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including This article covers the topic of underground education in Poland (Tajne szkolnictwo or pl tajne komplety) during World War II Flying University (Uniwersytet Latający sometimes also translated "Floating University" was the name of an underground Educational ref name ="LDJK"> suppp
The education in the People's Republic of Poland had on one hand vastly improved the literacy of all students, on the other hand it some sciences (especially history and economics) have suffered from communist preference to propaganda over facts. Education in the People's Republic of Poland was controlled by the Communist state, which provided Primary schools Secondary schools Vocational
Polish education system was reformed in 1999. Year 1999 ( MCMXCIX) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar) Primary school was shortened from 8 to 6 years, and high school was changed from 4 year liceum into 3 year gymnasium and 3 year liceum.
There are a few slightly incompatible grading systems used in the Polish education.
In the lower education the old system used up to the early 1990s was:
The grades were used to rate each student's performance at the end of a school year and getting a 2 meant that the student would have to repeat the class or correct the grade by taking an additional exam (egzamin komisyjny) before a committee specially assembled for the exam. Grades 3 and higher allowed to proceed to the next class.
The grades given for individual assignments, exams etc. during the school year were based on the same scale, but allowed also intermediate grades, made by adding a plus, a minus or, in case of some teachers, a double minus, to the base grade. These "fractional" grades had no official recognition in the system of final grades, but the common practice was to base the final grade on the average of all the grades accumulated over the year. Fulfilling all the expectations usually meant a 5, with 5+ being occasionally given as an "exceeds expectations" grade.
The full scale was therefore:
(where "=" did not mean "equals" but was a common way of writing "a double minus" by those teachers that used such grades)
In the early 1990s the system was extended by introducing new grades, 1 and 6.
In the new system, 1 is the failing grade, 2 to 5 are normal passing grades, and 6 means that the student exceeded the expectations. The system is used like the old one. Adding minuses to a 6 is extremely uncommon. The performance that is better than 5 but does not deserve a 6 is usually graded 5+.
So the full scale is:
Grades below the lowest official passing grades, that is 3=/3- in the old system or 2=/2- in the new one, in case of some teachers mean that an extra examination is necessary before passing the student.
Because getting a 1 (2 in the old system) in any subject means that the student has to repeat the year, including all subjects that were passed, the teachers are very reluctant to give a failing grade and usually allow some form of special examination in the last weeks of the year to correct the grade to 2 (respectively 3). For the same reason, the failing grades are usually only given in the "important" subjects (like Polish language or mathematics).
The university-level education uses a numeric system of grades from 2 to 5, with grades every 0. 5.
There is no 2. 5 grade. 5. 5 or 6. 0 is sometimes given as an "exceeds expectations" grade, but this differs among various universities and may be equivalent to 5. 0 for some purposes. "3-" is occasionally (but very rarely) given as a "barely passing" grade, but for all official purposes it is equivalent to 3. 0.
The grading is done every semester (twice a year), not once in a school year. Depending on the subject, the final grade may be based on the result of a single exam, or on the student's performance during the whole semester. In the latter case, usually a point system, not the 2-5 scale is used. The points accumulated during the semester are added and converted to a final grade according to some scale.
As a failing grade means merely having to repeat the failed subject, and can usually be corrected on a retake exam (and in some cases also on a special "committee exam"), it is used much more liberally, and it is quite common for a significant number of students to fail a class on the first attempt.
Students in Polish schools typically learn one or two foreign languages at schools. Generally, in 2005/06 the most popular obligatory foreign languages in Polish schools were:
In 2005/06 there were 49,200 students in schools for national minorities, most of them in German, Kashubian, Ukrainian and Belarusian . The German language (de ''Deutsch'') is a West Germanic language and one of the world's major languages. Kashubian or Cassubian (Kashubian kaszëbsczi jãzëk, pòmòrsczi jãzëk, kaszëbskò-słowińskô mòwa; język kaszubski is one of Ukrainian (in Ukrainian украї́нська мо́ва ukrayins'ka mova,) is a language of the East Slavic subgroup of the Slavic languages. The Belarusian language, or Belorussian,(беларуская мова BGN/PCGN: byelaruskaya mova, Scientific: belaruskaja mova