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Economic freedom is freedom to produce, trade and consume any goods and services acquired without the use of force, fraud or theft. Freedom, or the idea of being free is a broad concept that Political freedom is the absence of interference with the sovereignty of an individual by the use of coercion or aggression Liberty, the freedom to act or believe without being stopped by unnecessary force Freedom of assembly, sometimes used interchangeably with the Freedom of association, is the Individual right to come together with other individuals and collectively Freedom of association is the Individual right to come together with other individuals and collectively express promote pursue and defend common interests thumb| |Broken Liberty Istanbul Archaeology Museum Civil liberties are freedoms that protect the Individual from the Government. Freedom of movement, mobility rights or the right to travel is a Human rights concept which is respected in the Constitutions of numerous Freedom Constitutional or statutory protections pertaining to freedom of the press Freedom of religion is the freedom of an individual or community in public or private to manifest religion or belief in teaching practice worship and observance Freedom of speech is the freedom to speak freely without Censorship or Limitation. Freedom of thought (also called freedom of conscience and freedom of ideas) is the freedom of an individual to hold or consider a fact viewpoint The right of self-defense (also called alter ego defense, defense of others, defense of a third person) is the right for civilians acting on their Censorship is the suppression of speech or deletion of communicative material which may be considered objectionable harmful or sensitive as determined by a censor Coercion (co-er-shion is the practice of compelling a person or manipulating them to behave in an involuntary way (whether through action or inaction by use of threats Children's rights are the Human rights of Children with particular attention to the rights of special protection and care afforded to the young including their Human rights refers to the "basic Rights and freedoms to which all humans are entitled There are several Non-governmental organizations that publish and maintain assessments of the state of freedom in the world according to their own various definitions of Media Transparency is the concept of determining how and why Information is conveyed through various means The concept of negative liberty refers to freedom from interference by other people ||-||} Positive liberty refers to the opportunity and ability to act to fulfill one's own potential as opposed to Negative liberty, which refers to freedom from Freedom, or the idea of being free is a broad concept that Economic freedom is embodied in the rule of law, property rights and freedom of contract, and characterized by external and internal openness of the markets, the protection of property rights and freedom of economic initiative. . In the present the concept, as it is most used, is usually associated with a free market system. A free market is a Market in which property rights are voluntarily exchanged at a price arranged completely by the mutual consent of sellers and buyers Many rankings try to measure it, such as the Index of Economic Freedom. The Index of Economic Freedom is a series of 10 economic measurements created by the Wall Street Journal and The Heritage Foundation to measure the degree of Economic freedom Empirical studies have found that, among other beneficial effects, economic freedom promotes economic growth and poverty reduction. 
One of the prerequisites for economic freedom is the rule of law; fundamentally, the government must be ruled by the law and be subject to it. The rule of law, in its most basic form is the principle that no one is above the law  The rule of law requires the existence of widely shared cultural values and ethical norms; in the absence of a widespread social concept of justice, the state, or people in power, can violate the rights of citizens, sometimes by turning one group against another. In such conditions government can issue arbitrary and inconsistent decrees that dissimulate individuals by creating uncertainty about consequences of their actions. However, the certainty of law does not mean absence of any change but absence of perpetual and unpredictable changes in laws. Absence of such changes is highly important for the efficient running of a free society and economic coordination. For example, prominent economist and political philosopher Friedrich Hayek had argued that the certainty of law contributed to the prosperity of the West more that any other single factor. Friedrich August von Hayek CH ( May 8, 1899 March 23, 1992) was an Austrian British Economist Other important principles of the rule of law are the generality and equality of the law, which require that all legal rules apply equally to everybody. Equality before the law or equality under the law or legal egalitarianism is the principle under which each individual is subject to the same laws with no individual These principles can be seen as safeguards against severe restrictions on liberty, because they require that all laws equally apply to those people who have political and coercive power and to those who are governed. Principles of the generality and equality of the law exclude special privileges and arbitrary application of law, i. e. favoring one group at the expense of other citizens.  According to Friedrich Hayek, equality before the law is incompatible with any activity of the government aiming to achieve the material equality of different people. Equality of outcome or equality of condition is a form of Egalitarianism which seeks to reduce or eliminate differences in material condition between individuals or He asserts that a state's attempt to place people in the same (or similar) material position leads to an unequal treatment of individuals and to a compulsory redistribution of income.  Both of those actions are contributing to a decline in economic freedom.
Secure system of private property rights is an essential part of economic freedom. That system is represented by two main rights, the right to control and benefit from property and the right to transfer property by voluntary means. These rights offer people the possibility of autonomy and self-determination according to theirs personal values and goals.  Milton Friedman sees property rights as "the most basic of human rights and an essential foundation for other human rights. Milton Friedman (July 31 1912 November 16 2006 was an American Nobel Laureate Economist and Public intellectual. " With property rights protected, people are free to choose the use of their property, earn on it, and transfer it to anyone else, as long as they do it on a voluntary basis and do not resort to force, fraud or theft. In such conditions most people can achieve much greater personal freedom and development than under a regime of government coercion. Secure system of property rights also reduces uncertainty and encourages investments, creating favorable conditions for economy to be successful.  Empirical evidence suggests that countries with strong property rights systems have economic growth rates almost twice as high as those of countries with weak property rights system, and that a market system with significant private property rights is an essential, although not only, condition for democracy.  According to Hernando De Soto, much of the poverty in the Third World countries is caused by the lack of Western systems of laws and well-defined and universally recognized property rights. Hernando de Soto ( Jerez de los Caballeros, Badajoz, Spain, c De Soto argues that because of the legal barriers poor people in those countries can not utilize their assets to produce more wealth. 
Freedom of contract is the right to choose one's contracting parties and to trade with them on any terms and conditions one sees fit. Freedom of contract or contractualism is the idea that individuals should be free to bargain among themselves the terms of their own contracts without government interference Contracts permit individuals to create their own enforceable legal rules, adapted to their unique situations.  Parties decide whether contracts are profitable or fair, but once a contract is made they are obliged to fulfill its terms, even if they are going to sustain losses by doing so. Through making binding promises people are free to pursue their own interest. Main economic function of contracts is to provide transferability of property rights. Transferability largely depends on the enforceability of contracts, which is enabled by the judicial system. In Western societies the state does not enforce all types of contracts, and in some cases it intervenes by prohibiting certain arrangements, even if they are made between willing parties. However, not all contracts need to be enforced by the state. For example, in the United States there is a large number of third-party arbitration tribunals which resolve disputes under private commercial law. Arbitration, a form of Alternative dispute resolution (ADR is a legal technique for the resolution of Disputes outside the Courts wherein the  Negatively understood, freedom of contract is freedom from government interference and from imposed value judgments of fairness. Notion of 'freedom of contract' was given one of its most famous legal expression in 1875 by Sir George Jessel MR:
|“||[I]f there is one thing more than another public policy requires it is that men of full age and competent understanding shall have the utmost liberty of contracting, and that their contracts when entered into freely and voluntarily shall be held sacred and shall be enforced by courts of justice. Sir George Jessel ( 13 February 1824 &ndash 21 March 1883) a British Judge, was born in London. The Keeper or Master of the Rolls and Records of the Chancery of England, known as the Master of the Rolls, is the third most senior judge of England and Therefore, you have this paramount public policy to consider – that you are not lightly to interfere with this freedom of contract.||”|
Economic and political freedom both include the freedom from coercion from other individuals and the government. The political and civil liberties have simultaneously expanded with market-based economies, and there are growing empirical evidence that economic and political freedoms are linked. 
Austro-English economist and philosopher Friedrich Hayek argued thus in The Road to Serfdom that "Economic control is not merely control of a sector of human life which can be separated from the rest; it is the control of the means for all our ends. Friedrich August von Hayek CH ( May 8, 1899 March 23, 1992) was an Austrian British Economist The Road to Serfdom is a book written by Friedrich Hayek (recipient of the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences in 1974 which has significantly "
American economist Milton Friedman developped a similar argument in Capitalism and Freedom (1962) : economic freedom, while itself an extremely important component of total freedom, is a necessary condition for political freedom. Milton Friedman (July 31 1912 November 16 2006 was an American Nobel Laureate Economist and Public intellectual. Capitalism and Freedom is a book by Milton Friedman originally published in 1962 which discusses the role of Economic Capitalism in Friedman has commented that centralized control of economic activities was always accompanied with political repression. A planned economy or directed economy is an Economic system in which the Government or Workers' councils manages the Economy. In his view, voluntary character of all transactions in a free market economy and wide diversity that it permits are fundamental threats to repressive political leaders and greatly diminish power to coerce. Through elimination of centralized control of economic activities, economic power is separated from political power, and the one can serve as counterbalance to the other. Economic freedom, embodied by impersonal market forces, also protects people from discrimination in their economic activities for reasons unrelated to their productivity, and because of that Friedman feels that economic freedom of competitive capitalism is especially important to minority groups, who could otherwise be too easily affected by the hostility of the majority. 
The separation or structural-functional differentiation of the economy and the polity under basic law is equivalent to (say) the constitutional separation of organized religion and the state. An economy is the realized social system of production exchange distribution and consumption of goods and services of a country or other area Polity ( Greek: Πολιτεία or Πολίτευμα transliterated as Politeía or Políteuma) was originally a term used in Ancient Greece The term basic law is used in some places as an alternative to " Constitution " implying it is a temporary but necessary measure without formal enactment A religion is a set of Tenets and practices often centered upon specific Supernatural and moral claims about Reality, the Cosmos A state is a political association with effective Sovereignty over a geographic Area and representing a Population. It is also analogous to the division of powers within the state between the legislature, the executive, and the judiciary. A superior court will prevent the public authorities from assaulting economic rights and freedoms in the same way that it stops them from curbing freedom of the press or undermining judicial independence and the rule of law (etc. In Common law systems a superior court is a Court of general Competence which typically has unlimited Jurisdiction with regard to civil and Freedom Constitutional or statutory protections pertaining to freedom of the press Judicial independence is the doctrine that decisions of the Judiciary should be impartial and not subject to influence from the other branches of government or from private or The rule of law, in its most basic form is the principle that no one is above the law ).
In America, liberal political economists such as Milton Friedman have proposed various amendments to the US Constitution and US Bill of Rights not only to better protect basic economic rights and freedoms from official assault but also to prevent the authorities from abusing their monetary and fiscal economic power – and so ensure continuing low inflation (etc. Milton Friedman (July 31 1912 November 16 2006 was an American Nobel Laureate Economist and Public intellectual. The Constitution of the United States of America is the supreme Law of the United States. In the United States the Bill of Rights is the name by which the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution are known ). Specifically with regards to protecting freedom of prices and wages – vital for the efficient functioning and maintenance of a market economy – Milton Friedman and Rose D. Friedman have argued that:
“We need here the exact counterpart of the First Amendment: Congress shall make no laws abridging the freedom of sellers of goods or labour to price their products or services. ”
Essentially, the case for the more effective constitutional legal protection of economic rights and freedoms is that this will boost economic growth and prosperity, democracy, and civil rights and freedoms generally in society. This applies to Britain and other countries as much as to the United States. In the UK, the basic (constitutional) legal protection of economic rights and freedoms under a new British Bill of Rights might entail prohibiting elected politicians and bureaucrats from:
However, the introduction of a new indigenous Bill of Rights comprehensively upholding economic rights and freedoms in the UK would almost certainly entail British withdrawal from the European Union – because of the numerous official restrictions on free trade, markets, and business enterprise inherent in EU bloc membership. The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in 
The annual surveys Economic Freedom of the World and Index of Economic Freedom are two indices which attempt to measure the degree of economic freedom, using a definition for this similar to laissez-faire capitalism, in the world's nations. See also Index of Economic Freedom The annual survey Economic Freedom of the World is an indicator which attempts to measure the degree of Economic The Index of Economic Freedom is a series of 10 economic measurements created by the Wall Street Journal and The Heritage Foundation to measure the degree of Economic freedom Laissez-faire ( pronunciation: French,; English,) is a French phrase literally meaning Let do (“allow to do” Capitalism is the Economic system in which the Means of production are owned by private Persons and operated for Profit and where These surveys have shown that economic freedom correlates strongly with higher average income per person, higher income of the poorest 10%, higher life expectancy, higher literacy, lower infant mortality, higher access to water sources and less corruption.  The people living in the top one-fifth of the most free countries enjoy an average income of $23,450 and a growth rate in the 1990s of 2. 56 percent per year; in contrast, the bottom one-fifth in the rankings had an average income of just $2,556 and a -0. 85 percent growth rate in the 1990s. The poorest 10 percent of the population have an average income of just $728 in the least economically free countries compared with over $7,000 in the freest countries. The life expectancy of people living in the freest nations is 20 years longer than for people in the least free countries.  According to the Economic Freedom of the World 2005, the world economic freedom score has grown considerably in recent decades. The average score has increased from 5. 17 in 1985 to 6. 4 in 2005. Of the nations in 1985, 95 nations increased their score, seven saw a decline, and six were unchanged.
|Worldwide index of economic freedom 2008 - top and bottom 15 rankings|
published by The Wall Street Journal and the Heritage Foundation