|Borough of Eastbourne|
Borough of Eastbourne shown within East Sussex
|Area||17. East Sussex is a county in South East England. It is bordered by the counties of Kent, Surrey and West Sussex, and to the Area is a Quantity expressing the two- Dimensional size of a defined part of a Surface, typically a region bounded by a closed Curve. 1 sq mi (44. The square mile is an imperial and US unit of Area equal the area of a square of one statute mile. 2 km²)|
89,667 (2001 Census)
|- Density||5,561/sq mi (2,147/km²)|
|OS grid reference|
|- London||54 miles (87 km) NNW|
|Shire county||East Sussex|
|Sovereign state||United Kingdom|
|Ambulance||South East Coast|
|European Parliament||South East England|
|List of places: UK • England • East Sussex|
Eastbourne (East Sussex, on the south coast of England, with an estimated population of 94,816 as of 2007. Square Kilometre ( US spelling square kilometer) symbol km2, is a decimal multiple of the SI unit of In Biology a population is the collection of inter-breeding organisms of a particular Species; in Sociology Population density (in agriculture standing stock and Standing crop) is a measurement of Population per unit area or unit volume The British national grid reference system is a system of geographic grid references commonly used in Great Britain, different from using Latitude and Longitude London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. The districts of England are a level of subnational division of England used for the purposes of local government Metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties are one of the four levels of Subdivisions of England used for the purposes of Local government outside Greater London East Sussex is a county in South East England. It is bordered by the counties of Kent, Surrey and West Sussex, and to the The region, also known as the government office region, is currently the highest tier of local government sub-national entity of England, with only one South East England is one of the nine official Regions of England. Constituent country is a phrase used often by official institutions in contexts in which a country makes up a part of a larger entity or grouping England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland This list of sovereign states, alphabetically arranged gives an overview of States around the world with information on the extent of their Sovereignty. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located A post town is a required part of all postal addresses in the United Kingdom, and a basic unit of the postal delivery system UK Postal codes are known as postcodes. UK postcodes are Alphanumeric. The, also known as the Brighton postcode area, is a group of postal districts around Arundel, Brighton, Eastbourne, Hailsham, The UK Telephone numbering plan, also known as the National Telephone Numbering Plan, is the system used for assigning Telephone numbers in the United There are a number of law enforcement agencies in the United Kingdom. Sussex Police is the Home Office police force responsible for policing East Sussex, West Sussex and City of Brighton and Hove in southern The fire service in the United Kingdom operates under separate legislative and administrative arrangements in England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and The East Sussex Fire & Rescue Service is the statutory fire and rescue service for the county of East Sussex and city of Brighton and Hove The South East Coast Ambulance Service (SECAmb is the NHS Ambulance Services Trust for south-eastern England, covering Kent (including Medway South East England is a Constituency of the European Parliament. This is a list of the 646 constituencies currently represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, as at the 2005 general election Eastbourne is a parliamentary constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. A Gazetteer of place names in the United Kingdom showing each place's County, Unitary authority or council area and its geographical coordinates List of places --> List of cities in the United Kingdom List of towns in England Lists of places This is a list of cities, Towns and Villages in the County of East Sussex, England. A geographic coordinate system enables every location on the Earth to be specified in three coordinates using mainly a spherical coordinate system. East Sussex is a county in South East England. It is bordered by the counties of Kent, Surrey and West Sussex, and to the England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland  The area has seen human activity since the stone age and it remained one of small settlements until the 19th century when its four hamlets gradually merged to form a town. Assisted by the arrival of the railway, Eastbourne became a prime Victorian seaside resort. It has since suffered from the general trend away from taking holidays within the United Kingdom. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located) is a large town and borough of
Eastbourne is situated at the eastern end of the South Downs alongside the famous Beachy Head cliff. The South Downs is one of the four areas of Chalk Downland in southern England. Beachy Head is a Chalk headland on the south coast of England, close to the town of Eastbourne in the county of East Sussex, The sheltered position of the main town behind the cliff contributes to Eastbournes title of sunniest place in Great Britain. 
Although Eastbourne has some industrial trading estates, it is essentially a seaside resort and derives its main income from tourism. Its facilities include four theatres, numerous parks, a bandstand and museums. The focus of the tourism trade is the four miles (6 km) of shingle beach, lined with a seafront of hotels and guest houses.
The area around Eastbourne is known to have been settled throughout history. Flint mines and other Stone Age artefacts have been found in the surrounding countryside, and there are Roman sites within the modern boundaries of the town. The Stone Age is a broad prehistoric time period during which Humans widely used stone for toolmaking Roman Britain refers to those parts of the island of Great Britain controlled by the Roman Empire between AD 43 and 410 In 1717, a Roman bath and section of pavement were discovered between the present pier and the redoubt fortress in the hamlet then known as Sea Houses, while in 1841, the remains of a Roman villa were found near the entrance to the pier and lie buried near the present Queens Hotel.  An Anglo-Saxon charter, circa 963 AD, describes a landing stage and stream at Bourne. Sub-Roman Britain is a term derived from an Archaeologists ' label for the material culture of Britain in Late Antiquity. Following the Norman Conquest, the Hundred of what is now Eastbourne, was held by Robert, Count of Mortain, William the Conqueror's half brother. Robert Count of Mortain was the half-brother of William I of England. William I of England ( 1027 His reign which brought Norman culture to England had an enormous impact on the subsequent course of England in the Middle Ages The Domesday Book lists 28 ploughlands, a church, a watermill, fisheries and salt pans. The Domesday Book (ˈduːmzdeɪ bʊk also known as Domesday, or Book of Winchester) was the record of the great survey 
A charter for a weekly market was granted to Bartholomew de Badlesmere in 1315-16; this increased his status as Lord of the Manor and improved local industry.  During the Middle Ages the town was visited by King Henry I and in 1324 by Edward II. Henry I (c 1068/1069 – 1 December 1135) was the fourth son of William I the Conqueror, the first King of England after the Norman For the play see Edward II (play. For the film see Edward II (film.  Evidence of Eastbourne's medieval past can seen in the fourteenth century Church of St Mary's and the manor house called Bourne Place. This manor house is owned by the Dukes of Devonshire and was extensively remodelled in the early Georgian era when it was renamed Compton Place. Duke of Devonshire is a title in the Peerage of England held by members of the aristocratic Cavendish family The arts Especially during the mid-18th century the period was marked by cultural vibrancy with the establishment of the British Museum in 1753 and the contributions In the mid-sixteenth century the house was home to the Burton family, who acquired much of the land on which the present town stands. It is one of the three Grade 1 listed buildings in the town. A listed building in the United Kingdom is a building or other structure officially designated as being of special architectural historical or cultural significance 
Eastbourne's earliest claim as a seaside resort came about following a summer holiday visit by four of King George III's children in 1780 (Princes Edward and Octavius, and Princesses Elizabeth and Sophia). George III (George William Frederick 4 June 1738 George III's long reign was marked by a series of military conflicts involving his kingdom much of the rest of Europe and places The Prince Edward Duke of Kent and Strathearn (Edward Augustus 2 November 1767 &ndash 23 January 1820 was a member of the British Royal Family, the fourth son of King The Prince Octavius ( 23 February 1779 - 3 May 1783) was a member of the British Royal Family, the thirteenth child and eighth son The Princess Elizabeth (22 May 1770 – 10 January 1840 was a member of the British Royal Family, the 7th child and 3rd daughter of George III of the United Kingdom The Princess Sophia (Sophia Matilda 2 November 1777 – 27 May 1848 was a member of the British Royal Family, the twelfth child and fifth daughter of George III. 
In 1793, following a survey of coastal defences in the southeast, approval was given for the positioning of infantry and artillery to defend the bay between Beachy Head and Hastings from attack by the French. Eastbourne Redoubt is a fort on what is now Royal Parade Eastbourne, East Sussex, England. 14 Martello Towers were constructed along the western shore of Pevensey Bay, continuing as far as Tower 73, the Wish Tower at Eastbourne. Martello towers (or simply Martellos) are small defensive forts built in several countries of the British Empire during the 19th century from the time Several of these towers survive: the Wish Tower is an important feature of the town's seafront, and part of Tower 68 forms the basement of a house on St. Antony's Hill. Between 1805 and 1807, the construction took place of a fortress known as the Eastbourne Redoubt, which was built as a barracks and storage depot, and armed with 10 cannons. Eastbourne Redoubt is a fort on what is now Royal Parade Eastbourne, East Sussex, England. 
Eastbourne remained an area of small rural settlements until the 19th century. Four villages or hamlets occupied the site of the modern town: Bourne (or, to distinguish it from others of the same name, East Bourne), is now known as Old Town, and this surrounded the bourne (stream) which rises in the present Motcombe Park; Meads, where the Downs meet the coast; South Bourne (near the town hall); and the fishing settlement known simply as Sea Houses, which was situated to the east of the present pier. 
By the mid–19th century most of the area had fallen into the hands of two landowners: John Davies Gilbert (the Davies-Gilbert family still own much of the land in Eastbourne and East Dean) and William Cavendish, Earl of Burlington. Martello towers (or simply Martellos) are small defensive forts built in several countries of the British Empire during the 19th century from the time John Davies Gilbert ( 5 December 1811 - 16 April 1854) but does not seem to have published any scientific papers The Davies-Gilbert family is one of Britain's most prestigious families East Dean and Friston is a Civil parish in the Wealden District of East Sussex, England. William Cavendish 7th Duke of Devonshire, KG, PC ( 27 April 1808 – 21 December 1891) known as Lord Cavendish of  Encouraged by the growing appreciation of the seaside sparked by Richard Russell's assertion of its medicinal benefits in 1752, these were to oversee the creation of what became known as "the Empress of Watering Places". Richard Russell (1687 &ndash 1759 was an eighteenth century British doctor who encouraged his patients to use what was later called the " water cure 
An early plan, for a town named Burlington, was abandoned, but on 14 May 1849 the London, Brighton and South Coast Railway arrived to scenes of great jubilation. Events 1264 - Battle of Lewes: Henry III of England is captured in France making Simon de Montfort the Year 1849 ( MDCCCXLIX) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common The London Brighton and South Coast Railway (LB&SCR (commonly known as "the Brighton line" was a Railway company in the United Kingdom from 1846 to 1923 With the arrival of the railway, the town's growth accelerated. Cavendish, now the 7th Duke of Devonshire, hired Henry Currey in 1859 to lay out a plan for what was essentially an entire new town — a resort built "for gentlemen by gentlemen". Duke of Devonshire is a title in the Peerage of England held by members of the aristocratic Cavendish family The town grew rapidly from a population of less than 4,000 in 1851 to nearly 35,000 by 1891. In 1883, it was incorporated as a municipal borough; a purpose-built town hall was opened in 1886. 
This period of growth and elegant development continued for several decades. A royal visit by George V and Queen Mary in March 1935 is commemorated by a plaque on chalet number 2 at Holywell.
World War II saw a change in fortunes. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including Initially, children were evacuated to Eastbourne on the assumption that they would be safe from German bombs, but soon they had to be evacuated again because after the fall of France in June 1940 it was anticipated that the town would lie in an invasion zone. Part of Operation Sealion, the German invasion plan, envisaged landings at Eastbourne. Operation Sealion (Unternehmen Seelöwe was Germany's plan to invade the United Kingdom during World War II, beginning in 1940 Many people sought safety away from the coast and shut up their houses. Restrictions on visitors forced the closure of most hotels, and private boarding schools moved away. Many of these empty buildings were later taken over by the services. The Royal Navy set up an underwater weapons school, and the Royal Air Force operated radar stations at Beachy Head and on the marshes near Pevensey. Beachy Head is a Chalk headland on the south coast of England, close to the town of Eastbourne in the county of East Sussex, Pevensey is a Village and Civil parish in the Wealden district of East Sussex, England. Thousands of Canadian soldiers were billeted in and around Eastbourne from July 1941 to the run-up to D-Day. D-Day may also refer to Decimal Day in the United Kingdom. D-Day is a term often used in Military parlance to denote  The town suffered badly during the war, with many Victorian and Edwardian buildings damaged or destroyed by air raids. Indeed, by the end of the conflict it was designated by the Home Office to have been ‘the most raided town in the South East region’. The situation was especially bad between May 1942 and June 1943 with hit–and–run raids from fighter–bombers based in northern France. 
In the summer of 1956 the town came to national and worldwide attention, when Dr John Bodkin Adams, a general practitioner serving the town's wealthier patients, was arrested for the murder of an elderly widow. Eastbourne Pier is a seaside pleasure Pier in Eastbourne, East Sussex, on the south coast of England. John Bodkin Adams ( January 21, 1899 &ndash July 4, 1983) was an Irish-born British General practitioner, convicted A general practitioner, or GP is a medical practitioner who provides Primary care and specializes in Family medicine. Edith Alice Morrell (1868 – 13 November 1950) was a resident of Eastbourne and patient of the suspected Serial killer John Bodkin Adams Rumours had been circulating since 1935 regarding the frequency of his being named in patients' wills (132 times between 1946 and 1956) and the gifts he was given (including two Rolls Royces). Figures of up to 400 murders were reported in British and foreign newspapers, but after a controversial trial at the Old Bailey which gripped the nation for 17 days in March 1957, Adams was found not guilty. The Central Criminal Court in England, commonly known as the Old Bailey, is a court In Criminal law, an acquittal is a verdict of not guilty, or some similar end of the proceeding that terminates it with prejudice without a verdict He was struck off for 4 years but resumed his practice in Eastbourne in 1961. Struck off means "to be removed" usually from a position of power or responsibility or stature According to Scotland Yard's archives, he is thought to have killed up to 163 patients in the Eastbourne area. New Scotland Yard or Scotland Yard, informally known as The Yard and NSY, is the headquarters of the Metropolitan Police Service, responsible 
After the war, development continued, including the growth of Old Town up the hillside (Green Street Farm Estate) and the housing estates of Hampden Park, Willingdon Trees and Langney. Hampden Park is a suburb of Eastbourne. It is notable for its unique railway station where local trains on the East Coastway Line stop twice and is currently the Langney is a distinct part of Eastbourne, East Sussex and is on the eastern side of the popular retirement resort During the latter half of the 20th century, there were controversies over the loss of historic landmarks and natural features, and over particular buildings. These factors, later exacerbated in 1965 by the construction on the seafront of the 19–storey South Cliff Tower, followed by the glass-plated TGWU headquarters, caused a storm of protest which resulted in the founding in 1961 of what has since become The Eastbourne Society.  In 1981, a large section of the town centre was replaced by the indoor shops of the Arndale Centre. Arndale Centres were the first "American-style" malls to be built in the United Kingdom. Most of the expansion took place on the northern and eastern margins of the town, gradually swallowing surrounding villages. However, the richer western part was constrained by the Downs and has remained largely unchanged.
In the 1990s, both growth and controversy accelerated rapidly as a new plan was launched to develop the area known as the Crumbles, a shingle bank on the coast to the east of the town centre. This area, now known as Sovereign Harbour, containing a marina, shops, and several thousand houses, along with luxury flats and apartments, was formerly home to many rare plants. Sovereign Harbour is a development of the beachlands east of Eastbourne formally known as the Crumbles Continued growth in other parts of the town, and the taming of the central marshland into farmland and nature reserves, has turned Eastbourne into the centre of a conurbation, with the appearance from above of a hollow ring. Currently under review is the demolition of much of the town centre, to be replaced by a modern shopping centre, and the adaptation of several existing roads to form an inner ring road. 
The South Downs dominate Eastbourne and can be seen from most of the town. The South Downs is one of the four areas of Chalk Downland in southern England. These were originally chalk deposits laid down under the sea during the Upper Cretaceous period, and were later lifted by the same tectonic plate movements that formed the European Alps, during the middle Tertiary period. The Cretaceous (kriːˈteɪʃəs, usually abbreviated 'K' for its German translation "Kreide" is a geologic period and system, reaching from the end of Plate tectonics (from Greek τέκτων tektōn "builder" or "mason" describes the large scale motions of Earth 's Lithosphere The chuprichondira geological time interval covers roughly the time span between the demise of the non- avian Dinosaurs and beginning of the most recent Ice Age, approximately  The chalk can be clearly seen along the eroded coastline to the West of the town, in the area known as Beachy Head and the Seven Sisters, where continuous erosion keeps the cliff edge vertical and white. Beachy Head is a Chalk headland on the south coast of England, close to the town of Eastbourne in the county of East Sussex, The Seven Sisters are a series of Chalk cliffs by the English Channel. The chalk contains many fossils such as ammonites and nautilus. Ammonites are an extinct group of marine animals of the subclass Ammonoidea in the class Cephalopoda phylum Nautilus (from Greek ναυτίλος, 'sailor' is the common name of any marine creatures of the Cephalopod family Nautilidae, the sole 
The town of Eastbourne is built on geologically recent alluvial drift, the result of the silting up of a bay. Alluvium (from the Latin, alluvius, from alluere, "to wash against" is Soil or Sediments deposited by a river or other running This changes to Weald clay around the Langney estate. The Weald (wɪəld is the name given to a physiographic area in south-east England situated between the parallel Chalk Escarpments of the North Langney is a distinct part of Eastbourne, East Sussex and is on the eastern side of the popular retirement resort 
Eastbourne holds the record for the highest recorded amount of sunshine in a month, 383. 9 hours in July 1911, and promotes itself as "The Sunshine Coast". Other resorts, such as Jersey, Bournemouth and Weymouth lay claim to being the sunniest place in Britain too, using different criteria of "sunniest place". The Bailiwick of Jersey ( Jèrriais: Jèrri) is a British Crown dependency off the coast of Normandy, France. Bournemouth ( is a large coastal resort town in the Borough of Bournemouth in Dorset, England. Weymouth (ˈweɪməθ is a town in Dorset, England situated on a sheltered bay at the mouth of the River Wey on the English Channel coast
Several nature trails lead to areas such as the nearby villages of East Dean and Birling Gap, and landmarks like the Seven Sisters, Belle Tout lighthouse and Beachy Head. East Dean and Friston is a Civil parish in the Wealden District of East Sussex, England. East Dean and Friston is a Civil parish in the Wealden District of East Sussex, England. The Belle Tout lighthouse (also spelled Belle Toute lighthouse) is a decommissioned Lighthouse and famous British landmark located at Beachy Head,
Within Eastbourne's limits are:
The seafront at Eastbourne is distinctive in having few shop fronts opening onto it, the road being almost entirely populated by Victorian hotels. The term Victorian architecture can refer to one of a number of Architectural styles predominantly employed during the Victorian era. A hotel is an establishment that provides paid lodging usually on a short-term basis This is because much of Eastbourne has traditionally belonged to the Duke of Devonshire, who retains the rights to these buildings and does not allow them to be developed into shops. Duke of Devonshire is a title in the Peerage of England held by members of the aristocratic Cavendish family  Along with its pier and bandstand, this serves to preserve the front in a somewhat timeless manner. Eastbourne Pier is a seaside pleasure Pier in Eastbourne, East Sussex, on the south coast of England. A bandstand is a circular or semicircular structure set in a Park, Garden, or Pier, designed to accommodate Musical bands performing outdoor
The Sovereign Harbour district is a marina/harbour development which was given the go ahead in 1988. An Act of Parliament had to be in force to allow breaking through of the foreshore owned by the crown. An Act of Parliament is a Law enacted as Primary legislation by a national or sub-national Parliament. A whole new village was formed at the edge of the main town, comprising restaurants, shops and housing. 
There was a community known as Norway, Eastbourne in the triangle now bounded by Wartling Road , Seaside and Lottbridge Drove. The name being a corruption of North Way, as this was the route to the North. The area is now a housing estate and the only evidence there was a Norway are a Norway Road and the local church whose sign reads "St Andrew's Church, Norway".
The former fishing hamlet of Holywell (local pronunciation ‘holly well’) was situated by the cliff on a ledge some 400 metres to the southwest of the public garden known as the Holywell Retreat. Bede (disambiguation StBede's Prep School is an independent co-educational non-selective school in Eastbourne, established in 1895 Hamlet is a Tragedy by William Shakespeare, believed to have been written between 1599 and 1601 Holywell (local pronunciation ‘holly well’ is a part of Meads, the latter a district of Eastbourne in the county of East Sussex, UK It was approached from what is now Holywell Road via the lane between the present Helen Gardens and St Bede’s School which leads to the chalk pinnacle formerly known locally as ‘Gibraltar’. The ground around the pinnacle was the site of lime kilns also worked by the fishermen. A lime kiln is a Kiln used to produce quicklime by the Calcination of Limestone ( Calcium carbonate)  The fishing hamlet at Holywell was taken over by the local water board in 1896 to exploit the springs in the cliffs. The water board's successors still own the site, and there is a pumping station but little evidence of the hamlet itself, as by now even most of the foundations of the cottages have gone over the cliff. 
Eastbourne's greater area comprises the town of Polegate, and the civil parishes of Willingdon and Jevington, Stone Cross, Pevensey, Westham, and Pevensey Bay village. Polegate is a town and Civil parish in the Wealden District of East Sussex, England, United Kingdom. Willingdon and Jevington is one of the Civil parishes in the Wealden District of East Sussex, England. Westham is a village and large Civil parish in the Wealden District of East Sussex, England. Pevensey is a Village and Civil parish in the Wealden district of East Sussex, England. Westham is a village and large Civil parish in the Wealden District of East Sussex, England. All are part of the Wealden District. History Wealden District was formed on 1 April 1974, under the Local Government Act 1972, by the merger of the Hailsham and Uckfield Rural District
Beachy Head cliff, to the west of the town, is an infamous suicide spot. Beachy Head is a Chalk headland on the south coast of England, close to the town of Eastbourne in the county of East Sussex, Beachy Head is a Chalk headland on the south coast of England, close to the town of Eastbourne in the county of East Sussex, Statistics are not officially published to reduce suicidal mimicry, but unofficial statistics show it to be the third most common suicide spot.
The lighthouse at the foot of the cliff came into operation in October 1902. Although originally manned by two keepers, it has been remotely monitored by Trinity House via a landline since June 1983. The Corporation of Trinity House is the official General Lighthouse Authority for England Wales and other British Territorial waters (with the exception of Scotland Prior to its construction, shipping had been warned by the Belle Tout lighthouse on the cliff top some 1500 metres to the west. The Belle Tout lighthouse (also spelled Belle Toute lighthouse) is a decommissioned Lighthouse and famous British landmark located at Beachy Head, Belle Tout lighthouse was operational from 1834 to 1902, and closed because its light was not visible in mist and low cloud. It became a private residence, but was severely damaged in World War II by Canadian artillery. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including  In 1956, it was rebuilt as a house and remains a dwelling to this day. In March 1999, the structure was moved 55 feet (17 m) back from the cliff edge to save it from plunging into the sea. 
Eastbourne is connected to London by the A22 road, traffic for Brighton and Hove and Hastings uses the nearby A27 road. London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. The A22 is one of the two-digit major Roads in the south east of England. Council and directorates The leader of the council is Conservative Mary Mears Hastings is a town on the coast of East Sussex in England; it is also the administrative centre for the Borough of the same name The A27 is a major Road in England. It runs from its junction with the A36 at Whiteparish (near Salisbury) in the county of
The most common form of transport throughout the town is the car, exacerbated by the number of tourists and commuters travelling in and out. Of the total daily commute, 62. 4% travel by car, 13. 5% by foot and 6% of the journeys are taken by bus.  As part of the Council transport plan measures are being taken to reduce the amount of car usage, which has had positive results in Eastbourne, when compared to the rest of the county.
Services are operated by Eastbourne Buses offering journeys to most parts of the town. Eastbourne Buses is a Bus operator running within the Borough of Eastbourne and into the surrounding area including Pevensey, Hailsham, Eastbourne Buses is a Bus operator running within the Borough of Eastbourne and into the surrounding area including Pevensey, Hailsham, Following complaints about the poor service provided by independent operators, the County Borough of Eastbourne in 1903 became first local authority in the world authorised to run motor buses. This long history is a source of pride for the current operator, Eastbourne Buses, which is a company part-owned by the Borough Council.  As well as local journeys within the town, the company also runs routes to Polegate, Hailsham, Tunbridge Wells, Uckfield and East Grinstead at various frequencies. Polegate is a town and Civil parish in the Wealden District of East Sussex, England, United Kingdom. Hailsham is one of four main Towns in the Wealden district of East Sussex, England. Uckfield is a Town in the Wealden district of East Sussex, in southern England. East Grinstead (archaically spelt Grimstead) is a town and Civil parish in the northeastern corner of Mid Sussex, West Sussex in England
Other companies also operate bus services within the town; some of these are in direct competition with parts of the Eastbourne Buses network, whereas others complement it. In at least two cases services withdrawn by Eastbourne Buses have been partially re-instated by Cavendish Motor Services, now their main competitor for routes within the town. Cavendish Motor Services is a Bus operator running within the Borough of Eastbourne and the surrounding area such as Polegate and Hailsham.  Cavendish work with their parent company Renown Coaches to run services to Hailsham and Seaford via Polegate. Renown Coaches is a bus operator which runs within East Sussex
Most bus services to other destinations are run by two different companies, both parts of major transport groups. Buses to Brighton via Seaford and Newhaven are run by Brighton & Hove buses, while the two routes to Hastings via Bexhill are run by Stagecoach South East from Hastings. Brighton & Hove Bus and Coach Company operates almost all bus services in the city of Brighton and Hove, United Kingdom. Hastings is a town on the coast of East Sussex in England; it is also the administrative centre for the Borough of the same name Bexhill-on-Sea (often simply Bexhill) is a town and Seaside resort in the county of East Sussex, in the south of England, within the Stagecoach South is an operating division of the Stagecoach Group. Limited numbers of additional buses are run by the Cuckmere Community Bus service, and a regular National Express coach service operates daily from London's Victoria Coach Station. Cuckmere Community Bus is an independent Bus based in Berwick Station, East Sussex National Express Group plc ( is a UK -based Transport group with headquarters in London that operates Bus, coach, rail Victoria Coach Station is the largest and most significant coach station in London, and is operated by Victoria Coach Station Ltd
The main train station is Eastbourne railway station situated in the town centre. Eastbourne railway station serves Eastbourne in East Sussex, England. Eastbourne railway station serves Eastbourne in East Sussex, England. The present station (the town's third), design by F. D. Bannister, dates from 1886.  Eastbourne's other station is Hampden Park railway station. Hampden Park railway station serves Hampden Park in East Sussex. The Eastbourne stations lie on a spur off the main line. Trains have to pass through Hampden Park once on the way into Eastbourne, and again on the way out. This has the effect of making the Hampden Park level crossing very busy. Regular services are to London Victoria, Gatwick Airport, Hastings and Ashford, Kent and a commuter service to Brighton. Gatwick Airport is London 's second largest Airport and the second busiest airport in the United Kingdom after Heathrow. Hastings is a town on the coast of East Sussex in England; it is also the administrative centre for the Borough of the same name The town of Ashford lies on the River Great Stour, M20 motorway, South Eastern Main Line and High Speed 1 railways in the borough of Ashford Trains leave from London Victoria to Eastbourne with a journey time of 1hr 36mins. 
A miniature tramway once ran a mile across "the Crumbles" (then undeveloped) from near Princes Park / Wartling Road towards Langney Point. It opened in 1954 but ceased operation in 1970, relocating to Seaton in Devon after the owners had fallen out with the council; it is now the Seaton Tramway. Seaton is a seaside town in East Devon on the south coast of England. The Seaton Tramway is an 838  mm (2  ft 9  in) narrow gauge Tram line which operates over a former axed
Eastbourne is a seaside town, consequently tourism provides an important source of income and employment. The town is normally a short break resort, although hotels can be full during special events such as the International Women's Open tennis. The International Women's Open is a Tier II Tennis Tournament on the WTA Tour held in Eastbourne, England, United Kingdom  A 1998 study calculated an annual figure of £48 million of income creation and just over 4000 jobs were directly attributable to tourists. A further £18 million is generated by business conference visitors and foreign language students.
Eastbourne Council has developed a seafront strategy in order to boost the tourism economy. Already underway are grants provided for general improvements to accommodation. The regeneration of Seaside, the road running parallel to the coastline, is now complete. The new A22 and Polegate bypass provide a speedier link into the main town.  The seafront strategy further outlines priorities for the future, improvements to online bookings and more conference hosting promotion. The International Children's Conference is scheduled to be held in 2010. National marketing campaigns, some based on Eastbourne as a gateway to the South Downs National Park in progress. The South Downs National Park is a proposed National Park in the South Downs region of England. 
There are several large industrial estates on the outskirts of the town, particularly in the Hampden Park area; these include tyre making, wholesale, manufacturing, and catering businesses. The Sovereign Harbour development is a recent source of revenue for the town with an influx of visitors arriving via the harbour. The locks have recorded rates of up to 315 boats per hour. 
In 1993, following a suggestion to Eastbourne Borough Council by Eastbourne Civic Society (now Eastbourne Society), a joint project was set up to erect blue plaques on buildings associated with famous people.  The principles for selection were broadly those already established by English Heritage for such plaques in London. The first was erected in November 1994 in Milnthorpe Road at the former home of Sir Ernest Shackleton, the Antarctic explorer. The project is on-going, but now solely in the hands of the Eastbourne Society. Thus far, the following plaques under the above scheme are in position.
|Mabel Lucie Attwell||1879–1964||Artist||Ocklynge Manor, 11 Mill Road|
|Lewis Carroll||1832–1898||Writer||7 Lushington Road|
|Cyril Connolly||1903–1974||Journalist, critic and author||48 St John’s Road|
|Charles Dickens||1812–1870||Writer||Pilgrims, 4–6 Borough Lane|
|Jeffery Farnol||1878–1952||Writer||14 Denton Road|
|Eric Ravilious||1903–1942||Artist||11 Glynde Avenue|
|Sir Ernest Shackleton||1874–1922||Antarctic Explorer||14 Milnthorpe Road|
The artist and illustrator Mabel Lucie Attwell is listed under her married name of Mrs H Earnshaw at Ocklynge Manor in Kelly's Directories of Eastbourne for 1935 and 1936. Mabel Lucie Attwell (married name Earnshaw 4 June, 1879, London &ndash 5 November, 1964, Fowey) was a British Charles Lutwidge Dodgson (ˈdɒdsən (27 January 1832 &ndash 14 January 1898 better known by the Pen name Lewis Carroll (/ˈkærəl/ was an English Cyril Vernon Connolly ( 10 September 1903 - 26 November 1974) was an English intellectual literary critic and writer John Jeffery Farnol ( February 10, 1878 – August 9, 1952) was an English author known for his many romantic novels some formulaic Eric William Ravilious ( 22 July 1903 - 2 September 1942) was an English painter designer book illustrator and wood engraver Sir Ernest Henry Shackleton, CVO, OBE, (15 February 1874 – 5 January 1922 was an Anglo-Irish explorer who was one of the principal figures of the period Lewis Carroll, the author of Alice in Wonderland, spent the first of 19 summer holidays in Eastbourne in 1877, initially in Lushington Road.  Cyril Connolly’s plaque in St John’s Road commemorates the residence of this man of letters during the last nine years of his life. The plaque in honour of Charles Dickens records the author’s visits during the 1830s, when he stayed as a guest of the Victorian artist Augustus Egg, RA, who rented the house in Borough Lane. Augustus Leopold Egg ( 21 May 1816 in London, England &ndash 26 March 1863) was a Victorian artist best known for his modern  The author Jeffrey Farnol died at his home in Denton Road in 1952.  Eric Ravilious was the town’s most famous painter, book illustrator and engraver. While serving as a war artist, he failed to return from an air-sea rescue mission off Iceland in 1942. Iceland, officially the Republic of Iceland ( ( Ísland or Lýðveldið Ísland ( The plaque in Glynde Avenue is at his childhood home. Sir Ernest Shackleton’s blue plaque in Milnthorpe Road was the first to be erected in the town. The polar explorer lived there from 1916 to 1922. 
|Pupils of St Cyprian's School|
|Sir Cecil Beaton||1904–1980||Photographer and designer||65 Summerdown Road|
|Cyril Connolly||1903–1974||Writer and Journalist|
|Henry C Longhurst||1909–1978||Journalist and MP|
|George Orwell (Eric Blair)||1903–1950||Writer|
St Cyprian's School (1899-1939) in Summerdown Road was the preparatory school attended by a number of pupils in addition to those listed who enjoyed success in later life. St Cyprian's School was an English preparatory school for boys which operated in the early 20th century in Eastbourne, East Sussex. Sir Cecil Walter Hardy Beaton ( 14 January 1904 &ndash 18 January 1980) was an English fashion and portrait Photographer Cyril Vernon Connolly ( 10 September 1903 - 26 November 1974) was an English intellectual literary critic and writer Henry Carpenter Longhurst ( 18 March 1909 &ndash 21 July 1978) was a renowned British Golf writer and commentator Gavin Maxwell FRSL, FIAL FZS (Sc, FRGS, FAGS ( 15 July 1914 &ndash 7 September 1969) was a Scottish Eric Arthur Blair (25 June 1903 – 21 January 1950 who used the Pseudonym George Orwell, was an English writer St Cyprian's School was an English preparatory school for boys which operated in the early 20th century in Eastbourne, East Sussex.
In addition to the plaques which form part of the above scheme, the following plaques and memorials have been erected privately.
|Charlie Chester||1914–1997||Comedian, poet and artist||Inside Royal Hippodrome|
|Tommy Cooper||1921–1984||Comedian and magician||7 Motcombe Lane|
|Nelson Victor Carter||1887–1916||Holder of the Victoria Cross||33 Greys Road|
|Professor Thomas Huxley||1825–1895||Biologist||Hodesley, 10 Staveley Road|
|Professor Frederick Soddy||1877–1956||Physicist and radiochemist||Eastbourne College, Blackwater Road|
|6 Bolton Road|
The radio star Charlie Chester was born Cecil Victor Manser, the son a local cinema sign-painter who is listed in the 1914 Eastbourne Blue Book at 5 Tideswell Road. Charlie Chester ( April 26, 1914 &ndash June 26, 1997) was a British stand-up Comedian and TV and Radio presenter Tommy Cooper ( 19 March 1921 &ndash 15 April 1984) was an Anglo-Welsh Prop comedian and magician. Nelson Victor Carter VC ( April 9, 1887 - June 30, 1916) was an English recipient of the Victoria Cross, Thomas Henry Huxley PC FRS (4 May 1825 – 29 June 1895 was an English Biologist, known as "Darwin's Bulldog" for his advocacy Frederick Soddy ( 2 September 1877 &ndash 22 September 1956) was an English radiochemist. Eastbourne College is a British co-educational independent day/boarding school for children aged 13-18 situated on the south coast of England. An iron silhouette of Tommy Cooper, complete with the comedian’s characteristic fez and wand, can be seen at what was his weekend cottage in Motcombe Lane. Nelson Victor Carter, born in Eastbourne in 1887, was posthumously awarded the Victoria Cross while serving with the Royal Sussex Regiment on the Western Front in 1916. Nelson Victor Carter VC ( April 9, 1887 - June 30, 1916) was an English recipient of the Victoria Cross, The Royal Sussex Regiment, a regiment in the British Army, was formed in 1881 from the 35th (Royal Sussex Regiment of Foot and the 107th Regiment of Foot His medal is on display at the Eastbourne Redoubt. Eastbourne Redoubt is a fort on what is now Royal Parade Eastbourne, East Sussex, England.  The house in Greys Road where he lived with his wife bears a plaque in his honour.  The biologist Professor Thomas Huxley took up residence in Staveley Road in 1890.  Frederick Soddy, the eminent radio chemist and Nobel prizewinner, was born at 6 Bolton Road and educated at Eastbourne College. His larger plaque can be seen on School House in Blackwater Road.  A bronze plaque bearing the inscription “In 1867 this building was the first home of Eastbourne College” can be seen at Spencer Court (formerly Ellesmere Villas), 1 Spencer Road. It was erected by the Arnold Embellishers – a charitable society associated with Eastbourne College – to mark the 140th anniversary of the founding of the school. Eastbourne College is a British co-educational independent day/boarding school for children aged 13-18 situated on the south coast of England. 
Following the loss of the RMS Titanic, an appeal was launched in 1912 for a plaque in honour of James Wesley Woodward, a former cellist with the Eastbourne Municipal Orchestra, who lost his life when the liner sank on her maiden voyage. John Bodkin Adams ( January 21, 1899 &ndash July 4, 1983) was an Irish-born British General practitioner, convicted Construction The Titanic was a White Star Line ocean liner built at the Harland and Wolff shipyard in Belfast, Ireland In 1913, after much disagreement over a location, the marble and bronze plaque was finally placed on Grand Parade opposite the Eastbourne Bandstand. The Eastbourne Bandstand is a Bandstand on the seafront of the East Sussex coastal town of Eastbourne. It can still be seen at the lower level, opposite the rostrum of the present bandstand. 
A blue plaque commissioned by the staff of the former St Mary’s Hospital, 1794–1990, was erected in Letheran Place in 2003. It commemorates the soldiers, inmates, patients and staff who lived and worked on the site.  Other notable residents include Dr John Bodkin Adams, suspected serial killer, who lived in Eastbourne from 1922 to his death in 1983 (first at 12 Upperton Road, then at Kent Lodge, Trinity Trees) and is thought to have killed up to 163 patients in the Eastbourne area. John Bodkin Adams ( January 21, 1899 &ndash July 4, 1983) was an Irish-born British General practitioner, convicted A serial killer is a person who Murders usually three or more people with a "cooling off" period between each murder and whose motivation for killing is largely based  His lover Roland Gwynne was mayor of Eastbourne from 1928-1931. Lieutenant-Colonel Sir Roland Vaughan Gwynne, DSO, DL, JP ( 16 May 1882 - 15 November 1971) was Mayor of  Charles Webb writer of The Graduate, moved to Eastbourne with his wife in 2006, where they are housed by social services. Charles Webb (born on June 9, 1939 in San Francisco, California) is the author of several Novels mainly known for his most famous The Graduate is a American comedy / drama / Romance film directed by Mike Nichols, based on the novel of the same name by  The pianist Russ Conway lived in Eastbourne for many years. Russ Conway (born Trevor Herbert Stanford, 2 September 1925 - 16 November 2000) was a Popular music Pianist . 
The seafront and the iconic cliff at Beachy Head has been used for many scenes in feature films. The 2006 Academy Award-nominated film Notes on a Scandal includes scenes filmed at Beachy Head, Cavendish Hotel and 117 Royal Parade. "The Oscar" redirects here for the film see The Oscar (film. Notes on a Scandal is a 2006 British film adapted from the 2003 novel Notes on a Scandal by Zoe Heller. Scenes from Half a Sixpence (1969) were filmed on the pier and near to the bandstand. For the 1967 film adaptation see Half a Sixpence. Half a Sixpence is a Musical comedy written as a vehicle The seafront area was also used for the upcoming film Angus, Thongs and Full-Frontal Snogging directed by Gurinder Chadha. Angus Thongs and Perfect Snogging is a 2008 British Comedy film co-written and directed by Gurinder Chadha. Gurinder Chadha, OBE, (born 10 January 1960 in Nairobi, Kenya) is a British Film director of Indian 
Eastbourne has two cinemas - the Curzon Cinema and Cineworld. Cineworld Cinemas is a multiplex cinema chain in the United Kingdom, Republic of Ireland and Jersey. The Curzon Cinema is a small, family-run, independent cinema in Langney Road, in the town centre. Cineworld is a large multiplex cinema with six screens, located in The Crumbles Retail Park, near Sovereign Harbour. For the fictional character called Megaplex see Megaplex (Transformers.
Television too has used Eastbourne as a backdrop. The series Little Britain had the character Emily Howard strolling along the promenade. Little Britain is a character-based comedy Sketch show first appearing on BBC radio and then television A Alan Played by David Walliams Appearances Series 3 Alan works for the Donkey Hospice in the town of Achingballs Other brief appearances were made in the television series Agatha Christie's Marple, French & Saunders and Foyle's War. Marple is a British Television series based on the Miss Marple murder mystery novels by Agatha Christie. French & Saunders is a British Sketch comedy Television show written by and staring BAFTA Award -nominee Dawn French Foyle's War is a British detective Television programme created by screen-writer and author Anthony Horowitz, and commissioned One scene in Bang Bang, It's Reeves and Mortimer, was shot in and based around what is now known as "D2L" on Seaside Road. Bang Bang It's Reeves and Mortimer was comedy double act Vic Reeves & Bob Mortimer 's third television sketch show which aired in January 1999 on An ITV Christmas drama premiere entitled Christmas at the Riviera was also set in around Eastbourne. Independent Television (generally known as ITV) is a public service network of British commercial television broadcasters set up under the Independent Christmas at the Riviera is a 2007 British Comedy drama starring Reece Shearsmith, Pam Ferris, Barbara Flynn  BBC South East Today and ITV Meridian are the two regional news channels. BBC South East Today is BBC South East 's regional Television News programme serving Kent, East Sussex, and parts of West Meridian Broadcasting (now legally known as ITV Meridian is the holder of the ITV franchise for the south and south east of England.
Local radio station Sovereign Radio broadcasts to Eastbourne from nearby Hailsham.  There are two other regional radio stations - Southern FM which broadcasts across Sussex from Portslade and BBC Southern Counties Radio which covers both Sussex and Surrey, as well as a large part of North-East Hampshire. Southern FM is an Independent Local Radio station which is owned by GCap Media (formerly Capital Radio Group) and plays commercial chart-oriented Sussex is a historic county in South East England corresponding roughly in area to the ancient Kingdom of Sussex. Portslade is the name of an area of the City of Brighton and Hove. Surrey is a county in the South East of England and is one of the Home Counties. Wildlife Hampshire has wildlife typical of the island of Great Britain Capital Radio afternoon presenter Chris Brooks started his career on Eastbourne Hospital Radio. Chris Brooks was 15 when he started Hospital Radio in Eastbourne. Hospital radio is a form of audio Broadcasting produced specifically for the in-patients of Hospitals It is primarily found in the United Kingdom. 
Eastbourne has numerous parks and gardens, although there are several smaller open spaces including Upperton Gardens, the famous Carpet Gardens and the Western Lawns.
The first public park in Eastbourne was Hampden Park, originally owned by Lord Willingdon and opened on 12 August 1902. Events 1099 - First Crusade: Battle of Ascalon - Crusaders under the command of Godfrey of Bouillon defeat Fatimid Year 1902 ( MCMII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting  Facilities include: football pitches, rugby club, indoor bowls, a large lake (formerly a Decoy pond), lakeside cafe, children's recreation area, tennis courts, BMX and skate facility and woodland. A decoy is usually a person device or event meant as a distraction to conceal what an individual or a group might be looking for
The largest and newest park is Shinewater Park, located on the west side of Langney and opened in 2002. There is a narrow gauge railway, large fishing lake, basketball, football pitches, a BMX and skate park and children's playground.
Gildredge Park and Manor Gardens: A large open park located between the town centre and Old Town, Gildredge Park is very popular with families and has a children's playground, cafe, tennis courts and bowls lawns. The smaller, adjoining, Manor Gardens combines both lawns and shady areas as well as a rose garden.
Until 2005, Manor Gardens was the home of the Towner Art Gallery. This gallery incorporated a permanent exhibition of local art and historical items, plus temporary art exhibitions of regional and national significance. It is now in the process of being relocated to a new, £8. 5 million purpose-built facility adjacent to the Congress Theatre, Devonshire Park and is scheduled to open in the summer of 2008. 
Princes Park obtained its name during a visit by the Duke of Windsor as Prince of Wales in 1931.  Located at the Eastern end of the seafront, it has a children's playground with paddling pool, cafe, bowls and a large lake, noted for its swans. A nearby water–sports centre also has kayak and windsurfing training upon it. Close by are tennis and basketball courts and a football pitch. At the north of the park is Eastbourne United F. C.
Devonshire Park, home to the pre–Wimbledon ladies tennis championships, is located just off the seafront in the towns cultural district.
Other parks include: Helen Gardens and the Italian Gardens at the western end of the seafront, Sovereign Park between the main seafront and the marina and Motcombe Gardens in Old Town.
Eastbourne has four council-owned theatres; the Grade II* listed Congress Theatre, the Grade II listed Devonshire Park Theatre, the Grade II listed Winter Garden and the Grade II listed Royal Hippodrome Theatre. Eastbourne Theatres is the name of a council -owned theatre group responsible for four theatres in Eastbourne, England. The Devonshire Park Theatre is a Grade II listed Victorian theatre with a seating capacity of 936 located in the town of Eastbourne, in the coastal region of The Congress Theatre is a Grade II listed, purpose built modern theatre and conference venue with a seating capacity of 1689 located in the town of Eastbourne, A listed building in the United Kingdom is a building or other structure officially designated as being of special architectural historical or cultural significance The Congress Theatre is a Grade II listed, purpose built modern theatre and conference venue with a seating capacity of 1689 located in the town of Eastbourne, The Devonshire Park Theatre is a Grade II listed Victorian theatre with a seating capacity of 936 located in the town of Eastbourne, in the coastal region of The Royal Hippodrome Theatre is a theatre in Eastbourne which dates back to 1883 making it the oldest theatre in the town The Devonshire Park Theatre is a fine example of a Victorian theatre with ornate interior decorations. The Royal Hippodrome has the longest running summer show in Britain.  Eastbourne has another theatre, the Underground Theatre, which is run entirely by volunteers. 
Eastbourne is home to some modern bands such as Toploader, Easyworld, Rooster and The Mobiles. Toploader were an English Alternative rock band from Eastbourne, formed in 1997 Easyworld were a British indie alternative rock/pop band hailing from Eastbourne, consisting of David Ford on vocals Jo Taylor on bass Rooster were an English Indie rock band Rooster were formed in 2002 by Nick Atkinson ( vocals) Luke Potashnick ( Guitar) The Mobiles were a UK 1980s New Wave pop band, whose existence was notable only for their one major hit single, early in  The classical composer Claude Debussy and his young lover Emma Bardac, the wife of a Parisian banker, resided in Eastbourne in 1904 after fleeing France to avoid scandal. Achille-Claude Debussy (aʃil klod dəbysi (August 22 1862 &ndash March 25 1918 was a French Composer. Emma Bardac (1862-1934 was the mutual love interest of both Gabriel Fauré and Claude Debussy. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Whilst in Eastbourne he completed the Orchestral piece La Mer. La mer trois esquisses symphoniques pour orchestre (French for The sea three symphonic sketches for orchestra) or simply La Mer  The London Philharmonic Orchestra makes regular appearances and has an annual season at the Congress Theatre. The London Philharmonic Orchestra ( LPO) based in London, is one of the major Orchestras of the United Kingdom, and is based in the Royal
Eastbourne Bandstand lies between the Wish Tower and the pier. The Eastbourne Bandstand is a Bandstand on the seafront of the East Sussex coastal town of Eastbourne. It stages the 1812 Firework Concerts, Rock N Roll nights, Big Band concerts, Promenade concerts and Tribute Nights with tributes to artists such as ABBA, Elvis Presley and Queen. Rock and roll (also known as rock 'n' roll) is a form of Music that evolved in the United States in the late 1940s and early 1950s with roots in mostly African A big band is a type of Musical ensemble associated with playing jazz music and which became popular during the Swing Era from the early 1930s until the late Although the term Promenade Concert is normally associated today with the series of concerts founded in 1895 by Robert Newman and the conductor Henry Wood Queen were an English rock band formed in 1970 in London by guitarist There was once a second similar bandstand (also built in 1935) in the "music gardens" near the redoubt fortress. The bandstand was removed to make way for the Pavilion Tearooms but the colonnades built around it are still there (behind the tea rooms). Before 1935 each of these sites had a smaller "birdcage" bandstand; the one in the music gardens having been moved from a rather precarious position opposite the Albion Hotel. The "kiosk" in the music gardens was originally one of the toll kiosks at the entrance to the pier. 
As a seaside resort, the natural focus of leisure activity is the 4 miles (6. 4 km) of shingle beach which stretches from the harbour in the east to Beachy Head in the west. Sovereign Harbour is a development of the beachlands east of Eastbourne formally known as the Crumbles Beachy Head is a Chalk headland on the south coast of England, close to the town of Eastbourne in the county of East Sussex, In a 1998 survey 56% of visitors quoted that the beach and seafront was one of Eastbourne best features, although 10% listed the pebbled beach as a dislike. The majority of the seafront consists of hotels, from petite guest houses to grand buildings.
Located halfway along the beach lies Eastbourne Pier, opened in 1870. Eastbourne Pier is a seaside pleasure Pier in Eastbourne, East Sussex, on the south coast of England. In 1877 the landward half was swept away in a storm.  It was rebuilt at a higher level, creating a drop towards the end of the pier.  The pier is effectively built on stilts that rest in cups on the sea-bed allowing the whole structure to move during rough weather.
Other recreation facilities include two swimming pools, three fitness centres and other smaller sports clubs. A children's adventure park is sited along the seafront. There are various other establishments scattered around the town such as crazy golf, go–karting and Laser Quest. Minigolf, or miniature golf, is a miniature version of the Sport of Golf. For other meanings see Kart (disambiguation Kart racing or karting is a variant of Open-wheel Motor sport with Laser Quest is the name of a Canadian -based Indoor Lasertag game based around Infrared (IR hand held units and vests as well as the name
Eastbourne's Devonshire Park is the venue for the International Women's Open, a Women's tennis tournament traditionally seen as the warm-up to Wimbledon. The International Women's Open is a Tier II Tennis Tournament on the WTA Tour held in Eastbourne, England, United Kingdom Tennis is a sport played between two players ( singles) or between two teams of two players each ( doubles) The Championships Wimbledon, or simply Wimbledon, is the oldest Tennis tournament in the world and is widely considered as the most prestigious The tournament has been held in the town since 1975, and although in 2007 the Lawn Tennis Association was considering relocating it to London, they instead opted to merge it with the Nottingham Open, a men's event normally held at the same time, starting with the 2009 tournament. The Lawn Tennis Association ( LTA) is the governing body of Tennis in Great Britain, the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man. 
On a national level, Eastbourne is home to three senior football clubs all bearing the town's name. Eastbourne Borough F.C. play in the Blue Square Premier, having been promoted from the Blue Square South at the end of the 2007-08 season, Eastbourne Town F. Eastbourne Borough are a semi-professional English football club based in the town of Eastbourne, East Sussex, and are members of the Conference National C. won promotion in 2006/07 to Ryman League Division One South while Eastbourne United A. F. C. play in Sussex County League Division 1. The Eastbourne Eagles are a speedway club located at Arlington Stadium, just outside the town. The Eastbourne Eagles are a British speedway team based near Eastbourne, England who compete in the British Elite League. Motorcycle speedway, usually referred to as speedway, is a Motorcycle sport involving four and sometimes up to six riders competing over four anti-clockwise They compete in the Speedway Elite League, the highest level of speedway in England. The Elite League is the top division of Speedway league competition in the United Kingdom and is goverened by the Speedway Control Board (SCB in conjunction The sport was staged prior to the war and staged occasional team matches. The Eagles featured in the original National League Division Three in 1947 but the team transferred to Hastings in 1948. The track staged meetings over the years at the lower level a failed to gain entry to the Provincial League in the early 1960s. The track became involved in League speedway again in the 1970s and has operated continuously since. The Stadium also sees stock-car racing on Wednesday evenings in the summer months. Stock car racing is a form of Automobile racing found mainly in the United States, Canada, New Zealand and Great Britain
Eastbourne is represented at a local level in many other sports including cricket, hockey, rugby, lacrosse and golf. Cricket is a bat-and-ball team Sport that originated in England and is now played in more than 100 countries Hockey is any of a family of Sports in which two teams compete by trying to maneuver a Ball, or a hard round rubber or heavy plastic disc called a puck Rugby football (usually just " rugby " may refer to a number of sports through history descended from a common form of Football developed at Rugby School Lacrosse is a full contact Team sport played using a solid rubber ball and long handled racket called a crosse or Lacrosse stick. There is an annual extreme sports festival held at the eastern end of the seafront. Extreme sport (also called action sport and adventure sport) is a media term for certain activities perceived as having a high level of inherent
There was once a small race-course at Bullock Down near Beachy Head. 
In 2008, Eastbourne will gain a new cultural centre, replacing the Manor House (which has now been sold) as home of the Towner Art Gallery; it is located in the cultural district next to the Congress Theatre and Devonshire Park. One feature that has always been heavily promoted is Eastbourne's floral displays, most notably the Carpet Gardens along the coastal road near the pier. These displays, and the town as a whole, frequently win awards — such as the 'Coastal Resort B' category in the 2003 Britain in Bloom competition. Britain in Bloom is a horticultural competition in the United Kingdom. 
The pier is an obvious place to visit and is sometimes used to hold events, such as the international birdman competition held annually, although cancelled in 2005 due to lack of competitors.  An annual raft competition takes place where competitors, usually local businesses, circumnavigate the pier in a raft made by themselves, while being attacked by a water-cannon.
A major event in the tourist calendar of Eastbourne is the annually held 4 day, international air show, 'Airbourne'. Started in 1993, based around a long relationship with the Red Arrows display team, the event features Battle of Britain memorial flights and aircraft from the RAF, USAF and many others. The Red Arrows, officially known as the Royal Air Force Aerobatic Team, is the Aerobatics display team of the Royal Air Force, based at RAF Scampton The Battle of Britain (German ''Luftschlacht um England'' is the name given to the sustained strategic effort by the German Luftwaffe during the summer and
The famous Chinese State Circus performs once a year in Princes Park. The Chinese State Circus is a touring Circus which aims to present the Chinese circus arts to European audiences
Eastbourne Redoubt on Royal Parade is one of three examples of a type of fortress built to withstand potential invasion from Napoleon's forces in the early nineteenth century. Eastbourne Redoubt is a fort on what is now Royal Parade Eastbourne, East Sussex, England.  It houses collections from The Royal Sussex Regiment, The Queen's Royal Irish Hussars, and the Sussex Combined Services Collection; including four Victoria Crosses and General Hans-Jürgen von Arnim's Steyr Automobile 1500A Afrika Korps Staff Car. The Royal Sussex Regiment, a regiment in the British Army, was formed in 1881 from the 35th (Royal Sussex Regiment of Foot and the 107th Regiment of Foot The Queen's Royal Irish Hussars, normally referred to by the abbreviation QRIH, was a cavalry regiment of the British Army formed from the amalgamation See below the section "Separate Commonwealth awards" Note that since Hans-Jürgen von Arnim ( 4 April, 1889 &ndash 1 September, 1962) was a German Colonel-general of Cavalry Steyr-Daimler-Puch was a large Manufacturing conglomerate based in Steyr, Austria which was broken up in 1990 The German Afrikakorps ( German: Deutsches Afrikakorps DAK) was the original German blocking force (Sperrverband = Armored Blocking Force in Libya Another museum is How we Lived Then, a museum of shops and local history, with exhibits representing complete scenarios such as shops and houses with life sized dummies. The museum contains more than 100,000 exhibits, covering the period from the 1800s to World War II. 
Eastbourne can claim some notable regular visitors. Karl Marx and Frederick Engels were often in the area; the latter's ashes were scattered from Beachy Head at his request. Friedrich Engels (28 November 1820 – 5 August 1895 was a German social scientist and philosopher, who 
The political allegiance in Eastbourne swings between the Conservatives and the Liberal Democrats, the balance of power changing frequently. The Conservative Party (officially the Conservative and Unionist Party) is a Political party in the United Kingdom. The Liberal Democrats, often shortened to Lib Dems, are a liberal Political party in the United Kingdom, formed in 1988 by merging the As of 2007, the Conservatives have the majority vote at national and county levels, but the May 2007 local elections gave the Liberal Democrats a large majority in the Borough Council. 
At local level, the town is served by Eastbourne Borough Council. The district is divided into nine wards; Devonshire, Hampden Park, Langney, Meads, Old Town, Ratton, St Anthony's, Sovereign and Upperton. Hampden Park in Glasgow is Scotland 's National stadium. Its primary use is as the home to Queen's Park F Langney is a distinct part of Eastbourne, East Sussex and is on the eastern side of the popular retirement resort Meads is an area of the town of Eastbourne in the English county of East Sussex. Each ward returns three councillors, giving a total of twenty-seven representatives.  A Mayor is chosen traditionally from the ruling party but adopting a non-political and ceremonial role. A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning "greater" is a modern title used in many countries for the highest ranking officer in a municipal government Up to May 2006, elections were held yearly, with one seat per ward coming up for election. From May 2007, this was replaced by an election every four years, with all three seats per ward being contested. 
The 2007 election had a turnout of 42. 26%, resulting in a council made up of 20 Liberal Democrat and 7 Conservative councillors. The Mayor of Eastbourne is Councillor Mary Pooley and the Leader of the Council is Councillor David Tutt. 
The next level of government is the East Sussex County Council with responsibility for Education, Libraries, Social Services, Civil Registration, Trading Standards and Transport. East Sussex is a county in South East England. It is bordered by the counties of Kent, Surrey and West Sussex, and to the A County council is the elected administrative body governing an area known as a County. Elections for the County Council are held every four years. Out of the 49 seats, nine are filled by the Eastbourne Wards. These wards are the same as the Borough wards, with one councillor elected per ward. 
The 2005 East Sussex County Council election resulted in 29 Conservatives, 15 Liberal Democrats, 5 Labour and 1 Independent, of which Eastbourne provided 5 Liberal Democrats and 4 Conservatives. The turnout was 64%. Some Borough Councillors are also elected as County Councillors. 
The Parliament Constituency of Eastbourne covers a greater area than the nine local wards, extending to the north and the east, including additional areas such as Willingdon, Wannock, East Dean and Friston. Eastbourne is a parliamentary constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Since 1992, Eastbourne's Member of Parliament has been the Conservative Nigel Waterson. Nigel Christopher Waterson (born 12 October 1950, Leeds) is a politician in the United Kingdom. In the 2005 election, despite a swing of 1. 2% to the Liberal Democrats, Nigel Waterson held on to his seat with 43. 5% of the vote, a 2. 3% majority with a 64. 8% turnout.  Eastbourne has never been represented by a woman. A previous MP for Eastbourne was Ian Gow, who was murdered by the Provisional Irish Republican Army using a bomb planted under his car seat while at his home in Sussex. Ian Reginald Edward Gow TD ( 11 February 1937 &ndash 30 July 1990) was a British Conservative politician and The Provisional Irish Republican Army (Óglaigh na hÉireann ( IRA; also referred to as the PIRA, the Provos, or by some of its supporters as the 
At European level, Eastbourne is represented by the South-East region, which holds ten seats in the European Parliament. The European Parliament ( Europarl or EP) is the only directly elected parliamentary institution of the European Union (EU The June 2004 election returned 4 Conservatives, 2 Liberal Democrats, 2 UK Independence, 1 Labour and 1 Green, none of whom live in East Sussex. 
The population of Eastbourne is growing, and is expected to continue this growth.  This is demonstrated by comparing the 2007 estimated population of 94,816 with the 2001 census population of 89,667.
For many people, Eastbourne is most readily associated with the elderly, as it has historically been a popular retirement destination, and it is often referred to in age–related jokes. Retirement is the point where a person stops employment completely The 2001 census showed that it still has a larger than average over–60 population (just over a quarter of the population are of retirement age as opposed to the UK average of 18. 4%).
2005 Ethnicity Estimates
Ethnically, the town is 94. 4% white, with small minority groups including Chinese, Thai and Korean; white minority groups include Russian, Latvian, Ukrainian, Greek (mainly from Cyprus), Spanish, Portuguese, Venezuelan, Polish and Estonian.
Chinese form the single largest minority group and have been in the town for the past 4 decades. Chinese restaurants and takeaways are a common sight.
The second largest minority in Eastbourne are the Greek Cypriots, a significant community of whom can be found around the Susans Road and Seaside Road area, which consequently has many Greek restaurants, kebab houses and a Greek orthodox church. Many of the town's fish and chip shops are Greek owned.
Eastbourne’s reputation for health, enhanced by bracing air and sea breezes contributed to the establishment of many independent schools in the 19th century and in 1871, the year which saw the arrival of Queenwood Ladies College, the town was just beginning a period of growth and prosperity.  By 1896, Gowland’s Eastbourne Directory listed 76 private schools for boys and girls. However, economic difficulties during the inter-war years saw a gradual decline in the number of independent schools. In 1930, the headmistress of Clovelly-Kepplestone, a well-established boarding school for girls on the seafront, referred to "heavy financial losses experienced by schools in the past few years". Clovelly-Kepplestone was a private Boarding school for girls in Eastbourne, Sussex In 1930, this school was forced to merge its junior and senior departments; in 1931, one of its buildings was sold off, and in 1934 the school closed altogether. Finally, indicative of the changes that would later befall many of the larger buildings in the town, the school was demolished to make way for a block of flats, which was completed in 1939.  The Eastbourne (Blue Book) Directory for 1938 lists 39 independent schools in the town. With the fall of France in June 1940, and the risk of invasion, most left - the majority never to return.  By 2007, the number had reduced to just four: St. Andrew's School, Eastbourne College, St Bede’s Preparatory School and Moira House Girls' School. Eastbourne College is a British co-educational independent day/boarding school for children aged 13-18 situated on the south coast of England. Bede (disambiguation StBede's Prep School is an independent co-educational non-selective school in Eastbourne, established in 1895
For a town of its size, Eastbourne now has a surprisingly small number of state schools. Many have an excellent reputation for sports, art, drama and dance. Each of the six state secondary schools in Eastbourne undergoes regular inspections by the official body Ofsted, whose role it is to ‘inspect and regulate care for children and young people, and inspect education and training for learners of all ages’. Inspectors’ reports on each school can be viewed via the Ofsted website.  Further information is available via the websites of the individual schools.  Eastbourne also has seventeen state primary schools: Bourne Primary School, Hampden Park Infant School, Highfield Junior School, Langney Primary School, Motcombe Community School, Oakwood School, Ocklynge Junior School, Parkland School, Pashley Down Infant School, Roselands Infants School, St Andrew's CofE Infants School, St John's Meads CofE Primary School, St Thomas a Becket Catholic School, Stafford Juniors School, The Haven CofE Methodist School, Tollgate Community Junior School and West Rise Community School. Highfield Junior School is is a Public Elementary school in Etobicoke, Ontario, Canada located in the North Albion Many of Eastbourne's state schools have twinning arrangements with schools in Germany and France, allowing students to exchange with those from abroad. A student exchange program is a program in which a Student, typically in secondary or Higher education, chooses to live in a foreign country to learn
Parts of the University of Brighton are based in the Meads area of the town, and the University also owns playing fields in Willingdon. The University of Brighton (formerly Brighton Polytechnic until its re-designation in 1992 is a multi-site University based in the City of Brighton
Several language colleges and schools are based in the town. Language students are therefore a common sight on Eastbourne's streets, coming mainly from Germany, Spain, Austria, Italy, and Switzerland.  Most of the language students visit Eastbourne during their summer holidays and stay with host families, who are paid for hosting the students. Language schools are divided into two categories: Accredited and Non-Accredited. Accreditation is a process in which is Certification of competency authority or credibility is presented The British Council awards accreditation following inspections to ensure high standards of quality. The British Council is a Public Body of the United Kingdom Government which specialises in educational and development opportunities  Six institutions run accredited courses in Eastbourne - five in the private sector and one in the state sector. 
There have been some notable scholars passing through the Eastbourne education system. Aleister Crowley, occultist and mystic attended Eastbourne College as did Michael Fish, the former BBC weather forecaster. Aleister Crowley, born Edward Alexander Crowley (ˈkroʊli (12 October 1875 – 1 December 1947 was a British Occultist Writer, mountaineer The word occult comes from the Latin word occultus (clandestine hidden secret referring to "knowledge of the hidden" Mysticism (from the Greek grc μυστικός mystikos, an initiate of a Mystery religion) is the pursuit of communion with identity Michael Fish MBE (born 27 April 1944 in Eastbourne, East Sussex, England) is a semi-retired weather forecaster  Aleister Crowley later edited a chess column for the Eastbourne Gazette. Polar explorer Lawrence Oates attended South Lynn School in Mill Gap Road. Captain Lawrence Edward Grace Oates ( 17 March 1880 – 16 March 1912) was an English Antarctic  George Mallory, the noted mountaineer, attended Glengorse Preparatory School in Chesterfield Road between 1896–1900. George Herbert Leigh Mallory ( 18 June 1886  &ndash 8 June / 9 June 1924) was an English Mountaineer who took On 8 June 1924, Mallory and his climbing companion Andrew Irvine were last seen moving towards the summit of Mount Everest, and may have been the first climbers ever to reach the top. Events 68 - The Roman Senate accepts emperor Galba. 536 - St Silverius becomes Pope (probable Year 1924 ( MCMXXIV) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Andrew "Sandy" Comyn Irvine (born 8 April 1902; died 8 or 9 June 1924) was an English mountaineer who took Mount Everest, also called Sagarmatha (सगरमाथा meaning Head of the Sky) or Chomolungma, Qomolangma or Zhumulangma (in Mallory’s body was discovered on 1 May 1999 on the north slope of the mountain at an altitude of 26,760 ft (8,160 m) Count László Almásy de Zsadány et Törökszentmiklós, the basis of the lead character of The English Patient, was educated by a private tutor at Berrow, 17 Carew Road, from 1911 to 1914. Events 305 - Diocletian and Maximian retire from the office of Roman Emperor. Year 1999 ( MCMXCIX) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar) Count László Ede Almásy de Zsadány et Törökszentmiklós ( 22 August For the Seinfeld episode see " The English Patient (Seinfeld episode " The English Patient is a He was a member of the pioneering Eastbourne Flying Club. 
Douglas Bader, who became a successful World War II fighter pilot despite having lost both legs in a flying accident, attended Temple Grove Preparatory School in Compton Place Road. Group Captain Sir Douglas Robert Steuart Bader CBE, DSO & Bar, DFC & Bar, FRAeS, DL, RAF (21 February 1910 World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including  The philosopher A. J. Ayer was a pupil at Ascham St. Vincent's School in Carlisle Road. Sir Alfred Jules ("Freddie" Ayer ( October 29, 1910 &ndash June 27, 1989) better known as A For the Girl's school in Sydney Australia see Ascham School Ascham St Vincent's School was an English preparatory school  In addition to Orwell, Connolly, Beaton, Maxwell and Longhurst listed on the St Cyprian's School blue plaque, the writers Alaric Jacob, E. H. W. Meyerstein and Alan Hyman also attended St Cyprian's. Harold Alaric Jacob ( 8 June 1909 - 26 January 1995) was an English writer and Journalist, most active in the period 1940-1960 Edward Harry William Meyerstein ( August 11 1889 – September 12 1952) was an English writer and scholar Alan Maurice Hyman ( 10 January 1910 -) is an English author journalist and film writer The biographer and historian Philip Ziegler was at the school as was the music historian Dyneley Hussey and politician, historian and diarist Alan Clark. This page is not about Philip A Ziegler, writer on theology or Philip C Dyneley Hussey ( 27 February 1893 - 6 September 1972) was a War poet, journalist Art critic and Music critic. Alan Kenneth Mackenzie Clark (13 April 1928 &ndash 5 September 1999 was a British Conservative Politician, Historian and Diarist Other politicians were Richard Wood who had lost both legs in the war, and David Ormsby-Gore later ambassador to the USA. Richard Frederick Wood Baron Holderness ( 5 October 1920 &ndash 11 August 2002) was a British Conservative politician William David Ormsby-Gore 5th Baron Harlech KCMG PC ( May 20, 1918 &ndash January 26, 1985) known as David Ormsby-Gore Artists Cedric Morris and David Kindersley also attended the school as did military figures such as General Sir Lashmer Whistler and Major General Robert Foot VC. Sir Cedric Lockwood Morris 9th Baronet ( 11 December 1889 - 8 February 1982) was a Welsh artist known for his portraits flower paintings David Guy Barnabas Kindersley ( 11 June 1915 -1995 was a British stone letter-carver and Typeface designer and the founder of the Kindersley General Sir Lashmer Gordon Whistler GCB, KBE, DSO & Two Bars ( 3 September 1898 – 4 July 1963 Major General Henry Robert Bowreman Foote VC CB DSO ( 5 December 1904 - 11 November 1993) was a recipient Pupils with sporting connections include the amateur jockey Anthony Mildmay and Seymour de Lotbiniere Director of Outside Broadcasts at the BBC. Anthony Bingham Mildmay 2nd Baron Mildmay of Flete ( 14 April 1909 – 12 May 1950) was a gifted amateur steeplechaser who kindled the Seymour Joly de Lotbiniere CVO ( 21 October 1905 - 6 November 1984) known as ‘Lobby’ was a Director of the British Broadcasting Jagaddipendra Narayan was a reigning Maharaja of Cooch Behar while at the school. Jagaddipendra Narayan Bhup Bahadur ( 15 December 1915 - 11 April 1970) was Maharaja of Cooch-Behar, in India The word Mahārāja (also spelled maharajah) is Sanskrit for "great king" or " High king " (a Karmadharaya from mahānt Cooch Behar ( is the district headquarters and the largest town of Cooch Behar District in the Indian state of West Bengal. Other former pupils whose exceptional lives are worthy of mention are the war-blinded life peer Lord Fraser and the submarine commander Rupert Lonsdale. William Jocelyn Ian Fraser Baron Fraser of Lonsdale CH CBE, ( 30 August 1897 &ndash 19 December 1974) known as Ian Rupert Philip Lonsdale ( 5 May 1905 - 25 April 1999) was a British submarine commander prisoner of war and Anglican clergyman 
Other modern celebrities who studied in the town include Prunella Scales and Eddie Izzard. Prunella Margaret Rumney Illingworth CBE (born 22 June 1932) is an English actress. Edward John "Eddie" Izzard (born February 7, 1962) is a British stand-up comedian and Dramatic Actor.